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Hiv and exercise

Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Aritra Das, Roger Detels, Abdelmonem A Afifi, Marjan Javanbakht, Frank Sorvillo, Samiran Panda
In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to inform the development of an instrument to measure the health-related quality of life of children living with HIV. The QOL-CHAI instrument consists of four generic core scales of the "Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory" and two HIV-targeted scales-"symptoms" and "discrimination." A piloting exercise involving groups of children living with HIV and HIV-negative children born to HIV-infected parents provided evidence for the acceptable psychometric properties and usability of the instrument...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Jason Williams, Farouk Umaru, Dianna Edgil, Joel Kuritsky
In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Jamie Rylance, Grace Mchugh, John Metcalfe, Hilda Mujuru, Kusum Nathoo, Stephanie Wilmore, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Edith Majonga, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), children suffer chronic symptoms. We investigated symptom prevalence, lung function, and exercise capacity among older children established on ART, and an age-matched HIV-uninfected group. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe of: 1) HIV-infected children aged 6-16 years receiving ART for over six months; 2) HIV-uninfected children attending primary health clinics from the same area...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Janet R Heller, Ariel L Sarmiento
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk behaviors related to cigarette use, alcohol use, nutrition, physical fitness, and sexual behavior. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,075 students attending an urban community college during the Spring 2012 semester. METHODS: Data were collected in randomly selected classes using the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) paper survey and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 for frequencies and chi-square test of independence...
August 16, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Tarylee Reddy, Geert Molenberghs, Edmund Njeru Njagi, Marc Aerts
In longitudinal studies of biomarkers, an outcome of interest is the time at which a biomarker reaches a particular threshold. The CD4 count is a widely used marker of human immunodeficiency virus progression. Because of the inherent variability of this marker, a single CD4 count below a relevant threshold should be interpreted with caution. Several studies have applied persistence criteria, designating the outcome as the time to the occurrence of two consecutive measurements less than the threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the time to attainment of two consecutive CD4 counts less than a meaningful threshold, which takes into account the patient-specific trajectory and measurement error...
September 1, 2016: Pharmaceutical Statistics
Akashdeep Singh, Deepinder Chhina, R K Soni, Chandan Kakkar, U S Sidhu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but a life-threatening infection caused by Nocardia spp. The diagnosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus higher mortality. AIM: In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis. METHODS: A retrospective, 5-year (2009-2014) review of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis admitted to a tertiary care hospital...
July 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Tiffany Field
This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Tiffany Field
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Natasha Lelijveld, Andrew Seal, Jonathan C Wells, Jane Kirkby, Charles Opondo, Emmanuel Chimwezi, James Bunn, Robert Bandsma, Robert S Heyderman, Moffat J Nyirenda, Marko Kerac
BACKGROUND: Tackling severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a global health priority. Heightened risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in children exposed to SAM at around 2 years of age is plausible in view of previously described consequences of other early nutritional insults. By applying developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory to this group, we aimed to explore the long-term effects of SAM. METHODS: We followed up 352 Malawian children (median age 9·3 years) who were still alive following SAM inpatient treatment between July 12, 2006, and March 7, 2007, (median age 24 months) and compared them with 217 sibling controls and 184 age-and-sex matched community controls...
September 2016: Lancet Global Health
Artur Bessa, Jorge C Lopez, Fabrizio DI Masi, Fernando Ferry, Gabriel Costa E Silva, Estèlio H Martins Dantas
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information regarding the positive effects of different types of physical training on HIV-positive patient immune function, body composition and physical fitness. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) To determine the effects of a three- month progressive strength training program on lymphocyte CD4+ cell counts in HIV- positive patients and (2) to measure strength improvements, body composition and cardiovascular alterations in HIV-positive patients after a strength training program...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Holger Cramer, Heidemarie Haller, Gustav Dobos, Romy Lauche
A reasonable estimation of expected dropout rates is vital for adequate sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Underestimating expected dropouts rates increases the risk of false negative results while overestimating rates results in overly large sample sizes, raising both ethical and economic issues. To estimate expected dropout rates in RCTs on yoga interventions, MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, IndMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched through February 2014; a total of 168 RCTs were meta-analyzed...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Katharine Kripke, Velephi Okello, Vusi Maziya, Wendy Benzerga, Munamato Mirira, Elizabeth Gold, Melissa Schnure, Sema Sgaier, Delivette Castor, Jason Reed, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has been a priority for Swaziland since 2009. Initially focusing on men ages 15-49, the Ministry of Health reduced the minimum age for VMMC from 15 to 10 years in 2012, given the existing demand among 10- to 15-year-olds. To understand the implications of focusing VMMC service delivery on specific age groups, the MOH undertook a modeling exercise to inform policy and implementation in 2013-2014. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The impact and cost of circumcising specific age groups were assessed using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2...
2016: PloS One
Katharine Kripke, Frank Chimbwandira, Zebedee Mwandi, Faustin Matchere, Melissa Schnure, Jason Reed, Delivette Castor, Sema Sgaier, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC) prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness...
2016: PloS One
Katharine Kripke, Ping-An Chen, Andrea Vazzano, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Yogan Pillay, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Collen Bonnecwe, Peter Barron, Eva Kiwango, Delivette Castor, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC...
2016: PloS One
Kristina E Rehm, Deborah Konkle-Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Maria C Pacheco-Pares, Jorge Santana-Bagur, Michael J Joyner, Jorge Rodriguez-Zayas, Farah A Ramirez-Marrero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Echezona E Ezeanolue, Byron J Powell, Dina Patel, Ayodotun Olutola, Michael Obiefune, Patrick Dakum, Prosper Okonkwo, Bola Gobir, Timothy Akinmurele, Anthea Nwandu, Kwasi Torpey, Bolanle Oyeledum, Muyiwa Aina, Andy Eyo, Obinna Oleribe, Ikoedem Ibanga, John Oko, Chukwuma Anyaike, John Idoko, Muktar H Aliyu, Rachel Sturke, Heather Watts, George Siberry
BACKGROUND: In 2013, Nigeria accounted for 15% of the 1.3 million pregnant women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and 26% of new infections among children worldwide. Despite this, less than 20% of pregnant women in Nigeria received an HIV test during pregnancy, and only 23% of HIV-infected pregnant women received appropriate intervention following HIV diagnosis. This article reports findings from 2 structured group exercises conducted at the first Nigeria Implementation Science Alliance Conference to identify (1) barriers and research gaps related to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and (2) potential strategies and interventions that could address PMTCT challenges...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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