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Developmental Medicine

Ashkan Shafiee, Anthony Atala
The goal of tissue engineering is to mitigate the critical shortage of donor organs via in vitro fabrication of functional biological structures. Tissue engineering is one of the most prominent examples of interdisciplinary fields, where scientists with different backgrounds work together to boost the quality of life by addressing critical health issues. Many different fields, such as developmental and molecular biology, as well as technologies, such as micro- and nanotechnologies and additive manufacturing, have been integral for advancing the field of tissue engineering...
September 30, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez, Matthew J Dalby
Growth factors (GF) are remarkably powerful signalling molecules that orchestrate developmental biology. GFs are currently used in medical applications with limited success but it is clear that if their potential can be harnessed for biomedicine then they could underpin the discipline of regenerative medicine. However, while we understand that biology uses cell-secreted growth factors tethered to the ECM, biologists typically employ GFs in soluble format at high concentrations. When used in vivo, this causes off-target, unwanted effects, which severely limits their use...
October 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Michal Elboim-Gabyzon, Osnat Atun-Einy, Insaf Khoury-Assaf
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the existent evidence considering the use of power wheel chair (PWC) for children with DMD who can still walk independently. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted through nine databases by the three authors independently. Both quantitative and qualitative research designs were considered for inclusion. Studies were included only if the study population consisted of ambulatory children diagnosed with DMD. Data extraction was on participant characteristics, level of walking and on outcomes in term of impairment, function and participation domains (ICF, World Health Organization, 2001) in accordance to a structured diagram by the three authors independently...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Lucio Cocco, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Research in recent years has extensively investigated the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine for many neurodegenerative diseases at preclinical and clinical stages. However, the success rate of stem cell therapy remains less at translational phase. Lack of relevant animal models that potentially simulate the molecular etiology of human pathological symptoms might be a reason behind such poor clinical outcomes associated with stem cell therapy. Apparently, self-renewal and differentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells may help to study the early developmental signaling pathways connected with the diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Elizabeth Craig, Neal Kerr, Gabrielle McDonald
AIM: In New Zealand, there is a paucity of information on children with chronic conditions and disabilities (CCD). One reason is that many are managed in hospital outpatients where diagnostic coding of health-care events does not occur. This study explores the feasibility of coding paediatric outpatient data to provide health planners with information on children with CCD. METHODS: Thirty-seven clinicians from six District Health Boards (DHBs) trialled coding over 12 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ulrich Sauerzopf, Roberto Sacco, Gaia Novarino, Marco Niello, Ana Weidenauer, Nicole Praschak-Rieder, Harald Sitte, Matthäus Willeit
Since 2006, reprogrammed cells have increasingly been used as a biomedical research technique in addition to neuro-psychiatric methods. These rapidly evolving techniques allow for the generation of neuronal sub-populations, and have sparked interest not only in monogenetic neuro-psychiatric diseases, but also in poly-genetic and poly-etiological disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). This review provides a summary of 19 publications on reprogrammed adult somatic cells derived from patients with SCZ, and 5 publications using this technique in patients with BPD...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mathilde Chevignard, Camille de Montferrand, Estelle Yvon-Chaou, Alain Mardaye, Anne Tiberghien, Anne Laurent-Vannier, Georges Dellatolas
OBJECTIVE: Studies on language outcome following childhood stroke are rare. The aims of this study were to study language, cognitive and school outcomes following childhood stroke. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the files of children (1 month-15 years) consecutively admitted to a physical medicine and rehabilitation department following childhood stroke between 1992 and 2015. Age at onset, aetiology, lesion laterality, initial severity, motor and functional impairments upon admission and discharge, language tests, neuropsychological assessment (or developmental age/quotient) and academic outcome were collected...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Mouna Sghir, Mohamed Guedria, Marwa Maraoui, Wafa Haj Hamad, Wafa Said, Saida Jerbi, Wassia Kessomtini
OBJECTIVE: The femur aplasia is a congenital developmental defect of the femur often associated with malformations of the pelvis and lower limb. There are all intermediaries between the short femur and vestigial femoral. The total femur absence (agenesis) is rare. We report a case of a child followed in our Physical Medicine Department for proximal bilateral femoral agenesis. OBSERVATIONS: This is M.S., a 5 years old child, addressed for a waddling gait and a deformation of the trunk...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Carole Vuillerot, Mickael Dinomais, Stephane Marret, Stephane Chabrier, Thierry Debillon
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) affects one child in 6-17 100,000-birth term neonates, most of these children will keep long-term motor and cognitive impairment. In 2014, initiated by the French Center for Pediatric Stroke in association with the French Society of Neonatology, a steering committee was created to propose clinical guidelines after NAIS. From all the relevant questions, the importance is given to long-term outcomes after a NAIS with a need for a better description of motor and cognitive outcomes after a NAIS in order to propose a more consensual monitoring for these children to improve their management...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs) are the source of the primordial diaphragm's muscle connective tissue (MCT), and developmental mutations have been shown to result in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The protein paired-related homeobox 1 (Prx1) labels migrating PPF cells and stimulates expression of transcription factor 4 (Tcf4), a novel MCT marker that controls morphogenesis of the fetal diaphragm. We hypothesized that diaphragmatic Prx1 and Tcf4 expression is decreased in the nitrofen-induced CDH model...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Agnieszka Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Paulina Krawiec, Agnieszka Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Dorota Gołyska, Katarzyna Kominek, Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska
INTRODUCTION: Intentional poisonings among children and adolescents are a problem not only for paediatricians, but also constitute a big issue for public health. In many countries worldwide, including Poland, an increase has been observed in suicidal behaviours at developmental age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized due to intentional poisoning in the Department of Paediatrics, Children's University Hospital in Lublin, Poland, in 2007-2012...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Ludovic Zimmerlin, Tea Soon Park, Jeffrey S Huo, Karan Verma, Sarshan R Pather, C Conover Talbot, Jasmin Agarwal, Diana Steppan, Yang W Zhang, Michael Considine, Hong Guo, Xiufeng Zhong, Christian Gutierrez, Leslie Cope, M Valeria Canto-Soler, Alan D Friedman, Stephen B Baylin, Elias T Zambidis
The derivation and maintenance of hPSC in stable naïve pluripotent states has wide impact in human developmental biology. However, hPSC are unstable in classical naïve mouse ESC WNT and MEK/ERK signal inhibition (2i) culture. We show that a broad repertoire of conventional human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and transgene-independent hiPSC lines could be reverted to stable human preimplantation ICM-like naïve states with only WNT, MEK/ERK, and tankyrase inhibition (LIF-3i). LIF-3i-reverted hPSC retained normal karyotypes and attained defining mouse ESC-like functional features including high clonal self-renewal, independence from MEK-ERK signalling, dependence on JAK-STAT3 and BMP4 signaling, and naïve-specific transcriptional and epigenetic configurations...
September 22, 2016: Development
Shannon M Sullivan, Kate Tsiplova, Wendy J Ungar
Economic evaluations conducted in children have unique features compared to adults. Important developments in pediatric economic evaluation in recent years include new options for valuing health states for cost-utility analysis (CUA) and shifting child health priorities. The Pediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE) project includes a comprehensive database of pediatric health economic evaluations published since 1980. The objective of this scoping review was to identify trends over time in the use of CUA and other analytic techniques, and the therapeutic areas chosen for study...
October 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Nicole J Boczek, Ashley N Sigafoos, Michael T Zimmermann, Rachel L Maus, Margot A Cousin, Patrick R Blackburn, Raul Urrutia, Karl J Clark, Marc C Patterson, Myra J Wick, Eric W Klee
A de novo GFAP variant, p.R376W, was identified in a child presenting with hypotonia, developmental delay, and abnormal brain MRI. Following the 2015 ACMG variant classification guidelines and the functional studies showing protein aggregate formation in vitro, p.R376W should be classified as a pathogenic variant, causative for Alexander disease.
September 2016: Clinical Case Reports
F Wang, Q X Fan
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of common malignant tumors, and the incidence and mortality of EC in China rank the first place in the world. Because of the occult onset, the early atypical symptoms, and the lack of effective early diagnostic methods, most of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease and lost the chance of surgery. Comprehensive treatment including palliative medical treatment, molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy and so on is appropriate for these patients. How to choose the chemotherapy regimen and formulate reasonable treatment plan has become a hot spot in clinical research...
September 23, 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
R D Nerenz
Treatment for many infertile couples often consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF) but an estimated 70% of IVF cycles fail to produce a live birth. In an attempt to improve the live birth rate, the vast majority of IVF cycles performed in the United States involve the transfer of multiple embryos, a practice that increases the risk of multiple gestation pregnancy. This is a concern because multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased incidence of maternal and fetal complications and significant cost associated with the care of preterm infants...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Wu Dong, Jie Liu, Lixin Wei, Yang Jingfeng, Melissa Chernick, David E Hinton
This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001-10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6-7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation...
2016: PeerJ
Greg Dussor, Yu-Qing Cao
Migraine is among the most common diseases on earth and one of the most disabling, the latter due in large part to poor treatment efficacy. Development of new therapeutics is dependent on the identification of mechanisms contributing to migraine and discovery of targets for new drugs. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated the transient receptor-potential M8 (TRPM8) channel in migraine. This channel is predominantly expressed on peripheral sensory neurons and is known as the sensor for cold temperature in cutaneous tissue but is also expressed on deep visceral afferents where cold is not likely a stimulus...
October 2016: Headache
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