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Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Seung Jae Lee, Eun-Mi Jeong, Ah Young Ki, Kyung-Seo Oh, Joseph Kwon, Jae-Hyuk Jeong, Nam-Jin Chung
High salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects the growth and development of plants. This type of stress can influence flowering, the production of crops, defense mechanisms and other physiological processes. Previous studies have attempted to elucidate salt-tolerance mechanisms to improve plant growth and productivity in the presence of sodium chloride. One such plant that has been studied in detail is Salicornia, a well-known halophyte, which has adapted to grow in the presence of high salt. To further the understanding of how Salicornia grows and develops under high saline conditions, Salicornia herbacea (S...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Chao Wang, Lin Yu, Yilan Li, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Qingmao Hu, Yuping Ning, Tianzi Jiang, Jinping Xu, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Antti Kujansuu, Simo Rautiainen, Helinä Hakko, Juha Kanamüller, Niina Sihvola, Pirkko Riipinen
Relatively little is known about fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVA) involving drivers with psychiatric disorders. In this study of all drivers killed in FMVAs in Finland between 1990 and 2011, we aimed to study drivers' death rate trends in FMVAs, with special focus on drivers with a history of psychiatric disorders. Prevalence of drivers' hospital treated psychiatric disorders, and characteristics of drivers with psychiatric disorders were also studied. For the purpose of this study, three national registers were accessed...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Poul Jennum, Anne Sabers, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery has been a standard treatment for refractory epilepsies that cannot be controlled by standard medical treatment. We aimed to evaluate the health and social consequences of resective surgery relative to controls from a study of national data. METHODS: Using the Danish National Patient Registry we identified all subjects with an epilepsy diagnosis between 1996 and 2009 and compared them with a group of patients with an epilepsy diagnosis who had had neither epilepsy surgery nor a vagus stimulation diagnosis by the index date, and who were matched by gender, index year for epilepsy diagnosis, and index year for epilepsy surgery...
October 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Qian Gao, Weixiao Chen, Yin Chen, David Werner, Gerard Cornelissen, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao, Xilong Wang
The ability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to remove a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX100), an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulonate (SDBS), and a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) from the aqueous phase was investigated. Untreated, OH-, and COOH-functionalized MWCNTs with different outer diameters and chemical composition were examined and compared. As both the concentrations of surfactants and MWCNTs initially added may affect removal efficiency of surfactants, a relationship between the initial concentration ratio of surfactants and MWCNTs (Rc) and the removal efficiency (E) was established...
October 11, 2016: Water Research
Esra Özdil Demiryürek, Atilla Tekin, Engin Çakmak, Osman Temizkan, Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu, Sibel Gökova, Enes Demiryürek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anger, impulsiveness, and biochemical parameters (testosterone, insulin, insulin resistance) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited 84 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric interviews were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory were also administered to each participant...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Kelly Adamson, Lois Jackson, Jacqueline Gahagan
A complex array of intersecting social contextual factors are known to influence safer and/or unsafe practices among people who inject drugs. However, less is known about the social contextual factors that may specifically influence injection practices for young people who inject drugs. In this qualitative study, we explored with young people, ages 18-29, living in an urban centre in Nova Scotia, Canada, their perceptions and experiences of the social contextual factors that influence their safer and/or unsafe injection practices...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Daniel J Southwell, Shane A Petersen, Tyson A C Beach, Ryan B Graham
Altering footwear worn during performance of the barbell back squat has been shown to change motion patterns, but it is not completely understood how this affects biomechanical loading demands. The primary objective was to compare lower back and extremity net joint moments in 24 experienced weightlifters (12M, 12F) who performed 80% one-repetition maximum back squats under three different footwear conditions (barefoot, running shoes, weightlifting shoes). Results showed that there was a significant main effect of footwear condition on the knee extension moment (p=0...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Elizabeth Hammond, Emma Shu, Karagin Sawchuk, Yvonne Myal, Afshin Raouf, Thomas Klonisch, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch, Etienne Leygue, Sam Kung, Janice Safneck, Michael Mowat, Wayne Xu, Leigh Murphy, Marshall Pitz
BACKGROUND: Few descriptive epidemiological studies on the incidence, treatment and survival can accurately reflect a whole population. Manitoba, Canada has an accurate cancer registry, a drug information program network and a breast screening program since 1995. This combined with a stable population provides true population data that can accurately describe the region. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design all Breast Cancer cases were obtained from 2004-2010 (N=5399) and grouped by Intrinsic sub-type...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Qin Jiang, Xiyue Li, Shanshan Cheng, Yuxiu Gu, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yixi Xie, Yi Cao
We have recently proposed that the interaction between food components and nanoparticles (NPs) should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of NPs. In the present study, we used THP-1 differentiated macrophages as a model for immune cells and investigated the combined toxicity of low levels of palmitate (PA; 10 or 50μM) and ZnO NPs. The results showed that PA especially at 50μM changed the size, Zeta potential and UV-vis spectra of ZnO NPs, indicating a possible coating effect. Up to 32μg/mL ZnO NPs did not significantly affect mitochondrial activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) or release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but significantly impaired lysosomal function as assessed by neutral red uptake assay and acridine orange staining...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Zhenyang Yu, Guohua Sun, Yanjun Liu, Daqiang Yin, Jing Zhang
Trans-generational effects are increasingly used to indicate long-term influences of environmental pollutants. However, such studies can be complex and yield inconclusive results. In this study, the trans-generational effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on Caenorhabditis elegans on lifespan, reproduction and population growth were tested for 7 consecutive generations, which included gestating generation (F0), embryo-exposed generation (F1), germline-exposed generation (F2), the first non-exposed generation (F3) and the three following generations (F4-F6)...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jesse Mez, Jaeyoon Chung, Gyungah Jun, Joshua Kriegel, Alexandra P Bourlas, Richard Sherva, Mark W Logue, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Joseph D Buxbaum, Goldie S Byrd, Paul K Crane, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Denis Evans, M Daniele Fallin, Tatiana Foroud, Alison Goate, Neill R Graff-Radford, Kathleen S Hall, M Ilyas Kamboh, Walter A Kukull, Eric B Larson, Jennifer J Manly, Jonathan L Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Gerard D Schellenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lindsay A Farrer
INTRODUCTION: African Americans' (AAs) late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) genetic risk profile is incompletely understood. Including clinical covariates in genetic analyses using informed conditioning might improve study power. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs employing informed conditioning in 1825 LOAD cases and 3784 cognitively normal controls. We derived a posterior liability conditioned on age, sex, diabetes status, current smoking status, educational attainment, and affection status, with parameters informed by external prevalence information...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Anastasia K Atabekova, Anna V Pankratenko, Svetlana S Makarova, Ekaterina A Lazareva, Robert A Owens, Andrey G Solovyev, Sergey Y Morozov
Human B-cell receptor-associated protein BAP31 (HsBAP31) is the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein involved in protein sorting and transport as well as pro-apoptotic signaling. Plant orthologs of HsBAP31 termed 'plant BAP-like proteins' (PBL proteins) have thus far remained unstudied. Recently, the PBL protein from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPBL) was identified as an interactor of Nt-4/1, a plant protein known to interact with plant virus movement proteins and affect the long-distance transport of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) via the phloem...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
Francesca Rocchi, Margit E Dylla, Peter A Bohlen, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata)...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Teresa V Mitchell
Deafness is known to affect processing of visual motion and information in the visual periphery, as well as the neural substrates for these domains. This study was designed to characterize the effects of early deafness and lifelong sign language use on visual category sensitivity of the N170 event-related potential. Images from nine categories of visual forms including upright faces, inverted faces, and hands were presented to twelve typically hearing adults and twelve adult congenitally deaf signers. Classic N170 category sensitivity was observed in both participant groups, whereby faces elicited larger amplitudes than all other visual categories, and inverted faces elicited larger amplitudes and slower latencies than upright faces...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Henry Maia Peixoto, Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared to the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. METHODS: The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart(™) G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria...
October 22, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Anna Hegsted, Forrest A Wright, SarahBeth Votra, David Pruyne
Formins are regulators of actin filament dynamics. We demonstrate here that two formins, FHOD-1 and EXC-6, are important in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for ovulation, during which actomyosin contractions push a maturing oocyte from the gonad arm into a distensible bag-like organ, the spermatheca. EXC-6, a homolog of the disease-associated mammalian formin INF2, is highly expressed in the spermatheca, where it localizes to cell-cell junctions and to circumferential actin filament bundles. Loss of EXC-6 does not noticeably affect the organization the actin filament bundles, and causes only a very modest increase in the population of junction-associated actin filaments...
October 22, 2016: Cytoskeleton
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
I Schütz-Fuhrmann, J Castañeda, Y Reznik, R Aronson, I Conget, S Liabat, S Runzis, S de Portu, O Cohen
The recent OpT2mise randomized trial compared the efficacy of insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in people with Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels that remained ≥64 mmol/mol (8.0%) despite insulin dose optimization [1,2]. During the initial 6-month randomized phase of the study, pump therapy was shown to produce a significant improvement in glycaemic control and a 20% reduction in total daily insulin dose, compared with MDI therapy [1], and these benefits were sustained during the subsequent 6-month extension phase during which all participants received pump therapy [2]...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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