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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435394/the-role-of-mast-cells-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Swetha Gudiseva, Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Raviteja Chitturi, Vamsikrishna Anumula, Chandrashekar Poosarla, Venkat Ramana Reddy Baddam
The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430699/clinical-experience-and-diagnostic-algorithm-of-vulval-crohn-s-disease
#2
Lotte Boxhoorn, Tom J Stoof, Tim de Meij, Frank Hoentjen, Bas Oldenburg, Gerd Bouma, Mark Löwenberg, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Nanne K H de Boer
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vulval Crohn's disease (VCD) is a rare extraintestinal cutaneous manifestation of Crohn's disease. No consensus on the diagnostic workup and therapeutic management of this condition has been provided in the current literature. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre descriptive case series of female patients diagnosed and treated with VCD. By chart review, data on initial symptoms, clinical courses, histologic findings and therapeutic management were collected...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430163/long-non-coding-rnas-key-regulators-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-tumour-drug-resistance-and-cancer-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Richard Heery, Stephen P Finn, Sinead Cuffe, Steven G Gray
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the adoption by epithelial cells of a mesenchymal-like phenotype, is a process co-opted by carcinoma cells in order to initiate invasion and metastasis. In addition, it is becoming clear that is instrumental to both the development of drug resistance by tumour cells and in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. EMT is thus a pivotal process during tumour progression and poses a major barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) often utilize epigenetic programs to regulate both gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427184/kpnb1-mediated-nuclear-import-is-required-for-motility-and-inflammatory-transcription-factor-activity-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#4
Tamara Stelma, Virna D Leaner
Karyopherin β1 is a nuclear import protein involved in the transport of proteins containing a nuclear localisation sequence. Elevated Karyopherin β1 expression has been reported in cancer and transformed cells and is essential for cancer cell proliferation and survival. Transcription factors such as NFĸB and AP-1 contain a nuclear localisation sequence and initiate the expression of multiple factors associated with inflammation and cancer cell biology. Our study investigated the effect of inhibiting nuclear import via Karyopherin β1 on cancer cell motility and inflammatory signaling using siRNA and the novel small molecule, Inhibitor of Nuclear Import-43, INI-43...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420716/a-men1-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-mouse-model-under-temporal-control
#5
Kate E Lines, Roeland P Vas Nunes, Morten Frost, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rajesh Thakker
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception, or tumour development occurs asynchronously...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419993/reduction-in-peripheral-cd19-cd24hcd27-b-cell-frequency-predicts-favourable-clinical-course-in-xelox-treated-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer
#6
Wei Li, Dongli Song, Hong Li, Li Liang, Naiqing Zhao, Tianshu Liu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory B cells (Bregs) play an important role in modulating the immune response to tumours. Our previous study indicated that a small percentage of peripheral CD19+CD24hCD27+ Breg cells slowed gastric cancer progression in XELOX-treated patients. Here, we further investigated the relationship between dynamic changes in circulating Breg cells and the clinical course in XELOX-treated gastric cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with advanced gastric cancer were enrolled in this study...
April 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418119/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathway-perk-eif2%C3%AE-confers-radioresistance-in-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#7
Qiao Qiao, Chaonan Sun, Chuyang Han, Ning Han, Miao Zhang, Guang Li
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of malignant tumours, as well as in the regulation of radio- and chemoresistance in many malignancies. ERS signalling pathway protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) -eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) may induce aberrant activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Our previous study showed that NF-κB confered radioresistance in lymphoma cells. However, whether PERK-eIF2α regulates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma through NF-κB activation is unknown...
April 18, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417244/ribociclib-first-global-approval
#8
Yahiya Y Syed
Ribociclib is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 that is under development by Novartis for the treatment of cancer. CDKs play an important role in cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation, and inhibition of these kinases with ribociclib results in G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. Ribociclib, in combination with an aromatase inhibitor, was recently approved in the USA for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer and has been submitted for approval in the EU for this indication...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416534/pazopanib-associated-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#9
Cameron Miller-Patterson, Corey R Fehnel
Pazopanib is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist used for renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma that inhibits tumour growth and angiogenesis. A common side effect of pazopanib is hypertension. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman with clear cell renal cell carcinoma who developed a large right occipital intracerebral haemorrhage 3 weeks after initiating pazopanib. Although this was initially suspected to be a haemorrhagic metastasis, MRI revealed bi-occipital oedema, supporting a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
April 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416454/e1a-is-an-exogenous-in%C3%A2-vivo-tumour-suppressor
#10
F J Cimas, J L Callejas-Valera, D C García-Olmo, J Hernández-Losa, P Melgar-Rojas, M J Ruiz-Hidalgo, R Pascual-Serra, M Ortega-Muelas, O Roche, P Marcos, E Garcia-Gil, D M Fernandez-Aroca, S Ramón Y Cajal, J S Gutkind, R Sanchez-Prieto
The E1a gene from adenovirus has become a major tool in cancer research. Since the discovery of E1a, it has been proposed to be an oncogene, becoming a key element in the model of cooperation between oncogenes. However, E1a's in vivo behaviour is consistent with a tumour suppressor gene, due to the block/delay observed in different xenograft models. To clarify this interesting controversy, we have evaluated the effect of the E1a 13s isoform from adenovirus 5 in vivo. Initially, a conventional xenograft approach was performed using previously unreported HCT116 and B16-F10 cells, showing a clear anti-tumour effect regardless of the mouse's immunological background (immunosuppressed/immunocompetent)...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415688/inhibitor-sbfi26-suppresses-the-malignant-progression-of-castration-resistant-pc3-m-cells-by-competitively-binding-to-oncogenic-fabp5
#11
Waseem Al-Jameel, Xiaojun Gou, Shiva S Forootan, Majed Saad Al Fayi, Philip S Rudland, Farzad S Forootan, Jiacheng Zhang, Philip A Cornford, Syed A Hussain, Youqiang Ke
Castration resistant-prostate cancer is largely impervious to feather hormonal therapy and hence the outlook for patients is grim. Here we use an approach to attach the recently discovered Achilles heel. The experimental treatment established in this study is based on the recent discovery that it is the FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signalling axis, rather than the androgen receptor pathway, played a dominant role in promoting the malignant progression of castration resistant prostate cancer cells. Treatments have been established in mice by suppressing the biological activity of FABP5 using a chemical inhibitor SBFI26...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415662/the-hypoxia-signalling-pathway-in-haematological-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Marta Irigoyen, Juan Carlos García-Ruiz, Edurne Berra
Haematological malignancies are tumours that affect the haematopoietic and the lymphatic systems. Despite the huge efforts to eradicate these tumours, the percentage of patients suffering resistance to therapies and relapse still remains significant. The tumour environment favours drug resistance of cancer cells, and particularly of cancer stem/initiating cells. Hypoxia promotes aggressiveness, metastatic spread and relapse in most of the solid tumours. Furthermore, hypoxia is associated with worse prognosis and resistance to conventional treatments through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414315/the-emt-activator-zeb1-is-a-key-factor-for-cell-plasticity-and-promotes-metastasis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
Angela M Krebs, Julia Mitschke, María Lasierra Losada, Otto Schmalhofer, Melanie Boerries, Hauke Busch, Martin Boettcher, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Wilfried Reichardt, Peter Bronsert, Valerie G Brunton, Christian Pilarsky, Thomas H Winkler, Simone Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler, Thomas Brabletz
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Partial activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program (partial EMT) was considered a major driver of tumour progression from initiation to metastasis. However, the role of EMT in promoting metastasis has recently been challenged, in particular concerning effects of the Snail and Twist EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) in pancreatic cancer. In contrast, we show here that in the same pancreatic cancer model, driven by Pdx1-cre-mediated activation of mutant Kras and p53 (KPC model), the EMT-TF Zeb1 is a key factor for the formation of precursor lesions, invasion and notably metastasis...
April 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408487/tspan2-a-tetraspanin-protein-involved-in-oligodendrogenesis-and-cancer-metastasis
#14
REVIEW
Ibrahim H Yaseen, Peter N Monk, Lynda J Partridge
Tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2) is one of the less well-characterised members of the tetraspanin superfamily, and its precise function in different human tissue types remains to be explored. Initial studies have highlighted its possible association in neuroinflammation and carcinogenesis. In the central nervous system, Tspan2 may contribute to the early stages of the oligodendrocyte differentiation into myelin-forming glia. Furthermore, in human lung cancer, Tspan2 could be involved in the progression of the tumour metastasis by modulating cancer cell motility and invasion functions...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401883/cognate-antigen-engagement-on-parenchymal-cells-stimulates-cd8-t-cell-proliferation-in-situ
#15
Robyn M Sutherland, Sarah L Londrigan, Jamie L Brady, Emma M Carrington, Julia M Marchingo, Susanne Heinzel, Philip D Hodgkin, Kate L Graham, Thomas W Kay, Yifan Zhan, Andrew M Lew
T-cell responses are initiated upon cognate presentation by professional antigen presenting cells in lymphoid tissue. T cells then migrate to inflamed tissues, but further T-cell stimulation in these parenchymal target sites is not well understood. Here we show that T-cell expansion within inflamed tissues is a distinct phase that is neither a classical primary nor classical secondary response. This response, which we term 'the mezzanine response', commences within days after initial antigen encounter, unlike the secondary response that usually occurs weeks after priming...
April 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401127/diagnostic-and-referral-intervals-for-manitoba-women-with-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-the-manitoba-ovarian-cancer-outcomes-moco-study-group-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Allison J Love, Pascal Lambert, Donna Turner, Robert Lotocki, Erin Dean, Shaundra Popowich, Alon D Altman, Mark W Nachtigal
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers. The poor survival rates are often attributed to the advanced stage at which most of these cancers are detected. We sought to examine the effects of patient demographics, comorbidities and presenting symptoms on diagnostic and referral intervals by location of first presentation (emergency department v. elsewhere) and to identify factors that affect these intervals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of chart and medical record data for ovarian cancers, with the exceptions of sex cord and germ cell tumours, diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 in Manitoba, Canada...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395880/treatment-of-metastatic-uveal-melanoma-with-adoptive-transfer-of-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-a-single-centre-two-stage-single-arm-phase-2-study
#17
Smita S Chandran, Robert P T Somerville, James C Yang, Richard M Sherry, Christopher A Klebanoff, Stephanie L Goff, John R Wunderlich, David N Danforth, Daniel Zlott, Biman C Paria, Arvind C Sabesan, Abhishek K Srivastava, Liqiang Xi, Trinh H Pham, Mark Raffeld, Donald E White, Mary Ann Toomey, Steven A Rosenberg, Udai S Kammula
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is a rare tumour with no established treatments once metastases develop. Although a variety of immune-based therapies have shown efficacy in metastatic cutaneous melanoma, their use in ocular variants has been disappointing. Recently, adoptive T-cell therapy has shown salvage responses in multiple refractory solid tumours. Thus, we sought to determine if adoptive transfer of autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) could mediate regression of metastatic uveal melanoma...
April 7, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393239/psoriasin-promotes-invasion-aggregation-and-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-association-with-disease-progression
#18
Ying Liu, Carly Bunston, Nicholas Hodson, Jeyna Resaul, Ping-Hui Sun, Shuo Cai, Gang Chen, Yanan Gu, Lucy K Satherley, David C Bosanquet, Bilal Al-Sarireh, Xiuyun Tian, Chunyi Hao, Wen G Jiang, Lin Ye
Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11-kDa small calcium binding protein initially isolated from psoriatic skin lesions. It belongs to the S100 family of proteins which play an important role in a range of cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Aberrant Psoriasin expression has been implicated in a range of cancers and is often associated with poor prognosis. This study examined the role of Psoriasin on pancreatic cancer cell functions and the implication in progression of the disease...
May 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393061/nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-with-cystic-cervical-metastasis-masquerading-as-branchial-cleft-cyst-a-potential-pitfall-in-diagnosis-and-management
#19
Lum Sai-Guan, Kong Min-Han, Ngan Kah-Wai, Mohd-Razif Mohamad-Yunus
INTRODUCTION: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer's ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389316/maintenance-therapy-with-vinflunine-plus-best-supportive-care-versus-best-supportive-care-alone-in-patients-with-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma-with-a-response-after-first-line-chemotherapy-maja-sogug-2011-02-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-open-label-phase
#20
Jesus García-Donas, Albert Font, Begoña Pérez-Valderrama, José Antonio Virizuela, Miquel Ángel Climent, Susana Hernando-Polo, José Ángel Arranz, Maria Del Mar Llorente, Nuria Lainez, José Carlos Villa-Guzmán, Begoña Mellado, Aránzazu González Del Alba, Daniel Castellano, Enrique Gallardo, Urbano Anido, Xavier García Del Muro, Montserrat Domènech, Javier Puente, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Jose Luis Pérez-Gracia, Joaquim Bellmunt
BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy improves outcomes in various tumour types, but cumulative toxic effects limit the choice of drugs. We investigated whether maintenance therapy with vinflunine would delay disease progression in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who had achieved disease control with first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2 trial in 21 Spanish hospitals. Eligible patients had locally advanced, surgically unresectable, or metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract, adequate organ function, and disease control after four to six cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine (carboplatin allowed after cycle four)...
April 4, 2017: Lancet Oncology
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