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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432534/individual-differences-in-adolescents-emotional-reactivity-across-relationship-contexts
#1
Emily C Cook, Bethany L Blair, Cheryl Buehler
Understanding individual differences in adolescents' ability to regulate emotions within interpersonal relationships is paramount for healthy development. Thus, the effect of individual vulnerabilities (depressive affect, social anxiety, self-blame, and coping efficacy problems) on the transmission of emotional reactivity in response to conflict from family to peers (friends and romantic partners) was prospectively examined across six waves of data in a community-based sample of 416 adolescents (Mage Wave 1 = 11...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432376/mdma-does-not-alter-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test-in-humans
#2
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420008/c-reactive-protein-and-cold-pressor-tolerance-in-the-general-population-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#3
Elina Iordanova Schistad, Audun Stubhaug, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Bo Lars Engdahl, Christopher Sivert Nielsen
The aim of this study was to examine whether increases in severity of subclinical inflammation, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased experimental pain sensitivity, measured by cold-pressor tolerance, and to test whether this relationship is independent of chronic pain. A large population-based study from 2007 to 2008, the sixth Tromsø Study, provided data from 12,981 participants. For the present analysis, complete data for 10,274 participants (age: median 58 years) were available...
March 31, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#4
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419170/evaluation-of-the-relative-efficacy-of-a-couple-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-cbt-for-premenstrual-disorders-pmds-in-comparison-to-one-to-one-cbt-and-a-wait-list-control-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
DESIGN: A randomised control trial (RCT) was conducted to examine the efficacy of couple-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for Premenstrual Disorders (PMDs), in comparison to one-to-one CBT and a wait-list control. METHODS: Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative outcome measures evaluated changes pre-post intervention. Eighty three women were randomly allocated across three conditions, with 63 completing post-intervention measures, a retention rate of 76%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414470/association-between-lateral-bias-and-personality-traits-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#6
Shanis Barnard, Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan
Behavioral laterality reflects the cerebral functional asymmetry. Measures of laterality have been associated with emotional stress, problem-solving, and personality in some vertebrate species. Thus far, the association between laterality and personality in the domestic dog has been largely overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether lateralized (left or right) and ambilateral dogs differed in their behavioral response to a standardized personality test. The dog's preferred paw to hold a Kong ball filled with food and the first paw used to step-off from a standing position were scored as laterality measures...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412510/empathy-networks-in-the-parental-brain-and-their-long-term-effects-on-children-s-stress-reactivity-and-behavior-adaptation
#7
Eyal Abraham, Gal Raz, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Parental empathy is a key component of sensitive parenting that supports children's social adaptation throughout life. Consistent with a two dissociable network perspective on empathy, we measured within- and between-network integrity of two empathy-related networks in the parental brain as predictors of children's social outcomes across the first six years of life. We focused on two empathy networks; embodied simulation, which supports parents' capacity to resonate with infant state and emotions and implicates cingulo-insulary structures, and mentalizing, which underpins parents' theory-of-mind and mental attributions via prefrontal-temporo-parietal circuit...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411105/long-term-cognitive-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-in-surgically-treated-low-grade-glioma-patients
#8
Fabio Campanella, Alvisa Palese, Fabio Del Missier, Renzo Moreale, Tamara Ius, Tim Shallice, Franco Fabbro, Miran Skrap
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of Low Grade Gliomas (LGG) and their surgery on patients' cognitive and emotional functioning and well-being, carried out via a comprehensive and multiple-measure psychological and neuropsychological assessment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty surgically treated LGG patients were evaluated 40 months after surgery on their functioning over six different cognitive domains, three core affective/emotional aspects, and three different psychological well-being measures to obtain a clearer picture of the long-term impact of illness and surgery on their psychological and relational world...
April 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410335/experiences-of-oncology-and-palliative-care-nurses-when-supporting-parents-who-have-cancer-and-dependent-children
#9
Anne Arber, Anki Odelius
BACKGROUND: It is important not to ignore the impact of parental cancer on children, and this is where oncology and palliative care nurses can play a key role, providing support to parents as a regular aspect of oncological nursing care. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the experience, needs, and confidence of nurses working in acute cancer services when supporting parents with cancer who have dependent children. METHODS: Two focus group interviews were conducted with oncology and palliative care nurses in 1 acute hospital trust in the south of England...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410153/the-cognitive-dysregulation-of-internet-addiction-and-its-neurobiological-correlates
#10
Yeon Jin Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Individuals with Internet addiction (IA) show loss of control and recurring maladaptive Internet use. This condition has negative consequences and causes significant psychosocial distress. Here, we review neurobiological changes in four key paradigms in cognitive domain in IA including reward processing, impulsivity, cue reactivity, and decision-making. IA is associated with alterations in prefrontal-cingulate region activation during the inhibition of inappropriate responses. Such patterns are also observed in cue-reactivity paradigm tasks, suggesting a relationship with loss of control and deficits in the control of cue-eliciting behavior...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401835/brain-activity-and-infant-attachment-history-in-young-men-during-loss-and-reward-processing
#11
Karina Quevedo, Theodore E A Waters, Hannah Scott, Glenn I Roisman, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes
There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan)...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399150/determinants-of-aggressive-behavior-interactive-effects-of-emotional-regulation-and-inhibitory-control
#12
I-Ju Hsieh, Yung Y Chen
Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males) completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398588/electrical-stimulation-reduces-smokers-craving-by-modulating-the-coupling-between-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-parahippocampal-gyrus
#13
Li-Zhuang Yang, Bin Shi, Hai Li, Ying Liu, Wei Zhang, Ying Wang, Wanwan Lv, Xuebing Ji, Justin Hudak, Yifeng Zhou, Andreas J Fallgatter, Xiaochu Zhang
Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. The present study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared to sham stimulation...
April 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397635/effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-amygdala-function-in-major-depression-a-longitudinal-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
R Redlich, C Bürger, K Dohm, D Grotegerd, N Opel, D Zaremba, S Meinert, K Förster, J Repple, R Schnelle, C Wagenknecht, M Zavorotnyy, W Heindel, H Kugel, M Gerbaulet, J Alferink, V Arolt, P Zwanzger, U Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, little is known regarding brain functional processes mediating ECT effects. METHOD: In a non-randomized prospective study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the automatic processing of subliminally presented emotional faces were obtained twice, about 6 weeks apart, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment with ECT (ECT, n = 24)...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397610/the-mediating-roles-of-cortisol-reactivity-and-executive-functioning-difficulties-in-the-pathways-between-childhood-histories-of-emotional-insecurity-and-adolescent-school-problems
#15
Meredith J Martin, Patrick T Davies, E Mark Cummings, Dante Cicchetti
This study tested a hypothesized cascade in which children's insecure representations of the interparental relationship increase their school problems by altering children's cortisol reactivity to stress and their executive functioning. Participants included 235 families. The first of five measurement occasions occurred when the children were in kindergarten (M age = 6 years), and they were followed through the transition to high school. The results indicated that children's histories of insecure representations of the interparental relationship during the early school years were associated with executive functioning difficulties in adolescence (M age = 14 years)...
April 11, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397544/emotion-regulation-and-biological-stress-responding-associations-with-worry-rumination-and-reappraisal
#16
Elizabeth J Lewis, K Lira Yoon, Jutta Joormann
Individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies may play a critical role in understanding psychological and biological stress reactivity and recovery in depression and anxiety. This study investigated the relation between the habitual use of different emotion regulation strategies and cortisol reactivity and recovery in healthy control individuals (CTL; n = 33) and in individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 41). The tendency to worry was associated with increased cortisol reactivity to a stressor across the full sample...
April 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396407/life-skills-wealth-health-and-wellbeing-in-later-life
#17
Andrew Steptoe, Jane Wardle
Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills-conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism-in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the number of skills is associated with wealth, income, subjective wellbeing, less depression, low social isolation and loneliness, more close relationships, better self-rated health, fewer chronic diseases and impaired activities of daily living, faster walking speed, and favorable objective biomarkers (concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D and C-reactive protein, and less central obesity)...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394227/ribosomal-p-antibody-30-years-on-the-road
#18
V T Viana, L Durcan, E Bonfa, K B Elkon
The identity of the protein antigens targeted by anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in lupus was discovered 30 years ago. These antigens are three acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins, P0, P1, and P2. Precise identification of the shared epitope on these three proteins enabled sensitive and specific immunoassays to be developed. Anti-P antibodies are highly specific for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and occur in 15%-35% of patients, depending on ethnicity as well as the age of onset. Increased frequencies of detection of anti-P have been reported in childhood SLE as well as in neuropsychiatric, renal, and hepatic disease...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393652/meditation-induced-neuroplastic-changes-in-amygdala-activity-during-negative-affective-processing
#19
Mei-Kei Leung, Way K W Lau, Chetwyn C H Chan, Samuel S Y Wong, Annis L C Fung, Tatia M C Lee
Recent evidence suggests that the effects of meditation practice on affective processing and resilience have the potential to induce neuroplastic changes within the amygdala. Notably, literature speculates that meditation training may reduce amygdala activity during negative affective processing. Nonetheless, studies have thus far not verified this speculation. In this longitudinal study, participants (N = 21, 9 men) were trained in awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) or matched relaxation training...
April 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393610/proactive-and-reactive-control-depends-on-emotional-valence-a-stroop-study-with-emotional-expressions-and-words
#20
Bhoomika Rastogi Kar, Narayanan Srinivasan, Yagyima Nehabala, Richa Nigam
We examined proactive and reactive control effects in the context of task-relevant happy, sad, and angry facial expressions on a face-word Stroop task. Participants identified the emotion expressed by a face that contained a congruent or incongruent emotional word (happy/sad/angry). Proactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference (difference between incongruent and congruent trials) as a function of previous trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Reactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference as a function of current trial emotion and previous trial congruence...
April 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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