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Fangyan Yu, Shruti Sharma, Agnieszka Skowronek, Kai Sven Erdmann
A primary cilium is present on most eukaryotic cells and represents a specialized organelle dedicated to signal transduction and mechanosensing. Defects in cilia function are the cause for several human diseases called ciliopathies. The serologically defined colon cancer antigen-3 (SDCCAG3) is a recently described novel endosomal protein mainly localized at early and recycling endosomes and interacting with several components of membrane trafficking pathways. Here we describe localization of SDCCAG3 to the basal body of primary cilia...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Hyunsuk Kim, Young-Hwan Hwang
In light of the advances in the understanding of cystogenesis in clinical syndromes, potential therapeutic targets have been proposed. Among ciliopathies, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary disease, and is characterized by the progressive enlargement of bilateral renal cysts, resulting in end-stage kidney failure. Progress in genetics and molecular pathobiology has enabled the development of therapeutic agents that can modulate aberrant molecular pathways. Recently, clinical trials using somatostatin analogs and vasopressin receptor antagonists were conducted, and resulted in the approval of tolvaptan in managing kidney disease in some countries...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chen-Jei Hong, Bruce A Hamilton
Zfp423 encodes a 30-zinc finger transcription factor that intersects several canonical signaling pathways. Zfp423 mutations result in ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including agenesis of the cerebellar vermis in mice and Joubert syndrome (JBTS19) and nephronophthisis (NPHP14) in humans. Unlike most ciliopathy genes, Zfp423 encodes a nuclear protein and its developmental expression is complex, leading to alternative proposals for cellular mechanisms. Here we show that Zfp423 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors, that loss of Zfp423 in these precursors leads to cell-intrinsic reduction in proliferation, loss of response to Shh, and primary cilia abnormalities that include diminished frequency of both Smoothened and IFT88 localization...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Maleeha Maria, Ideke J C Lamers, Miriam Schmidts, Muhammad Ajmal, Sulman Jaffar, Ehsan Ullah, Bilal Mustafa, Shakeel Ahmad, Katia Nazmutdinova, Bethan Hoskins, Erwin van Wijk, Linda Koster-Kamphuis, Muhammad Imran Khan, Phil L Beales, Frans P M Cremers, Ronald Roepman, Maleeha Azam, Heleen H Arts, Raheel Qamar
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is both genetically and clinically heterogeneous. To date 19 genes have been associated with BBS, which encode proteins active at the primary cilium, an antenna-like organelle that acts as the cell's signaling hub. In the current study, a combination of mutation screening, targeted sequencing of ciliopathy genes associated with BBS, and whole-exome sequencing was used for the genetic characterization of five families including four with classic BBS symptoms and one BBS-like syndrome...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Francesco Volta, Jantje M Gerdes
One in 12 people worldwide suffers from diabetes and more than 90% of affected adult individuals are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity adds to the personal risk to develop T2DM, and both metabolic diseases are rampantly increasing worldwide. Over recent years, primary cilia have moved into the focus of basic and clinical research, after several human diseases have been identified as ciliopathies (i.e., they are linked to ciliary dysfunction). A subset of ciliopathies presents with obesity and diabetes, either as core symptoms or major complications...
October 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Laura E Mariani, Maarten F Bijlsma, Anna I Ivanova, Sarah K Suciu, Richard A Kahn, Tamara Caspary
The regulatory GTPase Arl13b localizes to primary cilia, where it regulates Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Missense mutations in ARL13B can cause the ciliopathy Joubert syndrome, while the mouse null allele is embryonic lethal. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a system to determine the effects of Arl13b mutations on Shh signaling. We tested a total of seven different mutants, three JS-causing variants, two point mutants predicted to alter guanine nucleotide handling, one that disrupts cilia localization, and one that prevents palmitoylation and thus membrane binding, in assays of transcriptional and non-transcriptional Shh signaling...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Ivan Duran, S Paige Taylor, Wenjuan Zhang, Jorge Martin, Kimberly N Forlenza, Rhonda P Spiro, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael Bamshad, Daniel H Cohn, Deborah Krakow
Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) and Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) or Jeune Syndrome are recessively inherited skeletal ciliopathies characterized by profound skeletal abnormalities and are frequently associated with polydactyly and multiorgan system involvement. SRPS are produced by mutations in genes that participate in the formation and function of primary cilia and usually result from disruption of retrograde intraflagellar (IFT) transport of the cilium. Herein we describe a new spectrum of SRPS caused by mutations in the gene IFT81, a key component of the IFT-B complex essential for anterograde transport...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sheena Sharma, Jennifer M Kalish, Ethan M Goldberg, Francis Jeshira Reynoso, Madhura Pradhan
Background. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is a rare condition with X-linked dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cxorf5 (OFD1) gene. This gene encodes the OFD1 protein located within centrosomes and basal bodies of primary cilia. Approximately 15-50% of patients with OFD1 progress to end-stage kidney disease following development of polycystic changes within the kidneys. This condition almost always causes intrauterine lethality in males. Description of Case Diagnosis and Treatment. A Caucasian male aged 9 years and 9 months presented with increased urinary frequency, increased thirst, and decreased appetite...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
Jennifer Vieillard, Marie Paschaki, Jean-Luc Duteyrat, Céline Augière, Elisabeth Cortier, Jean-André Lapart, Joëlle Thomas, Bénédicte Durand
The ciliary transition zone (TZ) is a complex structure found at the cilia base. Defects in TZ assembly are associated with human ciliopathies. In most eukaryotes, three protein complexes (CEP290, NPHP, and MKS) cooperate to build the TZ. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, mild TZ defects are observed in the absence of MKS components. In contrast, Cby and Azi1 cooperate to build the TZ by acting upstream of Cep290 and MKS components. Without Cby and Azi1, centrioles fail to form the TZ, precluding sensory cilia assembly, and no ciliary membrane cap associated with sperm ciliogenesis is made...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Søren T Christensen, Stine K Morthorst, Johanne B Mogensen, Lotte B Pedersen
Since the beginning of the millennium, research in primary cilia has revolutionized our way of understanding how cells integrate and organize diverse signaling pathways during vertebrate development and in tissue homeostasis. Primary cilia are unique sensory organelles that detect changes in their extracellular environment and integrate and transmit signaling information to the cell to regulate various cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Many different signaling pathways have now been shown to rely on primary cilia to function properly, and mutations that lead to ciliary dysfunction are at the root of a pleiotropic group of diseases and syndromic disorders called ciliopathies...
September 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Qing Fu, Mingchu Xu, Xue Chen, Xunlun Sheng, Zhisheng Yuan, Yani Liu, Huajin Li, Zixi Sun, Huiping Li, Lizhu Yang, Keqing Wang, Fangxia Zhang, Yumei Li, Chen Zhao, Ruifang Sui, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder featured by combined visual impairment and hearing loss. Despite a dozen of genes involved in Usher syndrome having been identified, the genetic basis remains unknown in 20-30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to identify the novel disease-causing gene of a distinct subtype of Usher syndrome. METHODS: Ophthalmic examinations and hearing tests were performed on patients with Usher syndrome in two consanguineous families...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Maria J Perugorria, Luis Bujanda, Jesus M Banales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Metta B Pratt, Joshua S Titlow, Ilan Davis, Amy R Barker, Helen R Dawe, Jordan W Raff, Helio Roque
Cilia are conserved organelles that have important motility, sensory and signalling roles. The transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium is crucial for cilia function, and defects in several TZ proteins are associated with human congenital ciliopathies such as nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). In several species, MKS and NPHP proteins form separate complexes that cooperate with Cep290 to assemble the TZ, but flies seem to lack core components of the NPHP module. We show that MKS proteins in flies are spatially separated from Cep290 at the TZ, and that flies mutant for individual MKS genes fail to recruit other MKS proteins to the TZ, whereas Cep290 seems to be recruited normally...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Ping Song, Lynn Dudinsky, Joseph Fogerty, Robert Gaivin, Brian D Perkins
PURPOSE: Mutations in the gene ARL13B cause the classical form of Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with variable degrees of retinal degeneration. As second-site modifier alleles can contribute to retinal pathology in ciliopathies, animal models provide a unique platform to test how genetic interactions modulate specific phenotypes. In this study, we analyzed the zebrafish arl13b mutant for retinal degeneration and for epistatic relationships with the planar cell polarity protein (PCP) component vangl2...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Saadullah Khan, Imran Ullah, Abdul Nasir, C Arnoud Meijer, Marlies Laurense-Bik, Johan T den Dunnen, Claudia A L Ruivenkamp, Mariëtte J V Hoffer, Gijs W E Santen, Wasim Ahmad
Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is one of the most common congenital malformations observed in the general population. However, it can also occur as part of a syndrome. Unbiased genetic screening techniques such as exome sequencing are highly appropriate methods to provide a molecular diagnosis in patients with polydactyly due to the large number of mutated genes associated with it. The present study describes a consanguineous family of Pakistani origin with PAP, speech impairment, hearing impairment of variable degree, and proportionate short stature with no prominent intellectual disability or ophthalmological abnormalities...
August 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Kollu N Rao, Wei Zhang, Linjing Li, Manisha Anand, Hemant Khanna
Ciliary trafficking defects underlie the pathogenesis of severe human ciliopathies, including Joubert Syndrome (JBTS), Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Mutations in the ciliary protein RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator) are common causes of RP-associated photoreceptor degeneration worldwide. While previous work has suggested that the localization of RPGR to cilia is critical to its functions, the mechanism by which RPGR and its associated cargo are trafficked to the cilia is unclear...
August 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Jeremy R Chapman, Germaine Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet Oncology
Manuel Bauer, Fabien Cubizolles, Alexander Schmidt, Erich A Nigg
Centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes and cilia. While numerical and/or structural centrosomes aberrations are implicated in cancer, mutations in centriolar and centrosomal proteins are genetically linked to ciliopathies, microcephaly, and dwarfism. The evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying centrosome biogenesis are centered on a set of key proteins, including Plk4, Sas-6, and STIL, whose exact levels are critical to ensure accurate reproduction of centrioles during cell cycle progression...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Journal
Samuel Dean, Flavia Moreira-Leite, Vladimir Varga, Keith Gull
The transition zone (TZ) of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is a structural intermediate between the basal body and the axoneme that regulates ciliary traffic. Mutations in genes encoding TZ proteins (TZPs) cause human inherited diseases (ciliopathies). Here, we use the trypanosome to identify TZ components and localize them to TZ subdomains, showing that the Bardet-Biedl syndrome complex (BBSome) is more distal in the TZ than the Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex. Several of the TZPs identified here have human orthologs...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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