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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236292/a-novel-report-of-mir-4301-induces-cell-apoptosis-by-negatively-regulating-drd2-expression-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Naghmeh Gholipour, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Ghasem Ahangari
BACKGROUND: In several cancers, microRNA (miRNAs) play vital roles in tumour initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression levels of miR-4301 in human breast cancer and investigate whether its potential roles involved targeting Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2). METHODS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was also used to examine the expression levels of miR-4301 in human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and SKBR3...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233694/insight-of-nitric-oxide-signalling-a-potential-biomarker-in-bio-regulation-with-multifaceted-complex-mechanism-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#2
Paramita Mandal
Colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC) is the most important health concerns throughout the World as the tumour cells rapidly spread and abruptly grow in colon and rectum to further organs. Several etiological factors are associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. During invasion and proliferation of tumour cells, various mechanistic molecular pathways are involved in the cells. Nitric Oxide pathway (NO) is one of the important cellular mechanisms associated with tumour cells initiation, invasion and progression. Epidemiological evidences suggest that NO has potential role in development of cancer...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233452/downregulation-of-caspase-8-in-a-group-of-iranian-breast-cancer-patients-a-pilot-study
#3
Masoumeh Aghababazadeh, Najmeh Dorraki, Fahimeh Afzal Javan, Asieh Sadat Fattahi, Masoumeh Gharib, Alireza Pasdar
PURPOSE: It is now well known that evading apoptosis, as a cancer hallmark, can lead to tumour initiation, progression and metastasis. As a result of genome wide association studies, an initiator protease in this pathway, caspase 8 (CASP8), has been found to be an important gene regarding breast cancer susceptibility. The alterations of the expression of this gene have been reported in breast cancer cell lines. Given that in previous studies expression analysis of this gene had only been done in breast cancer cell lines, in this study we aimed to evaluate the expression of this gene in breast cancer tissues versus adjacent normal tissues, using real-time quantitative method...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229887/multiple-oncogenic-roles-of-nuclear-beta-catenin
#4
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225991/administration-of-protein-kinase-d1-induces-a-protective-effect-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells-and-raw264-7-macrophage-cells
#5
Ditte Søvsø Gundelund Nielsen, Marlene Fredborg, Vibeke Andersen, Stig Purup
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory diseases involving all or part of the gastrointestinal tract. The stress-activated serine-threonine protein kinase D1 (PKD1) protein has previously been implicated in intestinal immune regulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225685/retromammary-fat-axillary-and-arm-metastases-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-report-of-a-case-with-an-indolent-behaviour
#6
Walberto Monteiro Neiva Eulálio Filho, Samuel Madeira Campos Melo, Rafaela de Brito Alves, Luiz Ayrton Santos Junior, Danilo da Fonseca Reis Silva
Leiomyosarcomas are sarcomas that originate within smooth muscle cells and generally occur in older patients. These tumours account for 10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Metastases occur most commonly to the lungs, kidneys, and liver. Cutaneous metastases may also occur but are usually a very rare and late event. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who developed subcutaneous metastasis to the axilla, arm and breast after surgical resection of the primary tumour. The patient maintained controlled disease with surgical resections and clinical follow-up, initiating chemotherapy one year after the diagnosis of metastatic disease...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214010/giant-cell-tumour-of-the-distal-radius-ulna-response-to-pre-operative-treatment-with-short-term-denosumab
#7
Catherine L McCarthy, Christopher L M H Gibbons, Kevin M Bradley, A Bass Hassan, Henk Giele, Nicholas A Athanasou
Background: Treatment of giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) of the distal radius/ulna poses a surgical challenge, as complex reconstructive surgery may be required. This study evaluates the clinical, radiological and pathological findings in five cases of GCTB of the distal forearm where a 3 month course of denosumab was given prior to surgery. Methods: Patients with biopsy proven distal forearm GCTB, treated for 3 months with denosumab, followed by salvage surgery (curettage and cementation) were included...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209525/final-results-of-the-large-scale-multinational-trial-profile-1005-efficacy-and-safety-of-crizotinib-in-previously-treated-patients-with-advanced-metastatic-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Fiona Blackhall, D Ross Camidge, Alice T Shaw, Jean-Charles Soria, Benjamin J Solomon, Tony Mok, Vera Hirsh, Pasi A Jänne, Yuankai Shi, Pan-Chyr Yang, Tommaso De Pas, Toyoaki Hida, Javier De Castro Carpeño, Silvana Lanzalone, Anna Polli, Shrividya Iyer, Arlene Reisman, Keith D Wilner, Dong-Wan Kim
Purpose: Crizotinib is a potent, orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report final results from PROFILE 1005, the largest clinical trial to date for an ALK inhibitor in ALK-positive NSCLC. Patients and methods: PROFILE 1005 (NCT00932451) was a multicenter, single-arm phase 2 trial of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of crizotinib (250 mg twice daily; 3 week continuous treatment cycles) in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC after failure of ≥1 lines of systemic treatment for locally advanced/metastatic disease...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208439/de-novo-and-acquired-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-targeting
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas L Syn, Michele W L Teng, Tony S K Mok, Ross A Soo
Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 axes has yielded impressive results in some clinical trials. However, only a subset of patients initially respond to these inhibitors, and increasing clinical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of initial responders ultimately relapse with lethal, drug-resistant disease months or years later. Studies that have used massively parallel sequencing have shed light on the rich functional landscape of mutations that endow tumour cells with the ability to evade T-cell-mediated immunosurveillance...
December 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207777/an-aggressive-primary-retroperitoneal-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-mimicking-a-pancreatic-neoplasm-presenting-as-duodenal-stenosis
#10
Bharadhwaj Ravindhran, Clement Prakash, Sridar Govindharaj, Noor Mohammed Shawnaz Bahnou, B Pavithra
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histological subtype of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL). Primary retroperitoneal DLBCL is uncommon and has seldom been reported. Extrinsic compression of the duodenum due to lesions originating from the retroperitoneum is also rare. We present a case of a 39-year-old man who presented with inability to tolerate oral intake, abdominal pain, an upper abdominal mass and postprandial bilious vomiting caused by a large DLBCL arising from the retroperitoneum causing extrinsic compression of the duodenum...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207714/paediatric-peripheral-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour-a-clinico-pathological-study-from-southern-india
#11
Rithika Rajendran, Leena Dennis Joseph, Thanka Johnson, Latha Magatha Sneha, Julius Xavier Scott, Satish Srinivasan
Introduction: Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (PNET)/Ewing Sarcomas (ES) are aggressive childhood malignancies with neuroectodermal differentiation. Aim: To study the clinical presentation, morphology, Immun-ohistochemistry (IHC), management and outcome of all the cases of paediatric pPNET/ES reported in our tertiary care centre over a period of six years. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, India...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204834/oesophageal-stem-cells-and-cancer
#12
Maria P Alcolea
Oesophageal cancer remains one of the least explored malignancies. However, in recent years its increasing incidence and poor prognosis have stimulated interest from the cancer community to understand the pathways to the initiation and progression of the disease.Critical understanding of the molecular processes controlling changes in stem cell fate and the cross-talk with their adjacent stromal neighbours will provide essential knowledge on the mechanisms that go awry in oesophageal carcinogenesis. Advances in lineage tracing techniques have represented a powerful tool to start understanding changes in oesophageal cell behaviour in response to mutations and mutagens that favour tumour development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196616/17%C3%AE-estradiol-sensitizes-ovarian-surface-epithelium-to-transformation-by-suppressing-disabled-2-expression
#13
Nhung H Vuong, Omar Salah Salah, Barbara C Vanderhyden
Estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of human ovarian cancer and exogenous estradiol accelerates the onset of ovarian cancer in mouse models. This study uses primary cultures of mouse ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to demonstrate that one possible mechanism by which estrogen accelerates the initiation of ovarian cancer is by up-regulation of microRNA-378 via the ESR1 pathway to result in the down-regulation of a tumour suppressor called Disabled-2 (Dab2). Estrogen suppression of Dab2 was reproducible in vivo and across many cell types including mouse oviductal epithelium and primary cultures of human ovarian cancer cells...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196443/modelling-glioblastoma-tumour-host-cell-interactions-using-adult-brain-organotypic-slice-co-culture
#14
Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon, Ester Gangoso, Steven M Pollard
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as GBM stem cells (GSCs). Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human)...
December 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190674/a-bayesian-view-of-murine-seminal-cytokine-networks
#15
Michelle L Johnson, Tathagata Dasgupta, Nadia Gopichandran, Sarah L Field, Nicolas M Orsi
It has long been established that active agents in seminal fluid are key to initiating and coordinating mating-induced immunomodulation. This is in part governed by the actions of a network of cytokine interactions which, to date, remain largely undefined, and whose interspecific evolutionary conservation is unknown. This study applied Bayesian methods to illustrate the interrelationships between seminal profiles of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17, eotaxin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1) alpha, MIP-1beta, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, leptin, inducible protein (IP)-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187638/numb-prevents-a-complete-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-modulating-notch-signalling
#16
Federico Bocci, Mohit K Jolly, Satyendra C Tripathi, Mitzi Aguilar, Samir M Hanash, Herbert Levine, José N Onuchic
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays key roles during embryonic development, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Cells in a partial EMT or hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype exhibit collective cell migration, forming clusters of circulating tumour cells-the primary drivers of metastasis. Activation of cell-cell signalling pathways such as Notch fosters a partial or complete EMT, yet the mechanisms enabling cluster formation remain poorly understood. Using an integrated computational-experimental approach, we examine the role of Numb-an inhibitor of Notch intercellular signalling-in mediating EMT and clusters formation...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186113/inactivation-of-dna-repair-triggers-neoantigen-generation-and-impairs-tumour-growth
#17
Giovanni Germano, Simona Lamba, Giuseppe Rospo, Ludovic Barault, Alessandro Magrì, Federica Maione, Mariangela Russo, Giovanni Crisafulli, Alice Bartolini, Giulia Lerda, Giulia Siravegna, Benedetta Mussolin, Roberta Frapolli, Monica Montone, Federica Morano, Filippo de Braud, Nabil Amirouchene-Angelozzi, Silvia Marsoni, Maurizio D'Incalci, Armando Orlandi, Enrico Giraudo, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Salvatore Siena, Filippo Pietrantonio, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Alberto Bardelli
Molecular alterations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) promote cancer initiation and foster tumour progression. Cancers deficient in MMR frequently show favourable prognosis and indolent progression. The functional basis of the clinical outcome of patients with tumours that are deficient in MMR is not clear. Here we genetically inactivate MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) in colorectal, breast and pancreatic mouse cancer cells. The growth of MMR-deficient cells was comparable to their proficient counterparts in vitro and on transplantation in immunocompromised mice...
November 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182741/off-label-use-of-thoracic-aortic-endovascular-stent-grafts-to-simplify-difficult-resections-and-procedures-in-general-thoracic-surgery
#18
Tanja Walgram, Nicolas Attigah, Igor Schwegler, Markus Weber, Omer Dzemali, Christian Berthold, Dirk Wagnetz, Giovanni L Carboni
OBJECTIVES: Tumour infiltration, or gross infectious involvement of the thoracic aortic wall, poses a significant intraoperative risk for fatal bleeding and therefore could compromise adequate resection or efficient surgical management of pleural infection in a considerable amount of cases. We present 3 successful cases of off-label thoracic aortic endografting to safeguard thoracic aortic wall integrity. METHODS: After all patients received thoracic stent grafts through femoral access into the descending aorta, the first patient underwent a resection of a locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the left inferior lobe cT4cN0-1cM0 after neoadjuvant chemoradiation, which had infiltrated the descending aortic wall...
November 22, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180744/stem-cell-senescence-drives-age-attenuated-induction-of-pituitary-tumours-in-mouse-models-of-paediatric-craniopharyngioma
#19
Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Scott Haston, Gabriela Carreno, John R Apps, Sara Pozzi, Christina Stache, Grace Kaushal, Alex Virasami, Leonidas Panousopoulos, Seyedeh Neda Mousavy-Gharavy, Ana Guerrero, Mamunur Rashid, Nital Jani, Colin R Goding, Thomas S Jacques, David J Adams, Jesus Gil, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Senescent cells may promote tumour progression through the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), whether these cells are capable of initiating tumourigenesis in vivo is not known. Expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Sox2+ young adult pituitary stem cells leads to formation of clusters of stem cells and induction of tumours resembling human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP), derived from Sox2- cells in a paracrine manner. Here, we uncover the mechanisms underlying this paracrine tumourigenesis...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178334/suppression-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-confers-resistance-against-bevacizumab-in-experimental-glioma
#20
Jule A Eriksson, Christina Wanka, Michael C Burger, Hans Urban, Ines Hartel, Janusz von Renesse, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Joachim P Steinbach, Johannes Rieger
Although bevacizumab initially shows high response rates in gliomas and other tumors, therapy resistance usually develops later. Because antiangiogenic agents are supposed to induce hypoxia, we asked whether rendering glioma cells independent of oxidative phosphorylation modulates their sensitivity against hypoxia and bevacizumab. LNT-229 glioma cells without functional mitochondria (rho0 ) and control (rho+ ) cells were generated. LNT-229 rho0 -cells displayed reduced expression of oxidative phosphorylation-related genes and diminished oxygen consumption...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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