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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334441/flexible-parasympathetic-responses-to-sadness-facilitate-spontaneous-affect-regulation
#1
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331323/bipolar-disorder-recurrence-prevention-using-self-monitoring-daily-mood-charts-case-reports-from-a-5-year-period
#2
Norio Yasui-Furukori, Kazuhiko Nakamura
Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329860/modeling-intraindividual-dynamics-using-stochastic-differential-equations-age-differences-in-affect-regulation
#3
Julie Wood, Zita Oravecz, Nina Vogel, Lizbeth Benson, Sy-Miin Chow, Pamela Cole, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus, Nilam Ram
Objectives: Life-span theories of aging suggest improvements and decrements in individuals' ability to regulate affect. Dynamic process models, with intensive longitudinal data, provide new opportunities to articulate specific theories about individual differences in intraindividual dynamics. This paper illustrates a method for operationalizing affect dynamics using a multilevel stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, and examines how those dynamics differ with age and trait-level tendencies to deploy emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and suppression)...
March 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323517/differences-in-adolescent-emotion-regulation-and-impulsivity-a-group-comparison-study-of-school-based-recovery-students
#4
Beth S Russell, Anne Thompson Heller, Morica Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) vary in organization and operating philosophy, but are designed to support the unique needs of students struggling with substance use disorders (SUD). Previous research on youth risk taking behaviors suggests emotion regulation is a key predictor of outcomes. Specifically, the ability to respond in adaptive rather than maladaptive ways is often associated with challenges of impulsivity, poor distress tolerance, and adolescent substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study considers data from RHS students in order to answer research questions concerning impulsivity and emotion regulation of youth working to change their risk trajectories in comparison to group of typically developing youth...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322986/differentiating-motivational-from-affective-influence-of-performance-contingent-reward-on-cognitive-control-the-wanting-component-enhances-both-proactive-and-reactive-control
#5
Anne-Clémence Chaillou, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Anne Bonnefond
Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322912/maternal-prenatal-cortisol-predicts-infant-negative-emotionality-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#6
Elizabeth C Braithwaite, Andrew Pickles, Helen Sharp, Vivette Glover, Kieran J O'Donnell, Jonathan Hill
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk...
March 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317113/temperamental-markers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Suzanne L Macari, Judah Koller, Daniel J Campbell, Katarzyna Chawarska
BACKGROUND: Although temperament has been recognized as an important contributor to childhood psychopathology, its role in emergent autism spectrum phenotypes is not well understood. This study examined whether toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display temperamental vulnerabilities compared to toddlers with other developmental challenges, whether these characteristics are distinct from core autism symptoms, if they are stable over time, and if they contribute to social outcomes in preschool...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315609/the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-device-potentiates-stress-reactivity
#8
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Yolanda B De Rijke, Christian G Bouwkamp, Mark van der Kroeg, Mirjam Timmermans, Vincent L Wester, Veerle Bergink, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Cornelis G Kooiman, Steven A Kushner
BACKGROUND: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is currently recommended as a first-line contraceptive with an exclusively local intrauterine influence. However, recent clinical trials have identified side effects of LNG-IUD that appear to be systemically mediated, including depressed mood and emotional lability. METHODS: We performed two experimental studies and a cross-sectional study. For each study, women were included from three groups: LNG-IUD (0...
February 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#9
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a non-phagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was up-regulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306130/brain-connectivity-is-altered-by-extreme-physical-exercise-during-non-rem-sleep-and-wakefulness-indications-from-eeg-and-fmri-studies
#10
D Menicucci, C Gentili, A Piarulli, M Laurino, S Pellegrini, F Mastorci, R Bedini, D Montanaro, L Sebastiani, A Gemignani
Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, cytokines) associated to the exercise are involved. In this pilot study, we used extreme exercise (UltraTriathlon) as a model to investigate physical-activity-related changes of brain connectivity. We studied post-race brain synchronization during wakefulness and sleep as well as possible correlations between exercise-related cytokines/hormones and synchronization features...
December 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#11
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290062/understanding-negative-self-evaluations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-review-of-self-related-cognitions-emotions-and-motives
#12
REVIEW
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288545/chronic-overexpression-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-rats-reduces-cardiac-reactivity-to-acute-stress-and-dampens-anxious-behavior
#13
Danielle Moura Santos, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Marcelo Limborço-Filho, Marilene Luzia de Oliveira, Daniele Hamamoto, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Fabrício Araújo Moreira, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts as a pro-stress hormone, while other evidence indicates that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] attenuates physiological responses to emotional stress. To further test this hypothesis, in groups of 5-6 rats we evaluated autonomic, cardiovascular and behavioral parameters in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and transgenic TGR(A1-7)3292 (TG) rats chronically overexpressing Ang-(1-7). Compared to SD rats, TG rats showed reduced baseline heart rate (HR; SD 380 ± 16 versus TG 329 ± 9 beats per minute (bpm), mean ± standard error of mean, p < ...
March 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287751/salivary-cytokine-response-in-the-aftermath-of-stress-an-emotion-regulation-perspective
#14
Tamara L Newton, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Keith B Lyle, Yvette Z Szabo, James J Miller, Ashlee J Warnecke
Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio...
March 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287585/psychophysiological-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-childhood
#15
Elizabeth L Davis, Parisa Parsafar, Laura E Quiñones-Camacho, Emily W Shih
Effective regulation of emotion is one of the most important skills that develops in childhood. Research interest in this area is expanding, but empirical work has been limited by predominantly correlational investigations of children's skills. Relatedly, a key conceptual challenge for emotion scientists is to distinguish between emotion responding and emotion regulatory processes. This paper presents a novel method to address these conceptual and methodological issues in child samples. An experimental paradigm that assesses the effectiveness with which children regulate emotion is described...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285242/psychophysiological-correlates-of-emotion-regulation-training-in-adolescent-anxiety-evidence-from-the-novel-pier-task
#16
Nele A J De Witte, Stefan Sütterlin, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the leading cause of mental illness in adolescence. While anxious adolescents show impairments in emotion processing and deficits in emotion regulation, few studies have attempted to improve emotion regulation within these populations. METHOD: This study used a multi-method design to test a newly developed emotion regulation training aimed at improving insight into emotions and instructing cognitive reappraisal. The efficacy of cognitive reappraisal was investigated in 27 clinically anxious youth (Age: M=12...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284344/are-there-early-inflammatory-biomarkers-that-affect-neurodevelopment-in-infancy
#17
Núria Voltas, Victoria Arija, Carmen Hernández-Martínez, Rosa Jiménez-Feijoo, Natàlia Ferré, Josefa Canals
Few studies have investigated the relationship between post-natal inflammatory biomarkers at early age and child neurodevelopment outcomes. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4 cytokines, as well as cortisol at 6 and 12months of age, and neurodevelopment and psychological problems at 30months of age. The study was conducted on a sample of 51 full-term newborns who were followed up at 6, 12, and 30months of age. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, psychological problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281919/retraumatization-mediates-the-effect-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-on-clinical-training-related-secondary-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#18
Lisa D Butler, Eugene Maguin, Janice Carello
Previous research (AuthorCitation1) has found that exposure to trauma-related material in graduate clinical coursework and field training can put students at risk for reactivations of feelings/memories from negative past experiences (retraumatization) and for secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present report sought to examine the role, if any, of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in these outcomes. Using the AuthorCitaiton2 sample, we examined: (1) rates of ACEs in 195 graduate social work students, (2) whether the total number of ACEs was associated with training-related retraumatization (TRT) and/or STS symptoms, and (3) if TRT mediated the relationship between ACEs and STS symptoms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281909/positive-association-of-personal-distress-with-testosterone-in-opiate-addicted-patients
#19
Katrin Stange, Mathias Krüger, Eva Janke, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Annemarie Heberlein
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies report that substance addictions are associated with sociocognitive impairments. Regarding opiate addicted patients, the few existing studies point to deficits regarding empathic abilities. Previous research suggests that testosterone might be a relevant biomarker of these impairments. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether opiate addicted patients show specific impairments in emotional (empathic concern, personal distress) and cognitive empathy compared to healthy controls...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279916/amygdala-reactivity-predicts-adolescent-antisocial-behavior-but-not-callous-unemotional-traits
#20
Hailey L Dotterer, Luke W Hyde, Johnna R Swartz, Ahmad R Hariri, Douglas E Williamson
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11-15; 49...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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