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Emotional reactivity

Yaling Yang, Shantanu H Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Laura A Baker
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i...
October 21, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Mohammadreza Hojat, Joseph S Gonnella
In their study published in this issue of Academic Medicine, Costa and colleagues confirmed the underlying constructs of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) in medical students. The authors of this Commentary propose that in comparing two instruments that both purport to measure empathy, researchers or test users must pay close attention to the target populations, the conceptualizations of empathy, and the validity evidence in relation to pertinent criterion measures...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Melanie S Fischer, Donald H Baucom, Brian R Baucom, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Jennifer S Kirby, Cynthia M Bulik
Impaired emotion regulation and maladaptive strategies to manage distress are central to psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion regulation can be fostered or thwarted by romantic partners, and the tendency to rely on interpersonally oriented emotion regulation may vary by disorder. This study examined coregulation as a form of interpersonal emotion regulation in OCD and AN. We hypothesized that OCD is associated with exaggerated and AN with diminished coregulation, and that OCD patients have greater overall levels of emotional arousal than AN patients...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Emily Moulton, Kathryn Bradbury, Marianne Barton, Deborah Fein
The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), (Schopler et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 10(1):91-103, 1980) is a 15-item observation-based rating scale that yields a total score reflective of autism symptom severity. This study investigated the factor structure of the CARS in a sample of 2-year-old children with DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, 2000) diagnoses of AD or PDD-NOS. Following a preliminary internal cross-validation, principal axis factor analysis was completed (N = 282)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Alexander J Shackman, Do P M Tromp, Melissa D Stockbridge, Claire M Kaplan, Rachael M Tillman, Andrew S Fox
Dispositional negativity-the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, or enduring negative affect-is a fundamental dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity can have profound consequences for health, wealth, and happiness, drawing the attention of clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the psychological and neurobiological processes linking stable individual differences in dispositional negativity to momentary emotional states...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Ryan J Herringa, Cory A Burghy, Diane E Stodola, Michelle E Fox, Richard J Davidson, Marilyn J Essex
BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Adam M Goodman, Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Sylvie Mrug, Douglas A Granger, David C Knight
Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid's impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
C Laurel Franklin, Jessica L Walton, Lisa-Ann Cuccurullo, Amanda Raines, Jaqueline Ball, Amanda Vaught, Jessica L Chambliss, Kelly P Maieritsch
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition-5 (DSM-5) has adopted a four-factor symptom model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) that includes new symptom additions in criterion D (D2, D3, D4), negative alterations in cognition and mood. This article examines potential overlapping endorsement of these symptoms amongst one another and with the behavioral symptoms within PTSD criterion E (E1 and E3; alterations in arousal and reactivity), through the lenses of cognitive-behavioral theory. Responses of veteran participants (N=320) completing the PTSD Checklist-5 were used to determine overlap in symptom reporting...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Maria A Gartstein, Wolayte Bogale, Courtney L Meehan
Cross-cultural differences in temperament were evaluated for Ethiopian (N=109) and U.S. (N=109) samples of infants. We anticipated that the Sidama version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) developed for use in Ethiopia would demonstrate satisfactory psychometric properties, and hypothesized significant cross-cultural differences in levels of fine-grained temperament characteristics. Interactions between culture, infant age, and sex were also considered. Internal consistency was satisfactory for 13 of the 14 IBQ-R scales (with a somewhat low estimate observed for Duration of Orienting), and an examination of the structure indicated patterns similar to those observed in the US, and elsewhere...
October 6, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Patrick Gomez, Armin von Gunten, Brigitta Danuser
In the present study, we examined how sex and age shape cardiovascular, electrodermal, and pupillary reactivity to picture series within the valence-arousal affective space in a sample of 176 healthy younger, middle-aged, and older men and women. Across participants, heart rate (HR) decelerated with increasing self-reported unpleasantness, whereas skin conductance level (SCL) and pupil size (PS) increased with increasing self-rated arousal. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure increased with increasing self-rated arousal when valence was pleasant but much less when valence was unpleasant...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Pascale Gisquet-Verrier, Daniel Tolédano, Claire Le Dorze
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and addiction to drugs of abuse are two common diseases, showing high comorbidity rates. This review presents a number of evidence showing similarities between these two pathologies, especially the hyper-responsiveness to environmental cues inducing a reactivation of the target memory leading either to re-experiencing (PTSD), or drug craving. Accordingly, PTSD and addiction to drug of abuse might by considered as memory pathologies, underlined by the same physiological process...
September 15, 2016: Thérapie
Rowena Ng, Ursula Bellugi, Anna Järvinen
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an unusual "hypersocial" personality juxtaposed by high anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that autonomic reactivity to affective face stimuli is disorganised in WS, which may contribute to emotion dysregulation and/or social disinhibition. METHODS: Electrodermal activity (EDA) and mean interbeat interval (IBI) of 25 participants with WS (19 - 57 years old) and 16 typically developing (TD; 17-43 years old) adults were measured during a passive presentation of affective face and voice stimuli...
October 5, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jill A Rabinowitz, Ijeoma Osigwe, Deborah A G Drabick, Maureen D Reynolds
Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
L John Hoffer, Line Robitaille, Nelda Swinton, Jason Agulnik, Victor Cohen, David Small, Carmela Pepe, Shaun Eintracht
BACKGROUND: Most patients attending cancer clinics have hypovitaminosis D. Correcting or preventing this abnormal condition could mitigate the emotional and physical complications of their disease, but clinical trials of vitamin D therapy in this setting are hindered by the unavailability of safe, effective and practical loading dose regimens. METHODS: In this single arm open-label pharmacokinetic trial, outpatients with advanced lung cancer consumed 20,000 IU vitamin D daily with the largest meal of the day for 14 days followed by 10,000 IU per day for a further 7 days...
October 6, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Michelle E Costanzo, John W VanMeter, Christopher M Janelle, Allen Braun, Matthew W Miller, Jessica Oldham, Bartlett A H Russell, Bradley D Hatfield
Skilled individuals demonstrate a spatially localized or relatively lower response in brain activity characterized as neural efficiency when performing within their domain of expertise. Elite athletes are experts in their chosen sport and thus must be not only adept in the motor domain but must be resilient to performing under the stress of high-level competition. Such stability of performance suggests this population processes emotion and mental stress in an adaptive and efficient manner. This study sought to determine if athletes with a history of successful performance under circumstances of mental stress demonstrate neural efficiency during affective challenges compared to age-matched controls...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
L V Shurygina, E I Zlishcheva, T V Androsova, E A Nemchinova, A N Kravtsova
The effects of potassium comenate on functional state of CNS in mice and rats were studied in the open-field and hole-board tests under control conditions and after acute exposure to hypoxia-hypercapnia. The effects of potassium comenate on CNS were also studied in rodents subjected to propofol-induced sleep. Preliminary administration of 4 mg/kg potassium comenate for 3 days attenuated the posthypoxic changes in behavioral reactions (emotional anxiety/reactivity). The pronounced stress-protective effect of potassium comenate was observed both on days 1 and 14 after exposure to hypoxia-hypercapnia...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Gholam Reza Masoumi, Mohammad Ali Hosseini, Zohreh Parsa-Yekta
BACKGROUND: Since life recovery after disasters is a subjective and multifaceted construct influenced by different factors, and survivors' main concerns and experiences are not clear, the researchers intended to explore this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in 2011 - 2014 based on the grounded theory approach. Participants were selected by purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling to achieve conceptual and theoretical saturation...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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