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Lung recruitment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470939/free-breathing-pulmonary-mr-imaging-to-quantify-regional-ventilation
#1
Dante P I Capaldi, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, John S H Baxter, A Jonathan McLeod, Parameswaran Nair, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
Purpose To measure regional specific ventilation with free-breathing hydrogen 1 (1 H) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging without exogenous contrast material and to investigate correlations with hyperpolarized helium 3 (3 He) MR imaging and pulmonary function test measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with asthma. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent free-breathing1 H and static breath-hold hyperpolarized3 He MR imaging as well as spirometry and plethysmography; participants were consecutively recruited between January and June 2017...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468601/patient-and-clinician-perspectives-on-shared-decision-making-in-early-adopting-lung-cancer-screening-programs-a-qualitative-study
#2
Renda Soylemez Wiener, Elisa Koppelman, Rendelle Bolton, Karen E Lasser, Belinda Borrelli, David H Au, Christopher G Slatore, Jack A Clark, Hasmeena Kathuria
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend, and Medicare requires, shared decision-making between patients and clinicians before referring individuals at high risk of lung cancer for chest CT screening. However, little is known about the extent to which shared decision-making about lung cancer screening is achieved in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: To characterize patient and clinician impressions of early experiences with communication and decision-making about lung cancer screening and perceived barriers to achieving shared decision-making...
February 21, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467445/vaccine-induced-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-attenuate-the-antiviral-immunity-against-acute-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Pin-Hung Lin, Weng-In Wong, Yi-Lan Wang, Meng-Ping Hsieh, Chia-Wen Lu, Chieh-Yu Liang, Sung-Hsiang Jui, Fang-Yi Wu, Pei-Jer Chen, Hung-Chih Yang
Peptide-based T cell vaccines targeting the conserved epitopes of influenza virus can provide cross-protection against distantly related strains, but they are generally not immunogenic. Foreign antigen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells are induced under subimmunogenic conditions peripherally, although their development and role in vaccine-mediated antiviral immunity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated primary vaccination with peptides alone significantly induced antigen-specific Foxp3+ Treg cells, which were further expanded by repeated vaccination with unadjuvanted peptides...
February 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466596/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Eddy Fan, Daniel Brodie, Arthur S Slutsky
Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure that affects approximately 200 000 patients each year in the United States, resulting in nearly 75 000 deaths annually. Globally, ARDS accounts for 10% of intensive care unit admissions, representing more than 3 million patients with ARDS annually. Objective: To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of ARDS over the last 5 years. Evidence Review: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to 2017 focusing on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465203/-use-of-protective-lung-ventilation-regimen-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#5
T A Pshenichniy, B A Akselrod, I V Titova, N A Trekova, M V Khrustaleva
BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, protective lung ventilation and/or preventive brdnchoscopy (PB) are able to decrease lung injury effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: define lung complication risks, evaluate the effect ofprotective lung ventilation (PLV) on lung functioning, and investigate the feasibility ofpreventive PB in higher pulmonary risk (PR) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 patients participated in prospective randomized research...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464003/-68-ga-bbn-rgd-pet-ct-for-grpr-and-integrin-%C3%AE-v-%C3%AE-3-imaging-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#6
Jingjing Zhang, Feng Mao, Gang Niu, Li Peng, Lixin Lang, Fang Li, Hongyan Ying, Huanwen Wu, Boju Pan, Zhaohui Zhu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Purpose: This study was to assess a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and integrin αvβ3 dual targeting tracer68 Ga-BBN-RGD for positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of breast cancer and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two female patients were recruited either with suspected breast cancer on screening mammography (n = 16) or underwent breast cancer radical mastectomy (n = 6). All the 22 patients underwent PET/CT at 30-45 min after intravenous injection of68 Ga-BBN-RGD...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463366/the-interplay-between-nanoparticles-and-neutrophils
#7
Ming-Hsien Lin, Chwan-Fwu Lin, Shih-Chun Yang, Chi-Feng Hung, Jia-You Fang
The employment of nanoparticles has markedly increased in recent years for different applications such as aerospace technology, electronics, biology, and medicine. The exposure of nanoparticles to humans is inevitable nowadays. Neutrophils act as the predominant phagocytic cells for first-line defense to be recruited to an inflammatory site against xenobiotics. It is important to explore how neutrophils interact with nanoparticles to elicit immune responses. Different types of nanoparticles have been studied to reveal a potential interaction to neutrophils in vitro and in vivo...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462333/high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-recruiting-rejected-donor-lungs
#8
Kamal S Ayyat, Toshihiro Okamoto, Hiromichi Niikawa, Kenneth R McCurry
We present an innovative method for recruiting clinically rejected donor lungs using positive end-expiratory pressure titration during ex vivo lung perfusion. Currently, ex vivo lung perfusion protocols are using a standard positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O for all cases. Individualized positive end-expiratory pressure titration combined with recruitment manoeuvres has been found to significantly improve pulmonary functions in mechanically ventilated patients. Applying this concept to ex vivo lung perfusion may be helpful in increasing the conversion rate for transplant suitability...
February 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462011/positive-end-expiratory-pressure-alone-minimizes-atelectasis-formation-in-nonabdominal-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Erland Östberg, Arnar Thorisson, Mats Enlund, Henrik Zetterström, Göran Hedenstierna, Lennart Edmark
BACKGROUND: Various methods for protective ventilation are increasingly being recommended for patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, the importance of each individual component is still unclear. In particular, the perioperative use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains controversial. The authors tested the hypothesis that PEEP alone would be sufficient to limit atelectasis formation during nonabdominal surgery. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled evaluator-blinded study...
February 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460719/characterization-of-cotton-rat-sigmodon-hispidus-eosinophils-including-their-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#10
M Gia Green, Natasha Petroff, Krista M D La Perle, Stefan Niewiesk
Eosinophils have been postulated to play a protective role against infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the severity of allergic asthma during respiratory viral infection, and drive vaccine-enhanced disease. To address these questions in the cotton rat model of RSV infection, we characterized cotton rat eosinophils by electron microscopy as well as by bronchoalveolar lavage and histology of lung sections. Using these methods, we demonstrated that eosinophils comprise approximately half of all cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from cotton rats...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459573/potential-role-of-asc-a-proapoptotic-protein-for-determining-the-cisplatin-susceptibility-of-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Takao Sakaizawa, Tomio Matsumura, Chifumi Fujii, Shigeaki Hida, Masayuki Toishi, Takayuki Shiina, Kazuo Yoshida, Kazutoshi Hamanaka, Ken-Ichi Ito, Shun'ichiro Taniguchi
Primary lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cisplatin has been used as a key drug in the treatment for patients with lung cancer; however, most of the patients failed to respond to cisplatin within several months, and the mechanisms underlying the cisplatin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is a key adaptor protein in the formation of inflammasomes. ASC is also involved in apoptotic signaling...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459517/reduced-lung-function-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-japanese-men-the-shiga-epidemiological-study-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-sessa
#12
Ruriko Seto-Yukimura, Emiko Ogawa, Takashi Hisamatsu, Sayuki Torii, Akihiko Shiino, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Akira Fujiyoshi, Katsuyuki Miura, Yasutaka Nakano, Hirotsugu Ueshima
AIM: We aimed to investigate the association between reduced lung function and cerebral small vessel diseases via cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the cross-sectional study of the general Japanese population. METHODS: We recruited participants aged ≥40 years from the general population of a single city in Japan. We clarified the comorbidities and treatments, smoking habits, second-hand smoke exposure, current alcohol consumption, education level, exercise habits, and occupation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453386/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-cxcr4-targeting-i-body-ad-114-in-preclinical-models-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
K Griffiths, D M Habiel, J Jaffar, U Binder, W G Darby, C G Hosking, A Skerra, G P Westall, C M Hogaboam, M Foley
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease that is prevalent in individuals >50 years of age, with a median survival of 3-5 years and limited therapeutic options. The disease is characterized by collagen deposition and remodeling of the lung parenchyma in a process that is thought to be driven by collagen-expressing immune and structural cells. The G-protein coupled C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, CXCR4, is a candidate therapeutic target for IPF owing to its role in the recruitment of CXCR4 + fibrocytes from the bone marrow to fibrotic lung tissue and its increased expression levels by structural cells in fibrotic lung tissue...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452598/7-versus-14-days-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Nick Daneman, Asgar H Rishu, Ruxandra Pinto, Pierre Aslanian, Sean M Bagshaw, Alex Carignan, Emmanuel Charbonney, Bryan Coburn, Deborah J Cook, Michael E Detsky, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, Francois Lamontagne, Francois Lauzier, John C Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Wendy Sligl, Henry T Stelfox, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration antibiotic treatment is sufficient for a range of bacterial infections, but has not been adequately studied for bloodstream infections. Our systematic review, survey, and observational study indicated equipoise for a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment for bloodstream infections; a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) was a necessary next step to assess feasibility of a larger trial. METHODS: We conducted an open, pilot RCT of antibiotic treatment duration among critically ill patients with bloodstream infection across 11 intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451776/short-term-pulmonary-toxicity-assessment-of-pre-and-post-incinerated-organomodified-nanoclay-in-mice
#15
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Tiffany G Kornberg, Lori Battelli, Sherri Friend, Marlene Orandle, Alixandra Wagner, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Konstantinos A Sierros, Sushant Agarwal, Rakesh K Gupta, Yon Rojanasakul, Dale W Porter, Liying Rojanasakul
Organomodified nanoclays (ONCs) are increasingly used as filler materials to improve nanocomposite strength, wettability, flammability, and durability. However, pulmonary risks associated with exposure along their chemical lifecycle are unknown. This study's objective was to compare pre- and post-incinerated forms of uncoated and organomodified nanoclays for potential pulmonary inflammation, toxicity, and systemic blood response. Mice were exposed via aspiration to low (30 µg) and high (300 µg) doses of pre-incinerated uncoated montmorillonite nanoclay (CloisNa), ONC (Clois30B), their respective incinerated forms (I-CloisNa and I-Clois30B), and crystalline silica (CS)...
February 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450591/occurrence-of-pneumonitis-following-radiotherapy-of-breast-cancer-a-prospective-study
#16
Danijela Vasiljevic, Christoph Arnold, David Neuman, Katharina Fink, Marina Popovscaia, Irma Kvitsaridze, Meinhard Nevinny-Stickel, Markus Glatzer, Peter Lukas, Thomas Seppi
AIM: of this study is to determine the temporal resolution of therapy-induced pneumonitis, and to assess promoting factors in adjuvant treated patients with unilateral mammacarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 post-surgery patients were recruited. The cohort was treated by 2 field radiotherapy (2FRT; breast and chest wall, N = 75), 3 field radiotherapy (3FRT; + supraclavicular lymphatic region, N = 8), or with 4 field radiotherapy (4FRT; + parasternal lymphatic region, N = 17)...
February 15, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450586/the-host-control-of-a-clinical-isolate-strain-of-p-aeruginosa-infection-is-independent-of-nod-1-but-depends-on-myd88
#17
Fabiane Sônego, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Catarina V Horta, Alexandre Kanashiro, Paula G Czaikoski, Dario S Zamboni, José Carlos Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Nod1 in the recruitment of neutrophils into the infection site and in the establishment of the inflammatory response elicited by a clinical isolate strain of P. aeruginosa in vivo, while comparing it to the well-established role of MyD88 in this process. SUBJECTS: Wild-type, Nod1 -/- and MyD88 -/- mice, all with a C57Bl/6 background. METHODS: Mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa DZ605...
February 15, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446019/evaluation-of-vulnerable-pm-2-5-exposure-individuals-a-repeated-measure-study-in-an-elderly-population
#18
Haiyan Chu, Junyi Xin, Qi Yuan, Xu Zhang, Wang Pan, Xinying Zeng, Yaoyao Chen, Gaoxiang Ma, Yuqiu Ge, Mulong Du, Na Tong, Xiaobo Li, Zhengdong Zhang, Meilin Wang
Numerous studies have shown that elderly people are susceptible to high-level particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) exposure. However, not all elderly people exposed to PM 2.5 suffer from diseases. In this study, we aim to establish a method to predict the vulnerable PM 2.5 -exposure individuals among elderly population. Fourteen elderly people were recruited from May 8 to July 4, 2016, in Nanjing, China. Ten physiological indicators were repeatedly measured for 15 times. Liner mixed-effects model, principal component analysis (PCA), and PM 2...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445936/pulmonary-arterial-hemodynamic-assessment-by-a-novel-index-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients-pulmonary-pulse-transit-time
#19
Mehmet Dogan, Tolga Han Efe, Tolga Cimen, Cem Ozisler, Mehmet Ali Felekoglu, Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Mehmet Erat, Omer Yiginer, Murat Tulmac
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, inflammatory, and autoimmune connective tissue disease that is associated with vascular lesions, and fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs. Cardiac complications may occur as a secondary effect of SSc as a result of pulmonary arterial hypertension and interstitial lung disease. The objective of this study was to assess whether the pulmonary pulse transit time (pPTT) could serve as a diagnostic marker for pulmonary arterial alterations in patients with SSc, prior to development of pulmonary hypertension...
February 14, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445887/lung-volumes-and-lung-volume-recruitment-in-ards-a-comparison-between-supine-and-prone-position
#20
Hernan Aguirre-Bermeo, Marta Turella, Maddalena Bitondo, Juan Grandjean, Stefano Italiano, Olimpia Festa, Indalecio Morán, Jordi Mancebo
BACKGROUND: The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone position (PP) is common in the management of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients (ARDS). We conducted this study to analyze the variation in lung volumes and PEEP-induced lung volume recruitment with the change from supine position (SP) to PP in ARDS patients. METHODS: The investigation was conducted in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Patients who met the clinical criteria of the Berlin definition for ARDS were included...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
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