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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107452/mice-lacking-hbp1-function-are-viable-and-fertile
#1
Cassy M Spiller, Dagmar Wilhelm, David A Jans, Josephine Bowles, Peter Koopman
Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104311/comprehensive-profiling-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-liquid-biopsies-from-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-reveals-novel-intra-ar-structural-variation-and-splice-variant-expression-patterns
#2
Bram De Laere, Pieter-Jan van Dam, Tom Whitington, Markus Mayrhofer, Emanuela Henao Diaz, Gert Van den Eynden, Jean Vandebroek, Jurgen Del-Favero, Steven Van Laere, Luc Dirix, Henrik Grönberg, Johan Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Expression of the androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with poor response to second-line endocrine therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a large fraction of nonresponding patients are AR-V7-negative. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if a comprehensive liquid biopsy-based AR profile may improve patient stratification in the context of second-line endocrine therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRPC (n=30) before initiation of a new line of systemic therapy...
January 16, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103969/-analysis-on-the-prognostic-and-survival-factors-of-synchronous-multiple-primary-lung-cancer
#3
Haifa Guo, Feng Mao, Hui Zhang, Yangbo Qiu, Yang Shen-Tu
BACKGROUND: Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (sMPLC) is a sparse disease in the past, but there has been a gradual increase in the morbidity of sMPLC recently. However, studies on large sample have never been undertaken. The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of sMPLC through analyzing the clinical data, and provide supports for the management of sMPLC. METHODS: According to Martini-Melamed criteria, 357 patients were diagnosed sMPLC...
January 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102346/human-p53-interacts-with-the-elongating-rnapii-complex-and-is-required-for-the-release-of-actinomycin-d-induced-transcription-blockage
#4
Barbara N Borsos, Ildikó Huliák, Hajnalka Majoros, Zsuzsanna Ujfaludi, Ákos Gyenis, Peter Pukler, Imre M Boros, Tibor Pankotai
The p53 tumour suppressor regulates the transcription initiation of selected genes by binding to specific DNA sequences at their promoters. Here we report a novel role of p53 in transcription elongation in human cells. Our data demonstrate that upon transcription elongation blockage, p53 is associated with genes that have not been reported as its direct targets. p53 could be co-immunoprecipitated with active forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1), highlighting its association with the elongating RNA polymerase II...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098771/breast-cancer-brain-metastases-clonal-evolution-in-clinical-context
#5
REVIEW
Jodi M Saunus, Amy E McCart Reed, Zhun Leong Lim, Sunil R Lakhani
Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096925/penile-metastasis-from-primary-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-sparing-the-urethra
#6
Justin D Oake, Douglas N Drover
Metastatic involvement of the penis is relatively infrequent. Metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is extremely rare. We report a case of bladder TCC with metastases to the penis that spares the urethra - a finding that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Of the documented mechanisms of metastatic transmission to the penis, we suspect the cause was retrograde lymphatic spread. In our case, a 59-year-old male presented to our clinic initially with phimosis and later developed gross hematuria...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096924/scrotal-recurrence-of-germ-cell-tumour-in-a-non-violated-scrotum
#7
Jenny Li, Nicholas Power
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in males aged 15-30 years. For over a century, radical inguinal orchiectomy has been the standard of care for initial treatment of testicular cancer. This approach is preferred over trans-scrotal interventions, in an effort to avoid tumour seeding, spermatic cord invasion, and disturbance to lymphatic drainage. Scrotal violation is defined as any trans-scrotal intervention that may impact spread of disease in testicular cancer, including scrotal orchiectomy, fine-needle aspiration, and testicular biopsy...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092921/the-ligand-sas-and-its-receptor-ptp10d-drive-tumour-suppressive-cell-competition
#8
Masatoshi Yamamoto, Shizue Ohsawa, Kei Kunimasa, Tatsushi Igaki
Normal epithelial cells often exert anti-tumour effects against nearby oncogenic cells. In the Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic cells with loss-of-function mutations in the apico-basal polarity genes scribble or discs large are actively eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling plays a crucial role in this cell elimination, the initial event, which occurs at the interface between normal cells and polarity-deficient cells, has not previously been identified...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076901/nuclear-factor-one-transcription-factors-as-epigenetic-regulators-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Mitchell Fane, Lachlan Harris, Aaron G Smith, Michael Piper
Tumour heterogeneity poses a distinct obstacle to therapeutic intervention. While the initiation of tumours across various physiological systems is frequently associated with signature mutations in genes that drive proliferation and bypass senescence, increasing evidence suggests that tumour progression and clonal diversity is driven at an epigenetic level. The tumour microenvironment plays a key role in driving diversity as cells adapt to demands during tumour growth, and is thought to drive certain subpopulations back to a stem cell-like state...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075008/promising-anti-tumor-properties-of-bisdemethoxycurcumin-a-naturally-occurring-curcumin-analogue
#10
REVIEW
Mahin Ramezani, Mahdi Hatamipour, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Curcuminoids are turmeric-extracted phytochemicals with documented chemopreventive and anti-tumor activities against several types of malignancies. Curcuminoids can modulate several molecular pathways and cellular targets involved in different stages of tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a minor constituent (approximately 3%) of curcuminoids that has been shown to be more stable than the other two main curcuminoids i.e. curcumin and demthoxycurcumin. Recent studies have revealed that BDMC has anti-tumor effects exerted through a multimechanistic mode of action involving inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and migration, metastasis and tumour growth, and induction of apoptotic death in cancer cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073102/cancer-resistance-to-therapies-against-the-egfr-ras-raf-pathway-the-role-of-mek
#11
REVIEW
Erika Martinelli, Floriana Morgillo, Teresa Troiani, Fortunato Ciardiello
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate intracellular signals activated by a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade culminates in the regulation of gene transcription promoting cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and angiogenesis. MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-MAPKK) 1/2 is a transducer of the growth factor receptor-RAS-RAF-MAPK signalling cascade and plays a relevant role in development and progression of human cancers, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063905/trichloroethylene-induced-formic-aciduria-in-the-male-c57-bl-6-mouse
#12
Edward A Lock, Paul Keane, Philip H Rowe, John R Foster, Daniel Antoine, Christopher M Morris
1, 1, 2-Trichloroethylene (TCE) is of environmental concern, due to evaporation while handling, chemical processing and leakage from chemical waste sites, leading to its contamination of ground water and air. For several decades there has been issues about possible long term health effects of TCE but recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency classified TCE as a human carcinogen. Links having been established between occupational exposures and kidney cancer and possible links to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and liver cancer, but there is more still more to learn...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054715/tubal-origin-of-ovarian-cancer-the-double-edged-sword-of-haemoglobin
#13
Shiou-Fu Lin, Emily Gerry, Ie-Ming Shih
Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the gynaecologic tract. While the origins of many human malignant neoplasms are clear, the origin of HGSC remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge limits our understanding of its pathogenesis and compromises efforts devoted to develop better early detection tools and effective preventative intervention. The tubal origin of HGSC has been put forward since the initial report of dysplastic lesions (now known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas, or STICs) that morphologically resemble HGSC in the fallopian tube...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052327/tissue-disruption-increases-stochastic-gene-expression-thus-producing-tumours-cancer-initiation-without-driver-mutation
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Capp
Cancer research produced many paradoxical results in recent years. The reductionist approach now shows its limits. Considering the origin of the disease at the tissue level and increased stochastic gene expression (SGE) as a driving force, while admitting a role for genetic alterations in cancer progression, might solve these contradictions. Undifferentiated cells are characterized by open and accessible chromatin generating global and highly SGE (high expression noise) which is a hallmark of pluripotency, while differentiation is associated with progressive chromatin closing and decreased noise...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042842/novel-2-3-dihydro-1h-pyrrolo-3-2-1-ij-quinazolin-1-ones-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#15
Malose J Mphahlele, Tebogo A Khoza, Peaceful Mabeta
Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones for in vitro cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines as well as for potential antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The title compounds were prepared via PdCl₂-mediated endo-dig cyclization of 2-aryl-8-(arylethynyl)-6-bromo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones. The latter were prepared, in turn, via initial Sonogashira cross-coupling of 2-amino-5-bromo-3-iodobenzamide with aryl acetylenes followed by boric acid-mediated cyclocondensation of the intermediate 2-amino-3-(arylethynyl)-5-bromobenzamides with benzaldehyde derivatives...
December 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040707/stridor-secondary-to-a-subglottic-neuroendocrine-tumour
#16
Daniel W Scholfield, S Virk Jagdeep, Paul Stimpson
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm of the larynx, that exhibits particularly aggressive behaviour. We present a case of a 42-year-old patient with progressive dyspnoea and biphasic stridor, initially treated as asthma and resulting in delayed definitive management. Flow volume loops demonstrated narrowed inspiratory and expiratory flow volume loops. Subsequent CT neck and thorax indicated a mass arising from the subglottis and the patient proceeded to microlaryngoscopy and trans-oral CO2 laser debulking...
December 30, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035703/human-papillomavirus-related-carcinoma-with-adenoid-cystic-like-features-of-the-sinonasal-tract-clinical-and-morphological-characterization-of-6-new-cases
#17
S Andreasen, J Bishop, T V O Hansen, W H Westra, A Bilde, C von Buchwald, K Kiss
AIMS: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is known as causative for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx, but is also not infrequently found in carcinomas of the sinonasal tract. Recently, a subset of these carcinomas was recognized to harbour HPV33 and have a significant morphological overlap with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive carcinoma originating in the minor salivary glands. Termed HPV-related carcinoma with ACC-like features, only 9 cases have been reported...
December 30, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033108/tissue-factor-promotes-breast-cancer-stem-cell-activity-in-vitro
#18
Hudhaifah Shaker, Hannah Harrison, Robert Clarke, Goran Landberg, Nigel J Bundred, Henri H Versteeg, Cliona C Kirwan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells that can self-renew and initiate tumours. The clotting-initiating protein Tissue Factor (TF) promotes metastasis and may be overexpressed in cancer cells with increased CSC activity. We sought to determine whether TF promotes breast CSC activity in vitro using human breast cancer cell lines. TF expression was compared in anoikis-resistant (CSC-enriched) and unselected cells. In cells sorted into of TF-expressing and TF-negative (FACS), and in cells transfected to knockdown TF (siRNA) and overexpress TF (cDNA), CSC activity was compared by (i) mammosphere forming efficiency (MFE) (ii) holoclone colony formation (Hc) and (iii) ALDH1 activity...
December 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030801/the-embryonic-type-of-spp1-transcriptional-regulation-is-re-activated-in-glioblastoma
#19
Magdalena Kijewska, Marta Kocyk, Michal Kloss, Karolina Stepniak, Zbigniew Korwek, Renata Polakowska, Michal Dabrowski, Anna Gieryng, Bartosz Wojtas, Iwona A Ciechomska, Bozena Kaminska
Osteopontin (SPP1, a secreted phosphoprotein 1) is primarily involved in immune responses, tissue remodelling and biomineralization. However, it is also overexpressed in many cancers and regulates tumour progression by increasing migration, invasion and cancer stem cell self-renewal. Mechanisms of SPP1 overexpression in gliomas are poorly understood. We demonstrate overexpression of two out of five SPP1 isoforms in glioblastoma (GBM) and differential isoform expression in glioma cell lines. Up-regulated SPP1 expression is associated with binding of the GLI1 transcription factor to the promoter and OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) to the first SPP1 intron of the SPP1 gene in human glioma cells but not in non-transformed astrocytes...
December 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029513/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumour
#20
Michael McDermott
While initially controversial, the proposal that a subset of inflammatory pseudotumours were myofibroblastic neoplasms is now acknowledged. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour is a spindle cell neoplasm of intermediate biological potential that may arise in a wide range of anatomic sites but has a particular propensity for the lung and abdominal soft tissues. Depending on its location, IMT may present with a variety of clinical symptoms and it may also express a variable pathologic phenotype, leading to a broad range of clinical and pathological differentials...
August 31, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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