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Developmental Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644430/the-clinical-landscape-for-sma-in-a-new-therapeutic-era
#1
REVIEW
K Talbot, E F Tizzano
Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy, due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy...
June 23, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#2
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630152/repurposing-a-pore-highly-conserved-perforin-like-proteins-with-alternative-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Tao Ni, Robert J C Gilbert
Pore-forming proteins play critical roles in pathogenic attack and immunological defence. The membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) group of homologues represents, with cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, the largest family of such proteins. In this review, we begin by describing briefly the structure of MACPF proteins, outlining their common mechanism of pore formation. We subsequently discuss some examples of MACPF proteins likely implicated in pore formation or other membrane-remodelling processes. Finally, we focus on astrotactin and bone morphogenetic protein and retinoic acid-induced neural-specific proteins, highly conserved MACPF family members involved in developmental processes, which have not been well studied to date or observed to form a pore-and which data suggest may act by alternative mechanisms...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#4
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616470/global-solutions-to-regional-challenges-bridging-the-one-health-divide-in-the-caribbean
#5
Arve Lee Willingham, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Diana G Scorpio, Christa A Gallagher
Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, located on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts in the West Indies, hosted a multi-national, transdisciplinary One Health conference in St. Kitts and Nevis. Historically the many countries of the Caribbean carry a high burden of chronic and infectious disease and struggle with complex economic and developmental issues that continuously pressurize inhabitants and their natural environment. Considering these vast regional challenges, presentations covered diverse topics including community-based approaches for zoonotic disease control and prevention and mitigation of problems at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616151/therapeutic-potential-of-dental-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Elna Paul Chalisserry, Seung Yun Nam, Sang Hyug Park, Sukumaran Anil
Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615044/comparison-of-transportation-related-injury-mechanisms-and-outcome-of-young-road-users-and-adult-road-users-a-retrospective-analysis-on-24-373-patients-derived-from-the-traumaregister-dgu-%C3%A2
#7
Thomas Brockamp, Uli Schmucker, Rolf Lefering, Manuel Mutschler, Arne Driessen, Christian Probst, Bertil Bouillon, Paola Koenen
BACKGROUND: Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms...
June 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612093/clinical-trial-design-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#8
Stephen J Balevic, Mara L Becker, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Laura E Schanberg
Randomized clinical trials provide the gold standard evidence base to guide clinical practice. Despite major advances in trial design, pediatric clinical trials are still difficult to perform and pose unique challenges, including the need to consider the impact of developmental changes in trial design. Advances within pediatric rheumatology combined with the need to comply with legislative requirements have driven new approaches to performing pediatric clinical trials such as utilization of large research networks, incorporation of patient and family stakeholders in the planning and implementation of clinical trials, and the development of novel trial designs...
June 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603948/limb-derived-cells-as-a-paradigm-for-engineering-self-assembling-skeletal-tissues
#9
Warnakulasuriya A Fernando, Ioannis Papantoniou, Luis F Mendes, Gabriella Nilsson Hall, Kathleen Bosmans, Wai L Tam, Liliana M Teixeira, Malcolm Moos, Liesbet Geris, Frank P Luyten
Mimicking developmental events has been proposed as a strategy to engineer tissue constructs for regenerative medicine. However, this approach has not yet been investigated for skeletal tissues. Here we demonstrate that ectopic implantation of mouse embryonic day 14.5 long bone anlagen, dissociated into single cells and randomly incorporated in a bioengineered construct, give rise to epiphyseal growth plate like structures, bone, and marrow, which share many morphological and molecular similarities to epiphyseal units that form after transplanting intact long bone anlage, demonstrating substantial robustness and autonomy of complex tissue self-assembly and the overall organogenesis process...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602826/an-alternative-didactic-functional-and-topographic-systematization-of-the-spinal-muscles
#10
Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista, William Paganini Mayer, Ricardo Eustáquio da Silva, Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes, Josemberg da Silva Baptista
Back muscles are commonly described in a topographically-oriented manner without necessarily following morphological criteria. In this manner, non-standard terms may be employed which convey incorrect morphological concepts and demanding more time from both faculty and students to transmit knowledge. We propose a classification system for spinal muscles incorporating morphological concepts with the goal of facilitating knowledge transfer and suggest the term "spinal muscles". Those muscles were systematically divided and classified in seven strata from anterior to posterior: vertebro-appendicular (VA), transversarium (Tr), deep post-transversarium (DPT), middle post-transversarium (MPT), superficial post-transversarium (SPT), deep spino-appendicular (DSA) and superficial spino-appendicular (SSA)...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601181/practical-indication-based-pediatric-nuclear-medicine-studies-update-and-review
#11
REVIEW
Neha S Kwatra, Asha Sarma, Edward Y Lee
Pediatric nuclear medicine imaging presents unique challenges and requires a thorough understanding of the patients' developmental stages and physiology to optimize study protocols. This article provides an overview of the current practice of diagnostic pediatric nuclear medicine, including the common clinical applications and imaging protocol considerations.
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596070/sm%C3%A2-sm-the-interface-of-systems-medicine-and-sexual-medicine-for-facing-non-communicable-diseases-in-a-gender-dependent-manner
#12
REVIEW
Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Complex non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disorders, are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The complexity of NCDs requires innovative, integrated, and interdisciplinary approaches for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention by adopting the new paradigm called systems medicine. A growing body of evidence suggests that sexual dysfunction in general and erectile and lubrication dysfunctions in particular are, in a sex-dependent manner, efficient predictors of overall systemic well-being...
June 5, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587331/directly-reprogramming-fibroblasts-into-adipogenic-neurogenic-and-hepatogenic-differentiation-lineages-by-defined-factors
#13
Wei Wu, Yu-Qing Jin, Zhen Gao
The reprogramming of adult cells into pluripotent cells or directly into alternative adult cell types represents a great potential technology for regenerative medicine. In the present study, the potential of key developmental adipogenic, neurogenic and hepatogenic regulators to reprogram human fibroblasts into adipocytes, neurocytes and hepatocytes was investigated. The results demonstrated that direct reprogramming of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β activated C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression, inducing the conversion of fibroblasts into adipocytes...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577266/reimagining-childhood-responding-to-the-challenge-presented-by-severe-developmental-disability
#14
Erica K Salter
Through an exploration of the experience of severe and profound intellectual disability, this essay will attempt to expose the predominant, yet usually obscured, medical anthropology of the child and examine its effects on pediatric bioethics. I will argue that both modern western society and modern western medicine do, actually, have a robust notion of the child, a notion which can find its roots in three influential thinkers: Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Jean Piaget. Together, these philosophers offer us a compelling vision: the child is primarily a future rational, autonomous adult...
June 2, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574172/prevention-of-hip-displacement-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Stacey D Miller, Maria Juricic, Kim Hesketh, Lynore Mclean, Sonja Magnuson, Sherylin Gasior, Emily Schaeffer, Maureen O'donnell, Kishore Mulpuri
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and evaluate the quality of evidence for interventions to prevent hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic review was performed using American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology. Searches were completed in seven electronic databases. Studies were included if participants had CP and the effectiveness of the intervention was reported using a radiological measure...
June 2, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554505/long-term-stability-of-oligo-dt-25-magnetic-beads-for-the-expression-analysis-of-euglena-gracilis-for-long-term-space-projects
#16
Ina Becker, Sebastian M Strauch, Jens Hauslage, Michael Lebert
The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis has a highly developed sensory system. The cells use different stimuli such as light and gravity to orient themselves in the surrounding medium to find areas for optimal growth. Due to the ability to produce oxygen and consume carbon dioxide, Euglena is a suitable candidate for life support systems. Participation in a long-term space experiment would allow for the analysis of changes and adaptations to the new environment, and this could bring new insights into the mechanism of perception of gravity and the associated signal transduction chain...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552232/pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-transplantation-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
Meng Li, Anne E Rosser
Pluripotent stem cells present a potentially unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine, providing that they can be efficiently and accurately differentiated to the target cell type. The principle target cell for Huntington's disease is the striatal medium spiny neuron. In this chapter, we review strategies for directing medium spiny neuron differentiation, based on known developmental principles, and we discuss the remaining hurdles on the road to engineering such cells for therapeutic application in Huntington's disease...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549545/developmental-and-internal-validation-of-a-novel-13-loci-str-multiplex-method-for-cannabis-sativa-dna-profiling
#18
Rachel Houston, Matthew Birck, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546680/the-impact-of-the-yogic-lifestyle-on-cancer-prognosis-and-survival-can-we-target-cancer-stem-cells-with-yoga
#19
Kavita Beri
Cancer has recently been known to originate from stem cell-like cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Their unique properties of self-duplication, multiplication, as well as migration give the CSC resistance over conventional cancer therapies. Newer therapies are in developmental stage to target these stem cell-like populations and become the vanguard of future treatments. Several complementary and alternative treatments have been used in cancer management as an adjunct to conventional therapy to improve the overall quality of life and reduce recurrence...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540549/the-association-between-air-pollutants-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Chunyan Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Kui Deng, Vanessa Zhou, Xiaohua Zhou, Yan Hou
Autism spectrum disorders are a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) that have been increasing dramatically since described by Leo Kanner in 1943. In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing air pollution exposures and autism has grown correspondingly, but the association is still unclear. Whether air pollutants play a causal role and which substances are related with autism requires further study. We systematically reviewed the literature from 2005 to 2016 in MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), Web of Science, and PubMed and summarized the association between different air pollutants and autism...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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