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Peak expiratory pressure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779887/pulmonary-capillary-hemorrhage-induced-by-diagnostic-ultrasound-in-ventilated-rats
#1
Douglas L Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran
Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) can be induced by diagnostic ultrasound-a potential safety issue. Anesthetized rats were intubated for intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) with 0 end-expiratory pressure, +4 cm H2 O end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and -4 cm H2 O end-expiratory pressure (NEEP). Rats were imaged at 7.6 MHz with a Philips HDI 5000 ultrasound machine. The output was low (mechanical index [MI] = 0.22) for aiming and then was raised for 5 min in 20 different exposure groups with n = 8...
May 17, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771711/respiratory-muscle-effort-during-expiration-in-successful-and-failed-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation
#2
Jonne Doorduin, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Diana Jansen, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo M A Heunks
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle weakness in critically ill patients is associated with difficulty in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Previous studies have mainly focused on inspiratory muscle activity during weaning; expiratory muscle activity is less well understood. The current study describes expiratory muscle activity during weaning, including tonic diaphragm activity. The authors hypothesized that expiratory muscle effort is greater in patients who fail to wean compared to those who wean successfully...
May 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756459/the-effects-of-respiratory-muscle-training-on-peak-cough-flow-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Alvaro Reyes, Adrián Castillo, Javiera Castillo, Isabel Cornejo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an inspiratory versus and expiratory muscle-training program on voluntary and reflex peak cough flow in patients with Parkinson disease. DESIGN: A randomized controlled study. SETTING: Home-based training program. PARTICIPANTS: In all, 40 participants with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were initially recruited in the study and randomly allocated to three study groups. Of them, 31 participants completed the study protocol (control group, n = 10; inspiratory training group, n = 11; and expiratory training group, n = 10) Intervention: The inspiratory and expiratory group performed a home-based inspiratory and expiratory muscle-training program, respectively (five sets of five repetitions)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734208/improved-lung-recruitment-and-oxygenation-during-mandatory-ventilation-with-a-new-expiratory-ventilation-assistance-device-a-controlled-interventional-trial-in-healthy-pigs
#4
Johannes Schmidt, Christin Wenzel, Marlene Mahn, Sashko Spassov, Heidi Cristina Schmitz, Silke Borgmann, Ziwei Lin, Jörg Haberstroh, Stephan Meckel, Sebastian Eiden, Steffen Wirth, Hartmut Buerkle, Stefan Schumann
BACKGROUND: In contrast to conventional mandatory ventilation, a new ventilation mode, expiratory ventilation assistance (EVA), linearises the expiratory tracheal pressure decline. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that due to a recruiting effect, linearised expiration oxygenates better than volume controlled ventilation (VCV). We compared the EVA with VCV mode with regard to gas exchange, ventilation volumes and pressures and lung aeration in a model of peri-operative mandatory ventilation in healthy pigs...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728414/t-piece-resuscitators-how-do-they-compare
#5
Murray Hinder, Alistair McEwan, Thomas Drevhammer, Snorri Donaldson, Mark Brian Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance of different TPR devices in a controlled bench test study...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705115/suction-mask-vs-conventional-mask-ventilation-in-term-and-near-term-infants-in-the-delivery-room-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Laila Lorenz, Christoph M Rüegger, Eoin O'Currain, Jennifer A Dawson, Marta Thio, Louise S Owen, Susan M Donath, Peter G Davis, C Omar F Kamlin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the suction mask, a new facemask that uses suction to create a seal between the mask and the infant's face, with a conventional soft, round silicone mask during positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the delivery room in newborn infants >34 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center randomized controlled trial in the delivery room. The primary outcome was mask leak. RESULTS: Forty-five infants were studied at a median gestational age of 38...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699834/respiratory-muscle-strength-and-state-of-consciousness-values-measured-prior-to-the-decanulation-in-different-levels-of-complexity-a-longitudinal-prospective-case-series-study
#7
L Diaz-Ballve, D Villalba, M Andreu, M Escobar, G Morel-Vulliez, J Lebus, E Rositi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the variables related to effective cough capacity and the state of consciousness measured prior to decannulation and compare their measured values between the different areas of care such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), General ward and Mechanical Ventilation Weaning and Rehabilitation Centers (MVWRC). Secondarily analyze the evolution of patients once decannulated. DESIGN: Case series, longitudinal and prospective. SCOPE: Multicentric 31 ICUs (polyvalent) and 5 MVWRC...
April 23, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688788/respiratory-effects-of-low-versus-high-tidal-volume-with-or-without-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-anesthetized-dogs-with-healthy-lungs
#8
Valentina De Monte, Antonello Bufalari, Salvatore Grasso, Fabienne Ferrulli, Alberto Maria Crovace, Luca Lacitignola, Francesco Staffieri
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of 2 tidal volumes (TV s) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung mechanics, aeration, and gas exchange in healthy anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 40 mixed-breed dogs with healthy lungs. PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) with different ventilatory settings: TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (low TV group), TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (low TV plus PEEP group), TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (high TV group), or TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (high TV plus PEEP group)...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687968/spinal-bracing-and-lung-function-in-type-2-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#9
Chiara Di Pede, Eleonora Salamon, Matteo Motta, Caterina Agosto, Franca Benini, Adriano Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle weakness associated with scoliosis in type-2 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) leads to respiratory impairment. Spinal brace, generally utilized to slow scoliosis progression and support sitting, could worsen lung function and hamper cough maneuvers. CASE SERIES: Six home-treated type-2 SMA children (aged 6 -15 years, subtype 2.1-2.5) were assessed to evaluate time-dependent influence of "static-balanced brace" on pulmonary function...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684252/index-of-healthy-aging-in-chinese-older-adults-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study
#10
Chenkai Wu, Anne B Newman, Bi-Rong Dong, Michelle C Odden
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the distribution of an index of healthy aging-the Chinese Healthy Aging Index (CHAI)-in Chinese adults aged 60 and older according to sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region and to examine the association between the CHAI and mortality, disability, and functional limitation over 4 years. DESIGN: Nationally representative cohort study. SETTING: China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. PARTICIPANTS: Chinese adults aged 60 and older (N=3,740)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682532/effect-of-upright-and-slouched-sitting-postures-on-the-respiratory-muscle-strength-in-healthy-young-males
#11
Ali Albarrati, Hamayun Zafar, Ahmad H Alghadir, Shahnwaz Anwer
Objective: The present study compared the effects of upright and slouched sitting postures on the respiratory muscle strength in healthy young males. Methods: A total of 35 adult male subjects aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Respiratory muscle strength was determined by measurement of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) using a MicroRPM device in the upright and slouched sitting positions. The subjects were asked to perform the pulmonary function test including peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 /FVC ratio at baseline...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673610/low-exertional-inspiratory-capacity-is-not-related-to-dynamic-inspiratory-muscle-weakness-in-heart-failure
#12
Franciele Plachi, Fernanda Machado Balzan, Ricardo Gass, Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Reisi Zambiazi, Danton Pereira da Silva, Paulo R Sanches, Nadine Oliveira Clausell, Danilo C Berton
Reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC) during exercise has been reported in chronic heart failure (CHF). Since inspiratory muscle dysfunction may be present to a variable degree, the assumption that IC reduction during exercise represents an increase in end-expiratory lung volume must be made with caution. This interpretation is flawed if patients develop dynamic inspiratory muscle strength reduction, i.e., progressively lower esophageal (Pes) pressures as the IC maneuvers are repeated. Sixteen CHF patients and 9 age-matched controls performed an incremental exercise test with serial IC and respiratory pressure measurements...
April 16, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668530/cardiorespiratory-effects-of-air-pollution-in-a-panel-study-of-winter-outdoor-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#13
David M Stieb, Robin Shutt, Lisa Marie Kauri, Gail Roth, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Nina A Dobbin, Li Chen, Marc Rigden, Keith Van Ryswyk, Ryan Kulka, Branka Jovic, Marie Mulholland, Martin S Green, Ling Liu, Guillaume Pelletier, Scott A Weichenthal, Robert E Dales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution in older adults exercising outdoors in winter. METHODS: Adults 55 years of age and older completed daily measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry, and weekly measurements of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659626/influence-of-respiratory-mechanics-and-drive-on-genioglossus-movement-under-ultrasound-imaging
#14
Benjamin C H Kwan, Rachel A McBain, Billy L Luu, Jane E Butler, Lynne E Bilston, Simon C Gandevia
METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (10 males, age 28±5 years [mean ± SD]) lay supine, awake, with the head in a neutral position. Ventilation was monitored with inductance bands. Real-time B-mode ultrasound movies were analysed. We measured genioglossus motion (i) during spontaneous breathing, voluntary targeted breathing (normal tidal volume Vt), and voluntary hyperpnoea (at 1.5Vt and 2 Vt); (ii) during inspiratory flow resistive loading; (iii) with changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643576/upper-extremity-resistance-exercise-with-elastic-bands-for-respiratory-function-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
Seung-Oh Shin, Nan-Soo Kim
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of upper extremity resistance exercise with elastic bands on respiratory function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen children were divided into two groups: the experimental (n=8) and control (n=7) groups. Both groups performed general exercises for 30 minutes per session, two times a week during the intervention period. The experimental group performed an additional upper extremity resistance exercise with elastic bands for 20-30 minutes per session, twice weekly for 8 weeks...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589419/influence-of-head-and-neck-position-on-performance-of-the-ambu%C3%A2-auragaintm-laryngeal-mask-a-randomised-crossover-study
#16
Seokha Yoo, Sun-Kyung Park, Won Ho Kim, Min Hur, Jae-Hyon Bahk, Young-Jin Lim, Jin-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different head and neck positions on the performance of the Ambu® AuraGainTM, a novel laryngeal mask with anatomical curvature. METHODS: Oropharyngeal leak pressure, expiratory tidal volume, peak inspiratory pressure, ventilation score, and fibreoptic view score through the AuraGainTM were measured in the neutral, flexed, and extended neck positions as well as the right rotated head and neck position in each patient in a random order...
March 27, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575957/ventilator-induced-lung-injury-during-controlled-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-less-is-probably-better
#17
Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Lorenzo Ball, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Paolo Pelosi
Mechanical ventilation is required to support respiratory function in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but it may promote lung damage, a phenomenon known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Areas covered: Several mechanisms of VILI have been described, such as: inspiratory and/or expiratory stress inducing overdistension (volutrauma); interfaces between collapsed or edema-filled alveoli with surrounding open alveoli, acting as stress raisers; alveoli that repetitively open and close during tidal breathing (atelectrauma); and peripheral airway dynamics...
May 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559484/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-for-near-fatal-asthma-refractory-to-conventional-ventilation
#18
Usman Maqsood, Nehal Patel
We describe a case of near-fatal asthma, treated successfully by initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 29-year-old woman, known asthmatic on steroid inhalers, inhaled/nebulised bronchodilators, long-term oral prednisolone, theophylline and montelukast, presented with acute shortness of breath. She deteriorated following initial treatment with nebulised bronchodilators and magnesium sulfate requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Severe bronchospasm ensued following mechanical ventilation and peak airway pressures remained at 55 cm H2 O with intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure(PEEP) of 14 cm H2 O...
March 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526517/identification-of-sleep-hypoventilation-in-young-individuals-with-becker-muscular-dystrophy-a-pilot-study
#19
Yuko Nakamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Norika Kubota, Wataru Matsumura, Chika Hosoda, Akiko Tamasaki-Kondo, Yoko Nishimura, Yoshihide Sunada, Masuyuki Fukada, Takako Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Masafumi Matsuo, Yasuko Tokita
AIM: To report on sleep hypercapnia in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) at earlier stages than ever recognized. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined nocturnal hypercapnia in six young Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients with deletions of one or more exons of DMD gene. Clinical information, consecutive data on forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%), peak expiratory flow (PEF%), peak cough flow (PCF), average PCO2 in all-night monitoring, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500315/delivery-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-to-preterm-lambs-using-common-resuscitation-devices
#20
Marta Thio, Jennifer A Dawson, Kelly J Crossley, Timothy J Moss, Charles C Roehr, Graeme R Polglase, Peter G Davis, Stuart B Hooper
BACKGROUND: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. METHODS: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2 O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2 O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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