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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#1
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428507/-opioid-therapy-and-management-of-side-effects-associated-with-opioids
#2
Toshihiko Nakatani
Opioids are very useful medications to reduce suffering of cancer patients such as refractory pain and dyspnea. We physicians have to use opioids to have good management of pain and suffering associated with cancer including management of side effects caused by opioids. Opioids couple opioid receptors and affect several pharmacological effects. Other than analgesic effect, opioids have some side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression. In this chapter, I take important side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression...
April 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402542/positive-affect-predicts-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-late-middle-aged-adults
#3
Christopher Nicholas, Siobhan M Hoscheidt, Lindsay R Clark, Annie M Racine, Sara E Berman, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Sanjay Asthana, Bradley T Christian, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
Positive affect is associated with a number of health benefits; however, few studies have examined the relationship between positive affect and cerebral glucose metabolism, a key energy source for neuronal function and a possible index of brain health. We sought to determine if positive affect was associated with cerebral glucose metabolism in late middle-aged adults (n =134). Participants completed the positive affect subscale of the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) at two time points over a two-year period and underwent FDG-PET scanning...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398102/relationship-of-depression-and-medications-on-incidence-of-falls-among-people-with-late-effects-of-polio
#4
Carolyn P Da Silva, Bianca Zuckerman, Rhoda Olkin
The purpose of this study was to determine if falls in polio survivors, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), are related to number of medications taken, use of anti-depressant or psychoactive medications, or self-report of depression. A survey was sent to 300 members of a regional polio support group, asking them to document their fall history, medications used, and the presence of depression. Depression was measured by self-report and with the Geriatric Depression Scale, short form (GDS-15). One hundred and seventy-two usable surveys were returned with 146 of those completing the medication list...
April 11, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395208/increased-dopamine-receptor-expression-and-anti-depressant-response-following-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle
#5
Manoj P Dandekar, Dustin Luse, Carson Hoffmann, Patrick Cotton, Travis Peery, Christian Ruiz, Caroline Hussey, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Jair C Soares, Joao Quevedo, Albert J Fenoy
BACKGROUND: Among several potential neuroanatomical targets pursued for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), the superolateral-branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is emerging as a privileged location. We investigated the antidepressant-like phenotypic and chemical changes associated with reward-processing dopaminergic systems in rat brains after MFB-DBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, DBS-Off, and DBS-On...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390405/fam-face-sg-a-score-for-risk-stratification-of-frequent-hospital-admitters
#6
Lian Leng Low, Nan Liu, Kheng Hock Lee, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Sijia Wang, Xuan Jing, Julian Thumboo
BACKGROUND: An accurate risk stratification tool is critical in identifying patients who are at high risk of frequent hospital readmissions. While 30-day hospital readmissions have been widely studied, there is increasing interest in identifying potential high-cost users or frequent hospital admitters. In this study, we aimed to derive and validate a risk stratification tool to predict frequent hospital admitters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the readily available clinical and administrative data from the electronic health records of a tertiary hospital in Singapore...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#7
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375605/raman-spectroscopic-signature-markers-of-dopamine-human-dopamine-transporter-interaction-in-living-cells
#8
Achut Prasad Silwal, Rajeev Yadav, Jon E Sprague, H Peter Lu
Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction...
April 4, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369185/lower-likelihood-of-falling-at-age-90-is-associated-with-daily-exercise-a-quarter-of-a-century-earlier-the-90-study
#9
Annlia Paganini-Hill, Dana E Greenia, Shawna Perry, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Claudia H Kawas, Maria M Corrada
Objective: to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. Design: population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). Setting: California retirement community. Participants: of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. Methods: time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s...
March 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359437/theoretical-approaches-to-enhancing-motivation-for-adherence-to-antidepressant-medications
#10
Vanya Hamrin, Vaughn G Sinclair, Virginia Gardner
PROBLEM: Adherence to antidepressants is a major challenge in our health care system, with a high percentage of patients discontinuing their medications within six months. AIMS: The purpose of this position paper is to discuss theoretical frameworks that address the psychological beliefs, benefits and barriers and feelings of autonomy that affect a person's willingness and motivation to take anti-depressant medications within a therapeutic relationship with a nurse practitioner...
April 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357703/refractory-burning-mouth-syndrome-clinical-and-paraclinical-evaluation-comorbiities-treatment-and-outcome
#11
Dimos D Mitsikostas, Srdjan Ljubisavljevic, Christina I Deligianni
BACKGROUND: Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterized by persistent intraoral burning without related objective findings and unknown etiology that affects elderly females mostly. There is no satisfactory treatment for BMS. We aimed to observe the long-term efficacy of high velanfaxine doses combined with systemic and topical administered clonazepam in a particular subgroup of BMS patients who do not respond to current clinical management. RESULTS: Eight (66...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342114/using-parameter-constraints-to-choose-state-structures-in-cost-effectiveness-modelling
#12
Howard Thom, Chris Jackson, Nicky Welton, Linda Sharples
BACKGROUND: This article addresses the choice of state structure in a cost-effectiveness multi-state model. Key model outputs, such as treatment recommendations and prioritisation of future research, may be sensitive to state structure choice. For example, it may be uncertain whether to consider similar disease severities or similar clinical events as the same state or as separate states. Standard statistical methods for comparing models require a common reference dataset but merging states in a model aggregates the data, rendering these methods invalid...
March 24, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318797/early-symptom-trajectories-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-for-citalopram-versus-placebo
#13
Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Steven P Roose, Patrick J Brown, Bret R Rutherford
OBJECTIVES: The high percentage of failed clinical trials for anti-depressant medications, especially in elderly populations, obscures the fact that some patients may benefit greatly from treatment. Early detection of patients who may benefit most from antidepressant medication may improve treatment decisions. We examined whether depressed patients in a large clinical trial exhibit distinct trajectories of early symptom change that predict differential response to medication or placebo...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#14
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300618/the-novel-and-potent-anti-depressive-action-of-triptolide-and-its-influences-on-hippocampal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-comorbidity-of-chronic-pain
#15
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li
Chronic pain and depression frequently coexist in clinical setting, and current clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been demonstrated to exert strong analgesic activities in experimental pain models, but whether it possesses anti-depressive actions remains unknown. Using a depression comorbidity of chronic pain rat model induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we investigated the potency of T10 for the treatment of comorbid depression in comparison with a widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLX)...
March 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293901/diabetes-resolution-and-work-absenteeism-after-gastric-bypass-a-6-year-study
#16
E Jönsson, P Ornstein, H Goine, J L Hedenbro
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases cause costs to society. We studied the cost of work absenteeism before and after gastric bypass and the effects of postoperative diabetes resolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg) (national coverage >98%) and cross-matched with data from the Social insurance Agency (coverage 100%) for the period ±3 years from operation. In 2010, a total of 7454 bariatric surgeries were performed; the study group is 4971 unique individuals with an annual income of >10,750 Euros and complete data sets...
March 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292431/anti-depressant-therapy-brightens-the-outlook-for-prostate-cancer-bone-metastases
#17
Michael D Nyquist, Peter S Nelson
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wu et al. identify MAOA as a key mediator of osteolytic bone responses that involve complex paracrine interactions between tumor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Pharmacological inhibition of MAOA enzymatic activity effectively interrupted osteolysis and metastatic progression in preclinical models, suggesting a new treatment opportunity.
March 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284350/ketamine-upregulates-enos-expression-in-human-astroglial-a172-cells-possible-role-in-its-antidepressive-properties
#18
Yael Yuhas, Shai Ashkenazi, Eva Berent, Abraham Weizman
Ketamine is a potent anti-depressive agent. Nitric oxide plays an essential role in neuronal transmission and cerebral blood flow and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder as well as cardiovascular functioning. We investigated the effect of ketamine on eNOS expression in human A172 astroglial cells. Ketamine (50-500μM) increased eNOS expression at 4-24h in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was mediated by NMDA receptor, Akt inhibition and ERK1/2 activation and was synergistically augmented by rapamycin...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279159/changes-in-prevalence-of-psychotropic-drug-use-and-alcohol-consumption-among-the-elderly-in-germany-results-of-two-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-99-and-2008-11
#19
Ingrid-Katharina Wolf, Yong Du, Hildtraud Knopf
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among older adults need to be monitored over time as their use or combined use bears risks of harms. Representative data on changes in prevalence, patterns and co-relates of substance use are lacking in Germany. METHODS: Participants were older adults (60-79 years) from two German National Health Surveys: 1997-99 (GNHIES98, N = 1,606) and 2008-11 (DEGS1, N = 2,501). Included were drugs acting on the nervous system used during the last 7 days...
March 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229156/protective-effect-of-isoliquiritin-against-corticosterone-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#20
Yu-Zhi Zhou, Xiao Li, Wen-Xia Gong, Jun-Sheng Tian, Xiao-Xia Gao, Li Gao, Xiang Zhang, Guan-Hua Du, Xue-Mei Qin
Isoliquiritin, a flavonoid glycoside compound from licorice, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-depression activities. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of antidepressant effects remain unclear. In this study, the aim was to investigate the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of isoliquiritin in corticosterone-damaged PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with isoliquiritin significantly prevented corticosterone-induced cell apoptosis...
February 23, 2017: Food & Function
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