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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449673/the-predictive-and-prognostic-potential-of-plasma-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-rna-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#1
Enrica Rampazzo, Paola Del Bianco, Roberta Bertorelle, Caterina Boso, Alessandro Perin, Giovanna Spiro, Francesca Bergamo, Claudio Belluco, Angela Buonadonna, Elisa Palazzari, Sara Leonardi, Antonino De Paoli, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard care for locally advanced rectal cancer, but tumour response to CRT and disease outcome are variable. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of plasma telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) levels in predicting tumour response and clinical outcome. METHODS: 176 rectal cancer patients were included. Plasma samples were collected at baseline (before CRT=T0), 2 weeks after CRT was initiated (T1), post-CRT and before surgery (T2), and 4-8 months after surgery (T3) time points...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449437/dynamic-clonal-progression-in-xenografts-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-intrachromosomal-amplification-of-chromosome-21
#2
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446098/safety-efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-vedolizumab-in-patients-with-simultaneous-exposure-to-an-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor
#3
S Ben-Horin, B Ungar, U Kopylov, A Lahat, M Yavzori, E Fudim, O Picard, Y Peled, R Eliakim, E Del Tedesco, S Paul, X Roblin
BACKGROUND: Data on combination-biologic treatment in (IBD) are still scant. AIM: To explore outcomes of patients co-exposed to anti-TNF and vedolizumab. METHODS: Patients starting vedolizumab having measurable anti-TNF levels after recently stopping adalimumab/infliximab ('VDZ-aTNF' group), were compared with control vedolizumab patients in a retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were included (25 VDZ-aTNF, 50 VDZ)...
February 15, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444789/giant-cell-tumour-of-the-patella-with-local-recurrence-successful-management-with-excision-curettage-and-artificial-bone-grafting
#4
Timothy Mark Morris, Zakareya Gamie, Kanishka Milton Ghosh, Kenneth Samora Rankin
Primary patellar neoplasms are rare, comprising 0.12% of primary bone tumours; thus, no standardised treatment related to staging exists. 70%-90% of primary patellar neoplasms are benign or intermediate with giant cell tumour (GCT) being the most common. GCTs are locally aggressive, have a high recurrence rate and metastasise in 1%-2%. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with histologically confirmed recurrent GCT of the patella to demonstrate that aggressive surgical management options described in the literature, such as patellectomy with or without complex reconstruction, may be excessive and cause patients undue morbidity...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435195/decorin-is-a-pivotal-effector-in-the-extracellular-matrix-and-tumour-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Wen Zhang, Yan Ge, Qian Cheng, Qi Zhang, Lin Fang, Junnian Zheng
Decorin (DCN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family. As a pluripotent molecule, DCN regulates the bioactivities of cell growth factors and participates in ECM assembly. Accumulating evidence has shown that DCN acts as a ligand of various cytokines and growth factors by directly or indirectly interacting with the corresponding signalling molecules involved in cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, adhesion and metastasis and that DCN especially plays vital roles in cancer cell proliferation, spread, pro-inflammatory processes and anti-fibrillogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434703/microrna-495-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-directly-targeting-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-1
#6
Ying Ye, Juhua Zhuang, Guangdong Wang, Saifei He, Suiliang Zhang, Guoyu Wang, Jing Ni, Jiening Wang, Wei Xia
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy and second-most frequent cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. Previously, increasing studies report that microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are abnormally expressed in various types of human cancers and may participate in the tumourigenesis and tumour development of HCC. miRNA-based targeted therapy is effective against different molecular targets and may increase the sensitisation of cancer cells to therapy by several folds. Therefore, further validation of potentially important miRNAs involved in HCC initiation and progression may provide valuable insights into the treatment of patients with HCC...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434366/potentiating-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-oncolytic-viruses
#7
REVIEW
Patrick Lee, Shashi Gujar
The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapies for prostate cancer remains subpar compared with that for other cancers. The goal of most immunotherapies is the activation of immune effectors, such as T cells and natural killer cells, as the presence of these activated mediators positively correlates with patient outcomes. Clinical evidence shows that prostate cancer is immunogenic, accessible to the immune system, and can be targeted by antitumour immune responses. However, owing to the detrimental effects of prostate-cancer-associated immunosuppression, even the newest immunotherapeutic approaches fail to initiate the clinically desired antitumour immune reaction...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433567/laryngeal-recurrence-sites-in-patients-previously-treated-with-transoral-laser-microsurgery-for-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
P Horwich, M H Rigby, C MacKay, J Melong, B Williams, M Bullock, R Hart, J Trites, S M Taylor
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal framework provides a natural barrier preventing tumour spread to extralaryngeal structures. Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may violate these boundaries, altering the pathways of tumor spread for potential recurrences. Our project objective is to describe laryngeal SCC recurrence patterns and overall survival in patients requiring total laryngectomy (TL) after TLM. METHODS: Patients undergoing TLM for laryngeal SCC requiring salvage TL were identified from a prospective CO2 laser database containing all patients undergoing TLM for head and neck malignancies at the QEII Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia between March 2002 - May 2014...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431121/methotrexate-limits-inflammation-through-an-a20-dependent-cross-tolerance-mechanism
#9
Cristina Municio, Ángeles Dominguez-Soto, Sara Fuentelsaz-Romero, Amalia Lamana, Nuria Montes, Víctor D Cuevas, Raquel García Campos, José L Pablos, Isidoro González-Álvaro, Amaya Puig-Kröger
OBJECTIVES: Methotrexate (MTX) is the anchor drug for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action is not fully understood. In RA, macrophages display a proinflammatory polarisation profile that resembles granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-differentiated macrophages and the response to MTX is only observed in thymidylate synthase+ GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. To determine the molecular basis for the MTX anti-inflammatory action, we explored toll-like receptor (TLR), RA synovial fluid (RASF) and tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-initiated signalling in MTX-exposed GM-CSF-primed macrophages...
February 3, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430581/plagioneurin-b-a-potent-isolated-compound-induces-apoptotic-signalling-pathways-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#10
Noraziah Nordin, Nazia Abdul Majid, Rozana Othman, Fatima Abdelmutaal Ahmed Omer, Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin, Najihah Mohd Hashim
Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0...
February 12, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420531/differential-roles-of-the-drosophila-emt-inducing-transcription-factors-snail-and-serpent-in-driving-primary-tumour-growth
#11
Kyra Campbell, Gaëlle Lebreton, Xavier Franch-Marro, Jordi Casanova
Several transcription factors have been identified that activate an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which endows cells with the capacity to break through basement membranes and migrate away from their site of origin. A key program in development, in recent years it has been shown to be a crucial driver of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, several of these EMT-inducing transcription factors are often expressed long before the initiation of the invasion-metastasis cascade as well as in non-invasive tumours...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419849/braf-v600-mutation-profile-of-metastatic-melanoma-in-the-thrace-region-of-turkey
#12
Nuray Can, Ebru Taştekin, Tülin Deniz Yalta, Necdet Süt, Selma Korkmaz, Ufuk Usta, Fulya Öz Puyan, Ezgi Genç, Mert Cezik, Busem Binboğa Tutuğ, Osman Köstek, Hilmi Tozkir
OBJECTIVE: BRAF is the most common mutation in melanoma. The most common subtype is BRAF V600E, followed by V600K. Initially, the authors aimed to investigate whether clinicopathological features of melanoma are associated with BRAF mutations. We then aimed to present the relationships between the clinicopathological features and the mutated subtype (V600E vs V600K). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 61 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (affecting the lymph node or other distant sites) were selected...
February 8, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417984/-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-ct-and-prediction-of-histopathological-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-adenocarcinoma-of-the-oesophagus-and-oesophagogastric-junction
#13
T Harustiak, M Zemanova, P Fencl, L Hornofova, A Pazdro, M Snajdauf, E Salkova, R Lischke, A Stolz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET can be used to predict histopathological response early in the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and oesophagogastric junction. METHODS: Following the PET response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST 1.0) as a standardized method for semiquantitative assessment of metabolic response, FDG-PET/CT was performed before (PET1) and after (PET2) initiation of the first cycle of chemotherapy...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417106/nanoparticle-triggered-in-situ-catalytic-chemical-reactions-for-tumour-specific-therapy
#14
Han Lin, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413689/germline-bap1-positive-patients-the-dilemmas-of-cancer-surveillance-and-a-proposed-interdisciplinary-consensus-monitoring-strategy
#15
Phoebe Star, Annabel Goodwin, Rony Kapoor, R Max Conway, Georgina V Long, Richard A Scolyer, Pascale Guitera
The germline BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) mutation and associated cancer pre-disposition syndrome was first described in 2011. Since then, physicians have considered this diagnosis for patients with a characteristic personal or family history of BAP1-associated tumours (mainly uveal and cutaneous melanoma, pleural/peritoneal mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma and BAP1-deficient melanocytic lesions). However, a positive germline BAP1 mutation detection creates significant uncertainty in terms of appropriate cancer surveillance...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411111/functional-morphology-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Stefan Liebner, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Yvonne Reiss, Karl H Plate, Dritan Agalliu, Gabriela Constantin
The adult quiescent blood-brain barrier (BBB), a structure organised by endothelial cells through interactions with pericytes, astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurovascular unit, is highly regulated but fragile at the same time. In the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding not only the molecular pathways involved in BBB development, but also BBB breakdown in neurological diseases. Specifically, the Wnt/β-catenin, retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog pathways moved into the focus of BBB research...
February 6, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405911/evaluating-the-role-for-renal-biopsy-in-t1-and-t2-renal-masses-a-single-centre-study
#17
Dylan Hoare, Howard Evans, Heidi Richards, Rahim Samji
INTRODUCTION: Once used primarily in the identification of renal metastasis and lymphomas, various urological bodies are now adopting an expanded role for the renal biopsy. We sought to evaluate the role of the renal biopsy in a Canadian context, focusing on associated adverse events, radiographic burden, and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This retrospective review incorporated all patients undergoing ultrasound (US)/computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies for T1 and T2 renal masses...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403038/tumour-spheres-with-inverted-polarity-drive-the-formation-of-peritoneal-metastases-in-patients-with-hypermethylated-colorectal-carcinomas
#18
Olivier Zajac, Joel Raingeaud, Fotine Libanje, Celine Lefebvre, Dora Sabino, Isabelle Martins, Pétronille Roy, Clara Benatar, Charlotte Canet-Jourdan, Paula Azorin, Mélanie Polrot, Patrick Gonin, Salima Benbarche, Sylvie Souquere, Gerard Pierron, Damien Nowak, Ludovic Bigot, Michel Ducreux, David Malka, Camille Lobry, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Clarisse Eveno, Marc Pocard, Jean-Luc Perfettini, Dominique Elias, Peggy Dartigues, Diane Goéré, Fanny Jaulin
Metastases account for 90% of cancer-related deaths; thus, it is vital to understand the biology of tumour dissemination. Here, we collected and monitored >50 patient specimens ex vivo to investigate the cell biology of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastatic spread to the peritoneum. This reveals an unpredicted mode of dissemination. Large clusters of cancer epithelial cells displaying a robust outward apical pole, which we termed tumour spheres with inverted polarity (TSIPs), were observed throughout the process of dissemination...
February 5, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395854/total-body-irradiation-using-helical-tomotherapy%C3%A2-treatment-technique-dosimetric-results-and-initial-clinical-experience
#19
V Sarradin, L Simon, A Huynh, J Gilhodes, T Filleron, F Izar
PURPOSE: Helical TomoTherapy® allows precise and homogeneous tumour coverage and excellent sparing of organs at risk. We present here our treatment technique, dosimetric results, and our first clinical data for patients receiving total body irradiation as part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort consisted of 11 patients who were treated in our institution between August 2014 and January 2016...
January 25, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393591/treatment-outcome-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-tomodirect-plan-and-its-characteristics-compared-to-the-tomohelical-plan
#20
Yuki Mukai, Motoko Omura, Harumitu Hashimoto, Kengo Matsui, Hideyuki Hongo, Wataru Yamakabe, Miwa Yoshida, Masaharu Hata, Tomio Inoue
INTRODUCTION: TomoDirect (TD) is an intensity-modulated radiotherapy system that uses a fixed gantry angle instead of the rotational beam delivery used in the TomoHelical (TH) system. This study was performed (1) to evaluate the treatment outcome of the TD plan for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and (2) to compare the characteristics of TD plans with those of TH plans. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NSCLC were treated using the TD system...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
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