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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#1
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#2
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#3
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624698/brief-mindfulness-training-de-couples-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-distress-intolerance-on-reactivity-to-and-recovery-from-stress-among-deprived-smokers
#4
Rotem Paz, Ariel Zvielli, Pavel Goldstein, Amit Bernstein
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether mindfulness de-couples the expected anxiogenic effects of distress intolerance on psychological and physiological reactivity to and recovery from an anxiogenic stressor among participants experimentally sensitized to experience distress. METHOD: N = 104 daily smokers underwent 18-hours of biochemically-verified smoking deprivation. Participants were then randomized to a 7-min analogue mindfulness intervention (present moment attention and awareness training; PMAA) or a cope-as-usual control condition; and subsequently exposed to a 2...
June 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622282/towards-a-neurobiological-understanding-of-alexithymia
#5
REVIEW
Nicolás Meza-Concha, Marcelo Arancibia, Felicia Salas, Rosa Behar, Germán Salas, Hernán Silva, Rocío Escobar
Although the specialized literature on the etiology of alexithymia is controversial, neurobiological research has shown relevant advances. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence regarding the neurophysiological bases of alexithymia. A comprehensive review of available articles from Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and SciELO was conducted. Previously, alexithymia was linked to a reduced interhemispheric brain connection. From a childhood traumatic perspective, the right prefrontal cortex and the default mode network would experience alterations, first hypermetabolic (dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysregulation) and then hypometabolic-dissociative (serotonergic and opioid dysregulation), resulting in a distorted interoceptive and emotional awareness...
May 29, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620226/anger-provocation-in-violent-offenders-leads-to-emotion-dysregulation
#6
Franca Tonnaer, Nicolette Siep, Linda van Zutphen, Arnoud Arntz, Maaike Cima
Anger and anger regulation problems that result in aggressive behaviour pose a serious problem for society. In this study we investigated differences in brain responses during anger provocation or anger engagement, as well as anger regulation or distraction from anger, and compared 16 male violent offenders to 18 non-offender controls. During an fMRI adapted provocation and regulation task participants were presented with angry, happy and neutral scenarios. Prior research on violent offenders indicates that a combination of increased limbic activity (involved in emotion), along with decreased prefrontal activity (involved in emotion regulation), is associated with reactive aggression...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619247/childhood-maltreatment-severity-is-associated-with-elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-body-mass-index-in-adult-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-diagnoses
#7
Monica Aas, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Eva Hoseth, Ragni Mørch, Elina Reponen, Nils Eiel Steen, Jannicke F Anderssen, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (<50 participants), and the severity of abuse and the putative influence of body mass index (BMI) have not been properly investigated. METHODS: The combined effects of childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs)...
June 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618856/psychosocial-stress-and-brain-function-in-adolescent-psychopathology
#8
Erin Burke Quinlan, Anna Cattrell, Tianye Jia, Eric Artiges, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Rüdiger Brühl, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivieres, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar, Francesca Happé, Eva Loth, Edward D Barker, Gunter Schumann
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships. METHOD: Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616394/new-method-of-sudomotor-function-measurement-to-detect-microvascular-disease-and-sweat-gland-nerve-or-unmyelinated-c-fiber-dysfunction-in-adults-with-retinopathy
#9
John E Lewis, Steven E Atlas, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Laura Lantigua, Oscar L Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Lianette Laria, Renata Picciani, Ken Wals, Zohar Yehoshua, Armando Mendez, Janet Konefal, Sharon Goldberg, Judi Woolger
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612962/amygdalar-expression-of-the-microrna-mir-101a-and-its-target-ezh2-contribute-to-rodent-anxiety-like-behavior
#10
Joshua L Cohen, Nateka L Jackson, Mary E Ballestas, William M Webb, Farah D Lubin, Sarah M Clinton
A greater understanding of neural mechanisms contributing to anxiety is needed in order to develop better therapeutic interventions. The current study interrogates a novel molecular mechanism that shapes anxiety-like behavior, demonstrating that the microRNA miR-101a-3p and its target, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) in the amygdala, contribute to rodent anxiety-like behavior. We utilized rats that were selectively-bred for differences in emotionality and stress reactivity, showing that high novelty responding (HR) rats, which display low trait anxiety, have lower miR-101a-3p levels in the amygdala compared to low novelty responding (LR) rats that characteristically display high trait anxiety...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611713/assessing-empathy-across-childhood-and-adolescence-validation-of-the-empathy-questionnaire-for-children-and-adolescents-emque-ca
#11
Sandy Overgaauw, Carolien Rieffe, Evelien Broekhof, Eveline A Crone, Berna Güroğlu
Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10-15 year olds) completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA) that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Principal Components Analysis, which was directly tested with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, confirmed the proposed three-factor model resulting in 14 final items...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611608/coping-style-modifies-general-and-affective-autonomic-reactions-of-domestic-pigs-in-different-behavioral-contexts
#12
Annika Krause, Birger Puppe, Jan Langbein
Based on individual adaptive strategies (coping), animals may react differently to environmental challenges in terms of behavior and physiology according to their emotional perception. Emotional valence as well as arousal may be derived by measuring vagal and sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We investigated the situation-dependent autonomic response of 16 domestic pigs with either a reactive or a proactive coping style, previously selected according to the backtest which is accepted in piglets to assess escape behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605043/typical-angina-is-associated-with-greater-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-but-not-abnormal-vasodilatory-reserve
#13
Ahmed AlBadri, Derek Leong, C Noel Bairey Merz, Janet Wei, Eileen M Handberg, Chrisandra L Shufelt, Puja K Mehta, Michael D Nelson, Louise E Thomson, Daniel S Berman, Leslee J Shaw, Galen Cook-Wiens, Carl J Pepine
BACKGROUND: Typical angina (TA) is defined as substernal chest pain precipitated by physical exertion or emotional stress and relieved with rest or nitroglycerin. Women and elderly patients are usually have atypical symptoms both at rest and during stress, often in the setting of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). HYPOTHESIS: To further understand this, we performed subgroup analysis comparing subjects who presented with TA vs nontypical angina (NTA) using baseline data of patients with nonobstructive CAD and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) enrolled in a clinical trial...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604037/attentional-bias-and-its-association-with-anxious-mood-dynamics
#14
Yudai Iijima, Keisuke Takano, Yoshihiko Tanno
Attentional bias toward threatening stimuli is recognized as 1 of the most important cognitive vulnerability factors for anxiety. However, the association between anxious attention and negative moods has not been fully elucidated, particularly in terms of the effect of such bias on mood fluctuations in daily life. We examined the associations between attentional bias and emotional dynamics under a daily life setting. Participants (46 university students) completed the dot-probe task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 6-day experience sampling measurement to assess temporal fluctuations of momentary levels of anxious mood and occurrence of stressful events...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604035/contrasting-reactive-and-proactive-control-of-emotional-distraction
#15
Gina M Grimshaw, Laura S Kranz, David Carmel, Rosie E Moody, Christel Devue
Attending to emotional stimuli is often beneficial, because they provide important social and environmental cues. Sometimes, however, current goals require that we ignore them. To what extent can we control emotional distraction? Here we show that the ability to ignore emotional distractions depends on the type of cognitive control that is engaged. Participants completed a simple perceptual task at fixation while irrelevant images appeared peripherally. In 2 experiments, we manipulated the proportion of trials in which images appeared, to encourage use of either reactive control (rare distractors) or proactive control (frequent distractors)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601928/association-of-islamic-prayer-with-psychological-stability-in-bosnian-war-veterans
#16
Izet Pajević, Osman Sinanović, Mevludin Hasanović
To compare the outcomes among war veterans who pray/do not pray and who were not suffering mental disorders after the Bosnia-Herzegovina war (1992-95). The sample consists of 100 healthy Bosnian war veterans divided in two equal groups-one, a highly religious group inside which were individuals who perform five obligatory prayers every day, and another group of individuals who do not practice any daily prayer. We used Minnesota Multiphase Personal Inventory (MMPI), Profile Index of Emotions (PIE) and Life Style Questionnaire (LSQ)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600152/computational-reproducibility-of-goal-relevance-and-goal-conduciveness-appraisals-lead-to-differential-autonomic-reactivity-in-emotional-responding-to-performance-feedback-kreibig-gendolla-scherer-2012-a-guide-and-new-evidence
#17
Sylvia D Kreibig
The emerging field of the psychophysiology of motivation bears many new findings, but little replication. Using my own data (Kreibig, Gendolla, & Scherer, 2012), I test the reproducibility of this specific study, provide the necessary materials to make the study reproducible, and instantiate proper reproducibility practices that other researchers can use as a road map toward the same goal. In addition, based on re-analyses of the original data, I report new evidence for the motivational effects of emotional responding to performance feedback...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599212/dose-related-effects-of-delta-9-thc-on-emotional-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress
#18
Emma Childs, Joseph A Lutz, Harriet de Wit
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis smokers often report that they use the drug to relax or to relieve emotional stress. However, few clinical studies have shown evidence of the stress-relieving effects of cannabis or cannabinoid agonists. In this study, we sought to assess the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a main active ingredient of cannabis, upon emotional responses to an acute psychosocial stressor among healthy young adults. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (N=42) participated in two experimental sessions, one with psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and another with a non-stressful task, after receiving 0 (N=13), 7...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599192/psychophysiological-and-self-reported-reactivity-associated-with-social-anxiety-and-public-speaking-fear-symptoms-effects-of-fear-versus-distress
#19
Georgia Panayiotou, Maria Karekla, Dora Georgiou, Elena Constantinou, Michaela Paraskeva-Siamata
This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness...
June 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590541/a-conceptual-model-and-clinical-framework-for-integrating-mindfulness-into-family-therapy-with-adolescents
#20
Janet L Brody, David G Scherer, Charles W Turner, Robert D Annett, Jeanne Dalen
Individual and group-based psychotherapeutic interventions increasingly incorporate mindfulness-based principles and practices. These practices include a versatile set of skills such as labeling and attending to present-moment experiences, acting with awareness, and avoiding automatic reactivity. A primary motivation for integrating mindfulness into these therapies is compelling evidence that it enhances emotion regulation. Research also demonstrates that family relationships have a profound influence on emotion regulation capacities, which are central to family functioning and prosocial behavior more broadly...
June 7, 2017: Family Process
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