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Jingwei Wei, Stefan Wagner, Paul Maclean, Brigid Brophy, Sally Cole, Grant Smolenski, Dan F Carlson, Scott C Fahrenkrug, David N Wells, Götz Laible
We applied precise  zygote-mediated genome editing to eliminate beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cows' milk. To efficiently generate LGB knockout cows, biopsied embryos were screened to transfer only appropriately modified embryos. Transfer of 13 pre-selected embryos into surrogate cows resulted in the birth of three calves, one dying shortly after birth. Deep sequencing results confirmed conversion of the genotype from wild type to the edited nine bp deletion by more than 97% in the two male calves...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leah Hoffman, Janine Delahanty, Sarah E Johnson, Xiaoquan Zhao
We examined the association between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identity, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors in the United States. Using data from 198,057 adults in 26 states in the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we estimated the prevalence of cigarette use, e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors by gender identity and sexual identity. Overall and sex-stratified bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined whether the relationship between sexual and gender identity and cigarette and e-cigarette use persisted after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status, and other unhealthy behaviors...
May 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Evan A Krueger, Ilan H Meyer, Dawn M Upchurch
PURPOSE: Overall, sexual minorities have poorer mental health than heterosexual individuals, and stress is thought to underlie such disparities. However, sexual minorities include both those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and many who do not (e.g., individuals identifying as mostly heterosexual, or as heterosexual but with discordant same-sex attractions or behaviors), and little is known about the mental health or stress experiences of non-LGB identified sexual minorities...
May 9, 2018: LGBT Health
Christopher A Pepping, Timothy J Cronin, W Kim Halford, Anthony Lyons
Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people want a stable, satisfying romantic relationship. Although many of the predictors of relationship outcomes are similar to those of heterosexual couples, same-sex couples face some additional challenges associated with minority stress that also impact upon relationship quality. Here, we investigate the association between minority stressors and relationship quality in a sample of 363 adults (M age = 30.37, SD = 10.78) currently in a same-sex romantic relationship...
April 30, 2018: Family Process
Ezgi Toplu-Demirtaş, Gülşah Kemer, Amber L Pope, Jeffry L Moe
Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001)...
April 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Alan J Dettlaff, Micki Washburn, Lynley Christian Carr, Alicia Nikki Vogel
The purpose of this study was to estimate the population of sexual minority or LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) children and youth involved with the child welfare system, and to compare their health, mental health, placement and permanency outcomes to those of non-LGB youth. Data were drawn from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-II), a nationally representative sample of children who were referred to child welfare due to a report of abuse or neglect over a fifteen month period...
April 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz
Numerous homeless youth experience trauma prior to leaving home and while on the street. Bullying and trading sex (i.e. exchanging sexual favors for survival items such as food) are additional forms of trauma experienced by many homeless youth. Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) homeless youth experience higher rates of child abuse compared to their heterosexual counterparts, there is a paucity of research comparing these two groups. As such, we compare whether difficulties finding items of necessity (e...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Jessica N Fish, Cara E Rice, Stephanie T Lanza, Stephen T Russell
The developmental timing of suicide-related disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people) is an understudied area that has critical prevention implications. In addition to developmentally situated experiences that shape risk for suicidality in the general population, sexual minorities also experience unique social stressors (e.g., anti-LGB stigma) that may alter their risk for suicidal behavior at different ages. Using a nationally representative US sample of adults, we assessed age-varying rates of suicidal behavior among heterosexuals and sexual minorities ages 18 to 60 and the age-varying association between anti-LGB discrimination and suicidal behavior...
March 29, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Joseph G L Lee, Paige E Averett, Tiffany Blanchflower, Kyle R Gregory
INTRODUCTION: Researchers and regulators need to know how changes to cigarette packages can influence population health. We sought to advance research on the role of cigarette packaging by assessing a theory-informed framework from the fields of design and consumer research. The selected Context of Consumption Framework posits cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to visual design. To assess the Framework's potential for guiding research on the visual design of cigarette packaging in the U...
February 2018: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Britney M Wardecker, Jes L Matsick, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland, David M Almeida
The number of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 and older is projected to reach 5 million in the U.S. by 2030 (Fredriksen-Goldsen, Kim, Shiu, Goldsen, & Emlet, 2015). Older bisexuals experience more negative mental and physical health outcomes when compared to both heterosexuals and other sexual minorities (Fredriksen-Goldsen, Shiu, Bryan, Goldsen, & Kim, 2017). As bisexuals are the numeric majority of sexual minorities in the U.S. (Herbenick et al., 2010), bisexual aging processes are critical to understand if researchers wish to reduce sexual minority health disparities and promote healthy aging...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Smita C Banerjee, Chasity B Walters, Jessica M Staley, Koshy Alexander, Patricia A Parker
Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively...
2018: Journal of Health Communication
Oddgeir Synnes, Kirsti Malterud
AIMS: This study aims to explore how minority stress related to sexual orientation is reflected in narratives from lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals in Norway, with an impact for national public health policy. METHODS: Arthur Frank's dialogical narrative analysis was applied to personal stories from 65 persons self-referring to different categories of queer identities, submitted online anonymously to a Norwegian national archive for queer history. A purposive sample of three different stories were selected due to their capacity to illuminate how various aspects of minority stress are narrated in diverse interplays between individual voices and resources, and cultural scripts and societal influences...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
G Campisciano, S Palmisano, C Cason, M Giuricin, M Silvestri, M Guerra, D Macor, N De Manzini, L S Crocé, M Comar
Intestinal microbiota analysis of obese patients after bariatric surgery showed that Proteobacteria decreased after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG), while it increased after laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB). Comparing to normal weight (NW) patients, obese patients that were selected for SG showed an almost equal amount of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the ratio was not affected by the surgery. Obese patients before LGB showed a predominance of Bacteroidetes, whose amount regained a relative abundance similar to NW patients after surgery...
April 25, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Joseph G L Lee, Paige E Averett, Tiffany Blanchflower, Kyle R Gregory
Purpose: In the U.S., tobacco products are now regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Litigation has quickly followed. One area of controversy is when a change to the design of the cigarette pack requires approval through FDA's rigorous premarket review process. In this paper, we examine how adult U.S. smokers view the connection between the design of cigarette packs and the characteristics of the cigarettes within. Methods: Data for this qualitative study came from six focus groups conducted in March 2017 with adult smokers...
March 2018: Journal of Cancer Policy
Suzan M Walters, Alexis V Rivera, Kathleen H Reilly, Bridget J Anderson, Barbara Bolden, Afework Wogayehu, Alan Neaigus, Sarah Braunstein
Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location...
February 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Karolina Lisy, Micah D J Peters, Penelope Schofield, Michael Jefford
OBJECTIVES: To explore the cancer care experiences and unmet needs of people who identify as a sexual or gender minority. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis was undertaken based on a registered protocol. Following literature searching and study selection, study quality was examined by using the Critical Appraisal Skill Programme Checklist. Qualitative data were extracted verbatim from included studies and synthesized by using thematic analysis...
February 20, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Elodie Charbonnier, Florence Dumas, Adam Chesterman, Pierluigi Graziani
BACKGROUND: Lesbians, gays, and bisexual people (LGB) present high levels of suicidal ideation. The disclosure of sexual orientation is a stressful experience which presents a high suicide risk. Research has not paid sufficient attention to stress during this disclosure in order to understand suicide among LGB people. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) the characteristics of stress during this revelation, more precisely cognitive appraisal, emotions, and coping; and (2) associations between these characteristics and suicidal ideation...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
B Jachimska, S Świątek, J I Loch, K Lewiński, T Luxbacher
Bovine β-lactoglobulin (LGB) is a transport protein that can bind to its structure hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Due to the lack of toxicity, high stability and pH-dependent molecular binding mechanism, lactoglobulin can be used as a carrier of sparingly soluble drugs. Dynamic light scattering has confirmed LGB's tendency to create oligomeric forms. The hydrodynamic diameter of LGB molecules varies from 4 nm to 6 nm in the pH range of 2-10 and ionic strength I = 0.001-0.15 M, which corresponds to the presence of mono or dimeric LGB forms...
June 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Lauren B Beach, Tom A Elasy, Gilbert Gonzales
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and diabetes risk factors among adult sexual minority and heterosexual populations in the United States. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 3776 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 142,852 heterosexual adults aged 18 years and older were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Binomial logistic regression models were used to compare the odds of diabetes by sexual orientation...
February 2018: LGBT Health
Marc Marti-Pastor, Gloria Perez, Danielle German, Angels Pont, Olatz Garin, Jordi Alonso, Mercè Gotsens, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND: Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities. METHODS: In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death)...
2018: PloS One
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