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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163120/the-myosuit-bi-articular-anti-gravity-exosuit-that-reduces-hip-extensor-activity-in-sitting-transfers
#2
Kai Schmidt, Jaime E Duarte, Martin Grimmer, Alejandro Sancho-Puchades, Haiqi Wei, Chris S Easthope, Robert Riener
Muscle weakness-which can result from neurological injuries, genetic disorders, or typical aging-can affect a person's mobility and quality of life. For many people with muscle weakness, assistive devices provide the means to regain mobility and independence. These devices range from well-established technology, such as wheelchairs, to newer technologies, such as exoskeletons and exosuits. For assistive devices to be used in everyday life, they must provide assistance across activities of daily living (ADLs) in an unobtrusive manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163089/the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease-shows-specific-deficits-in-a-test-battery-of-motor-function
#3
Giuseppe Manfré, Erik K H Clemensson, Elisavet I Kyriakou, Laura E Clemensson, Johanneke E van der Harst, Judith R Homberg, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Rationale: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159074/only-some-patients-with-bulbar-and-spinal-muscular-atrophy-may-develop-cardiac-disease
#4
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger
Objectives: According to recent publications, some patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (BSMA) develop cardiac disease, manifesting as ST-segment abnormalities, Brugada-syndrome, dilative cardiomyopathy, or sudden cardiac death. Here we present neurological and cardiac data of a BSMA patient who was followed up for 10 y. Case report: In a male patient aged 47 y, BSMA was diagnosed at age 37 y upon the typical clinical presentation (postural tremor since age 12 y, dysarthria since age 15 y, muscle cramps since age 29 y, general myalgias since age 32 y, general fasciculations since age 34 y, myoclonic jerks, easy fatigability, dyspnea upon exercise since age 36 y) and a CAG-repeat expansion of 47 ± 1 repeats in the androgen-receptor gene detected at age 37 y...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158948/the-how-and-why-of-the-movement-system-as-the-identity-of-physical-therapy
#5
Shirley Sahrmann
The Movement System was adopted as the identity of physical therapy as one of the 8 guiding principles accompanying the Vision Statement of 2013. At its inception physical therapy was considered more of a technical field rather than that of a professional field. Physicians were to diagnose the patient's problem and the therapist was to follow the prescription provided by the physician with the primary purpose being to relieve symptoms such as pain or muscle weakness. Even by the 1960's, the prescription became more of a referral and there was recognition that therapists were making decisions about the patient's treatment and discharge disposition...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157738/do-hip-muscle-weakness-and-dynamic-knee-valgus-matter-for-the-clinical-evaluation-and-decision-making-process-in-patients-with-patellofemoral-pain
#6
REVIEW
Nayra Deise Dos Anjos Rabelo, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is a very common musculoskeletal condition. In the last years, evidence regarding this disease increased exponentially. Although widely investigated, this problem still frustrates patients and clinicians for having an unfavorable prognosis. Some gaps still exist in the understanding and managing of patellofemoral pain. Numerous cross-sectional association studies show an association between gluteus muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus in patients with patellofemoral pain...
November 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157315/botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-as-monotherapy-for-upper-limb-essential-tremor-using-kinematics
#7
Olivia Samotus, Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters...
November 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156739/electroacupuncture-alleviates-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-immobilization
#8
Jun Yang, Su Min, Fei Xie, Jingyuan Chen, Xuechao Hao, Li Ren
Immobilization-related skeletal muscle atrophy is a major concern to patients in Intensive Care Units and it has a profound effect on the quality of life. However, the underlying molecular events for the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture to treat muscle atrophy have not been fully elucidated. Here we developed an immobilization mouse model and tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle weakness may be caused by the increased expression of γ and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on muscle cell membranes, while electroacupuncture could decrease the expression of γ and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156483/-interventions-for-assisting-geriatric-patients-with-frailty-before-surgery
#9
Jörn Kiselev
Frailty is a complex syndrome leading to a higher vulnerability in elderly patients, especially during and after surgery. It is characterized by the simultaneous presence of at least three of five phenotypical symptoms: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, muscle weakness, slow walking speed, and low activity levels. The presence of two of these symptoms is often labelled as pre-frailty.By identifying these symptoms of frailty, medical teams can plan and perform suitable interventions prior to a planned surgery in order to lower these risk factors and to avoid complications, such as delir, hospital re-admission, loss of independence, and increased mortality...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154053/acupuncture-and-kinesio-taping-for-the-acute-management-of-bell-s-palsy-a-case-report
#10
Derya Özmen Alptekin
BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy is an idiopathic, acute peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that supplies the muscles of facial expression. Despite an expected 70% full recovery rate, up to 30% of patients are left with potentially disfiguring facial weakness, involuntary movements, or persistent lacrimation. The most frequently used treatment options are corticosteroids and antiviral drugs. However, accompanying clinical conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, gastrointestinal disturbances, polypharmacy of geriatric patients, and significant sequelae ratios, indicate the need for safe and effective complementary therapies that would enhance the success of the conventional interventions...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152000/muscle-weakness-in-the-empty-and-full-can-tests-cannot-differentiate-rotator-cuff-tear-from-cervical-spondylotic-amyotrophy-pain-provocation-is-a-useful-finding
#11
REVIEW
Eiichiro Iwata, Hideki Shigematsu, Kazuya Inoue, Takuya Egawa, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Yasuhito Tanaka
Purpose: Rotator cuff tears and cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) are often confused as the main symptom in those with difficulty in shoulder elevation. Empty and full can tests are frequently used for the clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the empty and full can test results can help differentiate rotator cuff tears from CSA. Methods: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with rotator cuff tears and 25 with CSA were enrolled...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151827/tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-regulates-quadriceps-muscle-atrophy-and-fiber-type-alteration-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Jun-Juan Lu, Qing Wang, Li Hua Xie, Qiang Zhang, Sheng Hua Sun
Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), weakness and muscle mass loss of the quadriceps muscle has been demonstrated to predict survival and mortality rates of patients. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), as a member of the TNF superfamily, has recently been identified as a key regulator of skeletal muscle wasting and metabolic dysfunction. So our aim was to study the role of TWEAK during quadriceps muscle atrophy and fiber-type transformation in COPD model rats and its possible pathway...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151520/dropped-head-syndrome-and-the-presence-of-rimmed-vacuoles-in-a-muscle-biopsy-in-scleroderma-polymyositis-overlap-syndrome-associated-with-anti-ku-antibody
#13
Yoshida Takeshi, Yoshida Mai, Mitsuyo Kinjo, Jonosono Manabu, Higuchi Itsuro
A 66-year-old woman with a history of interstitial lung disease presented with a 3-month history of dropped head syndrome (DHS), followed by camptocormia and extremity weakness. A clinical examination revealed Raynaud phenomenon, arthralgia, distal skin sclerosis, and microbleeds in the nailfold capillaries. An anti-Ku antibody test was positive. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (RVs). The diagnosis of scleroderma-polymyositis (SSc-PM) overlap syndrome was made. RVs on a muscle biopsy in a patient with inflammatory myositis involving axial muscles may be seen either in inclusion body myositis or SSc-PM overlap syndrome...
November 20, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150988/patterns-and-correlates-of-grip-strength-in-older-americans
#14
Kimberly Forrest, Adelle Williams, Marcy Leeds, Joseph Robare, Thomas Bechard
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is a sensitive indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Loss of muscle strength contributes to a decline in physical functioning. Hand grip strength is a simple measurement but correlated with total body muscle strength. This study evaluated the patterns and correlates of grip strength among older adults in the United States. METHODS: The grip strength data were analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149920/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-the-inflammatory-myopathies
#15
REVIEW
Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Amneet Hans, Kyle Potts, Mohammad K Ismail
Although muscle weakness is the pathognomonic feature of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, systemic organ involvement is not uncommon. The gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations are well known. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is the most common gastrointestinal symptom and can be severe. Gastric and small intestinal motility disorders, including chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease have been described. Comprehensive cancer screening is warranted soon after the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathies due to high risk of occult malignancies...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149851/identification-of-gaa-variants-through-whole-exome-sequencing-targeted-to-a-cohort-of-606-patients-with-unexplained-limb-girdle-muscle-weakness
#16
Katherine Johnson, Ana Töpf, Marta Bertoli, Lauren Phillips, Kristl G Claeys, Vidosava Rakocevic Stojanovic, Stojan Perić, Andreas Hahn, Paul Maddison, Ela Akay, Alexandra E Bastian, Anna Łusakowska, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk, Monkol Lek, Liwen Xu, Daniel G MacArthur, Volker Straub
BACKGROUND: Late-onset Pompe disease is a rare genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by a primary deficiency of α-glucosidase and the associated accumulation of glycogen in lysosomal vacuoles. The deficiency of α-glucosidase can often be detected using an inexpensive and readily accessible dried blood spot test when Pompe disease is suspected. Like several neuromuscular disorders, Pompe disease typically presents with progressive weakness of limb-girdle muscles and respiratory insufficiency...
November 17, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149469/cuffed-versus-uncuffed-endotracheal-tubes-for-general-anaesthesia-in-children-aged-eight-years-and-under
#17
REVIEW
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149005/respiratory-muscle-weakness-a-major-contributor-to-pediatric-extubation-failure-does-low-serum-phosphorus-contribute-to-muscle-weakness
#18
Satish Shah, Rakesh Lodha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148138/artificial-walking-technologies-to-improve-gait-in-cerebral-palsy-multichannel-neuromuscular-stimulation
#19
Jessica Rose, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Erin E Butler
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146292/identification-of-interfaces-involved-in-weak-interactions-with-application-to-f-actin-aldolase-rafts
#20
Guiqing Hu, Dianne W Taylor, Jun Liu, Kenneth A Taylor
Macromolecular interactions occur with widely varying affinities. Strong interactions form well defined interfaces but weak interactions are more dynamic and variable. Weak interactions can collectively lead to large structures such as microvilli via cooperativity and are often the precursors of much stronger interactions, e.g. the initial actin-myosin interaction during muscle contraction. Electron tomography combined with subvolume alignment and classification is an ideal method for the study of weak interactions because a 3-D image is obtained for the individual interactions, which subsequently are characterized collectively...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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