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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027279/long-non-coding-rna-pvt1-emerging-biomarker-in-digestive-system-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Dan-Dan Zhou, Xiu-Fen Liu, Cheng-Wei Lu, Om Prakash Pant, Xiao-Dong Liu
The digestive system cancers are leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and have high risks of morbidity and mortality. More and more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied to be abnormally expressed in cancers and play a key role in the process of digestive system tumour progression. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) seems fairly novel. Since 1984, PVT1 was identified to be an activator of MYC in mice. Its role in human tumour initiation and progression has long been a subject of interest...
October 12, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023799/mir-214-activates-tp53-but-suppresses-the-expression-of-rela-ctnnb1-and-stat3-in-human-cervical-and-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Karthik Subramanian Chandrasekaran, Anusha Sathyanarayanan, Devarajan Karunagaran
High Mobility Group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) was identified as a target of miR-214 in human cervical and colorectal cancers (CaCx and CRC) in a previous study. While the expression of miR-214 remains suppressed, HMGA1 behaves as a potent oncogene and plays crucial roles in several aberrant signalling pathways by interacting with intermediates like RELA, CTNNB1, STAT3, and TP53 in CaCx and CRC. Hypothetically, miR-214 should be able to regulate the stabilization of some of these intermediates through the regulation of HMGA1...
October 10, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020502/persistence-of-dna-adducts-hypermutation-and-acquisition-of-cellular-resistance-to-alkylating-agents-in-glioblastoma
#3
R J Head, M F Fay, L Cosgrove, K Y C Fung, D Rundle-Thiele, J H Martin
Glioblastoma is a lethal form of brain tumour usually treated by surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent. Key to the success of this multimodal approach is maintaining apoptotic sensitivity of tumour cells to the alkylating agent. This initial treatment likely establishes conditions contributing to development of drug resistance as alkylating agents form the O(6)-methylguanine adduct. This activates the mismatch repair (MMR) process inducing apoptosis and mutagenesis...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018015/chronic-red-eye-a-masquerade-of-advanced-neoplastic-disease
#4
Joana Providência, Filipa Ponces, Guilherme Castela, Joaquim Murta
A 42-year-old woman presented with chronic history of left red eye for more than 12 months, treated with difference topical medication but without response. Ocular external examination demonstrated a firm palpable mass in the medial portion of the lower eyelid and slit-lamp evaluation of the lesion showed an ulcerated conjunctival nodule, keratin secretor. CT of the orbits revealed left-sided orbital mass located anteriorly, inferiorly and medially in the orbit, adjacent to the globe and orbit walls. Incisional biopsy of the lesion was consistent with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016132/towards-understanding-mcl-1-promiscuous-and-specific-binding-mode
#5
Jade Fogha, Bogdan Marekha, Marcella De Giorgi, Anne Sophie Voisin-Chiret, Sylvain Rault, Ronan Bureau, Jana Sopková-de Oliveira Santos
Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is overexpressed in various cancers and promotes the aberrant survival of tumour cells. To inhibit Mcl-1, and initiate apoptosis, an interaction between activated BH3-only proteins and Mcl-1 anti-apoptotic protein is necessary. These protein-protein interactions exhibit some selectivity: Mcl-1 binds specifically Noxa, whereas Bim and Puma bind strongly to all anti-apoptotic proteins. Even if the 3D structures of several Mcl-1/BH3-only complexes have been solved, the BH3-only binding specificity to Mcl-1 is still not completely understood...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993359/hoarseness-as-a-presentation-of-mycosis-fungoides-infiltrating-the-larynx
#6
Tyler M Bauman, Christian M Wichterman, Amy C Musiek, Kathleen M Nemer
Laryngeal involvement is a rare manifestation of mycosis fungoides (MF), with only nine reported cases of cutaneous T cell lymphoma with laryngeal or vocal cord involvement. Herein, we report the case of a patient with a 7-year history of MF who presented to the emergency department with hoarseness, throat tightness and cough, as well as erythroderma and skin tumours. Laryngoscopy and CT imaging were concerning for lymphomatous involvement of the left false vocal cord. A biopsy was taken of the false vocal cord lesion, which revealed an aberrant immunophenotype consistent with MF...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989814/engineering-the-pre-metastatic-niche
#7
Brian A Aguado, Grace G Bushnell, Shreyas S Rao, Jacqueline S Jeruss, Lonnie D Shea
The pre-metastatic niche - the accumulation of aberrant immune cells and extracellular matrix proteins in target organs - primes the initially healthy organ microenvironment and renders it amenable for subsequent metastatic cell colonization. By attracting metastatic cancer cells, mimics of the pre-metastatic niche offer both diagnostic and therapeutic potential. However, deconstructing the complexity of the niche by identifying the interactions between cell populations and the mediatory roles of the immune system, soluble factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and stromal cells has proved challenging...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981962/the-bmp-antagonist-noggin-is-produced-by-osteoblasts-in-response-to-the-presence-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#8
Huda F AlShaibi, Farid Ahmed, Clive Buckle, Ann Cm Fowles, Jalaluddin Awlia, Marco G Cecchini, Colby L Eaton
BACKGROUND: Bone metastasis is a key event responsible for morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Interactions between prostate cancer cells and the bone microenvironment facilitate survival of tumour cells and alter bone turnover, a process that is thought to enhance the growth of metastases in this site. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of tumours cells increases TGFβ signaling in bone and that this regulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic lineage cells in metastatic sites...
October 5, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980060/phase-i-study-of-a-chloroquine-gemcitabine-combination-in-patients-with-metastatic-or-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Panagiotis Samaras, Marina Tusup, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen-Kim, Burkhardt Seifert, Helga Bachmann, Roger von Moos, Alexander Knuth, Steve Pascolo
PURPOSE: Following a previously published pre-clinical validation, this phase I study evaluated the safety, maximum tolerated dose, anti-tumour activity and immune status of a gemcitabine-chloroquine combination as a first- or late-line treatment in patients with metastatic or unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: In this 3 + 3 dose escalation study, patients received a single weekly standard dose of intravenous gemcitabine, followed by single weekly oral intake of 100, 200 or 300 mg of chloroquine...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979170/epigenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-induced-by-butyrate-in-colorectal-cancer-involvement-of-microrna
#10
REVIEW
Karen S Bishop, Huawen Xu, Gareth Marlow
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer mortality globally. Development of CRC is closely associated with lifestyle, and diet may modulate risk. A Western-style diet is characterised by a high intake of red meat but low consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole cereals. Such a diet is associated with CRC risks. It has been demonstrated that butyrate, produced by the fermentation of dietary plant fibre, can alter both genetic and epigenetic expressions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are commonly present in both normal and tumour cells...
2017: Genetics & Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978925/increased-expression-of-fibrinogen-like-protein-2-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Ming Tang, Xu Cao, Peng Li, Kun Zhang, You Li, Quan-You Zheng, Gui-Qing Li, Jian Chen, Gui-Lian Xu, Ke-Qin Zhang
Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) is highly expressed in various tumour tissues and plays a vital role in tumour initiation and progression. This study evaluated the clinical significance of FGL2 in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). FGL2 expression in fresh and 170 archived paraffin-embedded ccRCC tissues was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemitry. FGL2 expression was significantly upregulated in ccRCC. Statistical analyses by using Kaplan-Meier method showed that high FGL2 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with ccRCC...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977697/expression-of-fk506-binding-protein-51-fkbp51-in-mycosis-fungoides
#12
M Mascolo, M F Romano, G Ilardi, S Romano, A Baldo, M Scalvenzi, G Argenziano, F Merolla, D Russo, S Varricchio, F Pagliuca, M Russo, G Ciancia, G De Rosa, S Staibano
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the major subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). It usually has a prolonged indolent clinical course with a minority of cases acquiring a more aggressive biological profile and resistance to conventional therapies, partially attributed to the persistent activation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. In the last decade, several papers suggested an important role for the FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), an immunophilin initially cloned in lymphocytes, in the control of NF-κB pathway in different types of human malignancies...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970093/a-mathematical-model-of-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-adcc
#13
F Hoffman, D Gavaghan, J Osborne, I P Barrett, T You, H Ghadially, R Sainson, R W Wilkinson, H M Byrne
Immunotherapies exploit the immune system to target and kill cancer cells, while sparing healthy tissue. Antibody therapies, an important class of immunotherapies, involve the binding to specific antigens on the surface of the tumour cells of antibodies that activate natural killer (NK) cells to kill the tumour cells. Preclinical assessment of molecules that may cause antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) involves co-culturing cancer cells, NK cells and antibody in vitro for several hours and measuring subsequent levels of tumour cell lysis...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967905/akt-overactivation-can-suppress-dna-repair-via-p70s6-kinase-dependent-downregulation-of-mre11
#14
D Piscitello, D Varshney, S Lilla, M G Vizioli, C Reid, V Gorbunova, A Seluanov, D A Gillespie, P D Adams
Deregulated AKT kinase activity due to PTEN deficiency in cancer cells contributes to oncogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we show that PTEN deletion in HCT116 and DLD1 colon carcinoma cells leads to suppression of CHK1 and CHK2 activation in response to irradiation, impaired G2 checkpoint proficiency and radiosensitization. These defects are associated with reduced expression of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1, components of the apical MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA damage response complex. Consistent with reduced MRN complex function, PTEN-deficient cells fail to resect DNA double-strand breaks efficiently after irradiation and show greatly diminished proficiency for DNA repair via the error-free homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway...
October 2, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961554/cdk4-6-inhibition-in-early-and-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-review
#15
REVIEW
A F de Groot, C J Kuijpers, J R Kroep
Breast cancer (BC) is responsible for 14% of cancer-related deaths in women [1]. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors are a new class of selective drugs, offering an effective and tolerable treatment. CDK4/6 inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and may thereby prevent tumour progression. Three CDK4/6 inhibitors have been tested in clinical BC trials: palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EMA) have approved palbociclib for the treatment of patients HR+ HER2- locally advanced or metastatic BC (aBC) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor as initial therapy in postmenopausal women or in combination with fulvestrant in women who have received prior endocrine therapy...
September 20, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960714/feline-vaccine-associated-sarcomagenesis-is-there-an-inflammation-independent-role-for-aluminium
#16
M A AbdelMageed, P Foltopoulou, E A McNiel
Aluminium has been found in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas. In this study, we investigated the potential for aluminium to contribute directly to tumourigenesis. Our results indicated that an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant preparation was cytotoxic and mutagenic in human-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) hybrid cells in vitro. Moreover, CHO cells deficient in DNA double strand break (DSB), but not single-strand break (SSB), repair, were particularly sensitive to aluminium exposure compared with repair proficient cells, suggesting that aluminium is associated with DSBs...
September 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959019/cd24-cd44-and-epcam-enrich-for-tumour-initiating-cells-in-a-newly-established-patient-derived-xenograft-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#17
Susan Ling Ling Hoe, Lu Ping Tan, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Kitson Liew, Sin-Yeang Teow, Fazlyn Reeny Abdul Razak, Yoon Ming Chin, Nurul Ashikin Mohamed Shahrehan, Tai Lin Chu, Noor Kaslina Mohd Kornain, Suat-Cheng Peh, Cheng Eng Koay, Kwok-Wai Lo, Munirah Ahmad, Ching-Ching Ng, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo
Subpopulations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) contain cells with differential tumourigenic properties. Our study evaluates the tumourigenic potential of CD24, CD44, EpCAM and combination of EpCAM/CD44 cells in NPC. CD44br and EpCAMbr cells enriched for higher S-phase cell content, faster-growing tumourigenic cells leading to tumours with larger volume and higher mitotic figures. Although CD44br and EpCAMbr cells significantly enriched for tumour-initiating cells (TICs), all cells could retain self-renewal property for at least four generations...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946555/lgr5high-dclk1high-phenotype-is-more-common-in-early-stage-and-intestinal-subtypes-of-gastric-carcinomas
#18
Elham Kalantari, Mohammad Hossein Asadi Lari, Raheleh Roudi, Alireza Korourian, Zahra Madjd
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma is the third most common malignancy and is one of the main causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumour cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, likely responsible for the initiation, recurrence, metastasis and chemo/radio-resistance. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the expression patterns and clinicopathologic significance of putative CSC markers, Lgr5 and DCLK1, in gastric carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945230/cell-plasticity-in-epithelial-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#19
REVIEW
Julia Varga, Florian R Greten
The adult organism is characterized by remarkable plasticity, which enables efficient regeneration and restoration of homeostasis after damage. When aberrantly activated, this plasticity contributes to tumour initiation and progression. Here we review recent advances in this field with a focus on cell fate changes and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-two distinct, yet closely related, forms of plasticity with fundamental roles in homeostasis and cancer.
October 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942358/claspin-functions-in-cell-homeostasis-a-link-to-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Diana Azenha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Teresa C Martins
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Most cancers present high degrees of genomic instability. DNA damage and replication checkpoints function as barriers to halt cell cycle progression until damage is resolved, preventing the perpetuation of errors. Activation of these checkpoints is critically dependent on Claspin, an adaptor protein that mediates the phosphorylation of the effector kinase Chk1 by ATR. However, Claspin also performs other roles related to the protection and maintenance of cell and genome integrity...
September 8, 2017: DNA Repair
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