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Peak expiratory pressure

Giovanna Chidini, Daniele De Luca, Giorgio Conti, Paolo Pelosi, Stefano Nava, Edoardo Calderini
OBJECTIVE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist has been shown to improve patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure. Objective of this study was to compare the effect of noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support on patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure, when delivered as a first-line respiratory support. DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover physiologic study...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Nico Am Schellart, Wouter Sterk
: INTRODUCTION A well-fitting wetsuit exerts a pressure on the body that may influence spirometry. This pressure is expected to reduce the forced vital capacity (FVC) due to hampered inspiration. Since the shape of the spirometric flow curve should not be changed by the pressure effects of the wetsuits, FVC, the forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration (FEV₁), the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) should change to the same degree...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Camilla R S Silva, Lívia B Andrade, Danielle A S X Maux, Andreza L Bezerra, Maria C M B Duarte
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method: A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26), which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24), which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD)...
September 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Cemil Kavalci, Muhittin Serkan Yilmaz, Afsin Emre Kayipmaz, Bahattin Isık, Elif Celikel, Gulsum Kavalci, Fevzi Yilmaz, Miray Ozlem, Bedriye Muge Sonmez, Selman Celebi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to physical activity limitation and a significant reduction in quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and peak expiratory flow (PEF), and the factors effecting hospital admission rates of patients with COPD. METHODS: This observational study was conducted prospectively. CAT score was calculated and PEF measured at the time of emergency department admission...
2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Raffaella Perucca, Chiara Ronco, Davide Colombo, Antonio Messina, Rosanna Vaschetto, Paolo Navalesi
BACKGROUND: Compared to pneumatically controlled pressure support (PSP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) was proved to improve patient-ventilator interactions, while not affecting comfort, diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), and arterial blood gases (ABGs). This study compares neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) with PSP and NAVA, delivered through two different helmets, in hypoxemic patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure. METHODS: Fifteen patients underwent three (PSP, NAVA, and PSN) 30-min trials in random order with both helmets...
September 19, 2016: Anesthesiology
Murray Hinder, Pranav Jani, Archana Priyadarshi, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) is in common use worldwide to deliver positive pressure ventilation during resuscitation of infants <10 kg. Ease of use, ability to provide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), availability of devices inbuilt into resuscitaires and cheaper disposable options have increased its popularity as a first-line device for term infant resuscitation. Research into its ventilation performance is limited to preterm infant and animal studies. Efficacy of providing PEEP and the use of TPR during term infant resuscitation are not established...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Marc R Mendler, Claudia Weber, Mohammad A Hassan, Li Huang, Benjamin Mayer, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: There are few data available on the interaction of inflations, chest compressions (CC), and delivery of tidal volumes in newborn infants undergoing resuscitation in the presence of endotracheal tube (ET) leaks. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of different respiratory support strategies along with CC on changes in tidal volume and ET leaks in hypoxic newborn piglets with cardiac arrest. METHODS: Asphyxiated newborn piglets, intubated with weight-adapted uncuffed ET, were randomized into three groups and resuscitated according to ILCOR 2010 guidelines: (1) T-piece resuscitator (TPR) group = peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio); (2) self- inflating bag (SIB) group = PIP 25 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio), and (3) ventilator group = PIP/PEEP of 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min...
September 20, 2016: Neonatology
Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Ximena Navarro, Darwin Gatica, Carlos Manterola
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory muscle training is the most commonly used method to revert respiratory muscle weakness; however, the effect of protocols based on non-respiratory maneuvers has not been adequately studied in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in healthy adolescents. METHODS: This was a quasi-experiment. The sample was made up of healthy adolescents divided into two groups: an experimental group who completed eight weeks of active abdominal muscle training, and an equivalent control group...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Anja M Raab, Jörg Krebs, Claudio Perret, Franz Michel, Maria Te Hopman, Gabi Mueller
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications remain a major cause of mortality among individuals with spinal-cord injury (SCI). The present study investigated whether respiratory function is a discriminator of pneumonia in individuals with SCI and is aimed to determine the best predictive parameter. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Individuals with traumatic SCI, level C3 to T12, complete and incomplete lesions, were included. Data on respiratory function were extracted from medical records...
August 30, 2016: Respiratory Care
He Tai, Ming-Yue Wang, Yue-Ping Zhao, Ling-Bing Li, Qian-Yan Dong, Xin-Guang Liu, Jin-Song Kuang
BACKGROUND: To observe the effect of alogliptin combined with metformin on pulmonary function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy (500 mg, bid po, for at least 3 months), and evaluate its efficacy and safety. METHODS: After a 2-week screening period, adult patients (aged 36-72 years) entered a 4-week run-in/stabilization period. Then, patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 50) for 26 weeks...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stephen Morgan, Christoph P Hornik, Niyati Patel, Walter L Williford, David A Turner, Ira M Cheifetz
BACKGROUND: Continuous high-frequency oscillation (CHFO) creates a pressure gradient in the small airways that accelerates expiratory flow. The intended use of CHFO therapy is to facilitate secretion removal and treat atelectasis. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of CHFO in the mechanically ventilated pediatric population. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of mechanically ventilated children treated with CHFO (the MetaNeb system) at our institution from July 1, 2007 through August 31, 2012...
August 16, 2016: Respiratory Care
Hüsnü Mert Arinalp, Nurten Bakan, Gülşah Karaören, Ömer Torun Şahin, Emre Çeliksoy
BACKGROUND/AIM: In laparoscopic procedures, intraabdominal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation can cause decreased compliance, increased airway resistance, and impaired ventilation-perfusion ratios. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) treatment on respiratory dynamics and elimination time of volatile anesthetic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 75 ASA I-II patients were randomized into 3 groups to receive 0 cmH2O PEEP (group I), 5 cmH2O PEEP (group II), or 8 cmH2O PEEP (group III)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Konstantinos Loverdos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Eleni Litsiou, Vassiliki Karavana, Constantinos Glynos, Christina Magkou, Stamatios Theocharis, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos
Combined resistive breathing (CRB) is the hallmark of obstructive airway disease pathophysiology. We have previously shown that severe inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB) induces acute lung injury in healthy rats. The role of expiratory resistance is unknown. The possibility of a load-dependent type of resistive breathing-induced lung injury also remains elusive. Our aim was to investigate the differential effects of IRB, expiratory resistive breathing (ERB), and CRB on healthy rat lung and establish the lowest loads required to induce injury...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Amany F Elbehairy, Jordan A Guenette, Azmy Faisal, Casey E Ciavaglia, Katherine A Webb, Dennis Jensen, Andrew H Ramsook, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Dyspnoea and activity limitation can occur in smokers who do not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Detailed pulmonary function tests and sensory-mechanical relationships during incremental exercise with respiratory pressure measurements and diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi) were compared in 20 smokers without spirometric COPD and 20 age-matched healthy controls.Smokers (mean±sd post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 75±4%, mean±sd FEV1 104±14% predicted) had greater activity-related dyspnoea, poorer health status and lower physical activity than controls...
September 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Xiao Zhao, Shiwei Huang, Zhaomin Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in lithotomy and supine positions and to validate the impact of operational position on effectiveness of LMA ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 90 patients (age range, 18-65 years) who underwent general anesthesia were selected and divided into supine position (SP group) and lithotomy position groups (LP group). Vital signs and respiratory dynamic parameters of the 2 groups were measured at different time points and after implantation of an LMA...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mustafa Sahin, Ibrahim Aydogdu, Serdar Akyildiz, Munevver Erdinc, Kerem Ozturk, Fatih Ogut
Objectives: Bilateral vocal fold abductor paralysis (BVFAP) both deteriorates quality of life and may cause life-threatening respiratory problems. The aim of this study was to reduce respiratory symptoms in BVFAP patients using cricothyroid (CT) botulinum toxin (BTX) injection. Methods: Before and 2 weeks and 4 months after bilateral BTX injection into the CT muscles under electromyography; alterations in respiratory, acoustic, aerodynamic and quality of life parameters were evaluated in BVFAP patients with respiratory distress...
July 2, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo
Cough-related sensory inputs from rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) and C fibers are processed by second-order neurons mainly located in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Both GABAA and glycine receptors have been proven to be involved in the inhibitory control of second-order cells receiving RAR projections. We investigated the role of these receptors within the caudal NTS in the modulation of the cough reflex induced by either mechanical or chemical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
J-Q Li, N Li, G-J Han, C-G Pan, Y-H Zhang, X-Z Shi, J-Y Xu, B Lu, M-Q Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effects of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in patients suffering from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).e of a patient presented with significant high aminotransferase levels due to the first human R. aeschlimannii infection ever detected in Italy. The hypothesis of rickettsiosis was made on the basis of a comprehensive medical history and was confirmed by serological tests. Molecular analyses made on a sample of hepatic tissue revealed the presence of a rickettsial species never found before in human liver...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Beyza Tekin, Zehra Hatipoğlu, Mediha Türktan, Dilek Özcengiz
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), face mask and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (PLA) in the airway management of spontaneously breathing paediatric patients undergoing elective inguinal surgery. METHODS: In this study, 90 cases of 1-14-year-old children undergoing elective inguinal surgery were scheduled. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. Anaesthesia was provided with sevoflurane and 50%-50% nitrous oxide and oxygen...
April 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Hatem A Sarhan, Omar H El-Garhy, Mohamed A Ali, Nouran A Youssef
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A), salbutamol nebulization (group B), and their combination (group C). All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes) for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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