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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#2
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#3
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817333/the-epidemic-of-despair-among-white-americans-trends-in-the-leading-causes-of-premature-death-1999-2015
#4
Elizabeth M Stein, Keith P Gennuso, Donna C Ugboaja, Patrick L Remington
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in premature death rates by cause of death, age, race, and urbanization level in the United States. METHODS: We calculated cause-specific death rates using the Compressed Mortality File, National Center for Health Statistics data for adults aged 25 to 64 years in 2 time periods: 1999 to 2001 and 2013 to 2015. We defined 48 subpopulations by 10-year age groups, race/ethnicity, and county urbanization level (large urban, suburban, small or medium metropolitan, and rural)...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815917/hiv-infected-patients-beliefs-about-their-chronic-co-treatments-in-comparison-with-their-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
S Kamal, O Bugnon, M Cavassini, M P Schneider
OBJECTIVES: Thanks to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected patients can have almost a normal life expectancy. This has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population with other chronic comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression. Our hypothesis is that patients' perceptions of and attitudes towards their cART, which is perceived as crucial to their survival, differ from their beliefs about their co-treatments, and this may have an impact on their medication adherence...
August 16, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815822/hepatitis-c-virus-related-complications-are-increasing-in-women-veterans-a-national-cohort-study
#6
J R Kramer, H B El-Serag, T J Taylor, D L White, S M Asch, S M Frayne, Y Cao, D L Smith, F Kanwal
There are gender-specific variations in the epidemiology and clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, few long-term longitudinal studies have examined trends in the incidence and prevalence of serious liver complications among women compared with men with HCV infection. We used the Veterans Administration Corporate Data Warehouse to identify all veterans with positive HCV viraemia from January 2000 to December 2013. We calculated gender-specific annual incidence and prevalence rates of cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) adjusting for age, diabetes, HIV and alcohol use...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814935/knowledge-and-attitude-of-dental-students-towards-hiv-aids-patients-in-melaka-malaysia
#7
Vijendra Pal Singh, Izni Syazana Osman, Nur Amanina Rahmat, Nur Ashikin Abu Bakar, Nurul Fathin Natasha Abdul Razak, Sowmya Nettem
BACKGROUND: Cross contamination of HIV is a real threat today. Dental treatment often includes direct contact with a patient's blood and saliva, therefore dental professionals can be easily exposed to HIV microorganisms. Hence, it is essential to gain insight into dental students' knowledge and attitude towards HIV patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of 186 clinical year dental students (year 3, 4 and 5) in the 2015-2016 academic session at the Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Manipal University, Melaka volunteered to participate in the study...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814905/conjunctival-flora-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#8
Kagmeni Giles, Yannick Bilong, Andin Viola Dohvoma, Steve Robert Ebana, Hortance Gonsu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the conjunctival flora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODOLOGY: A total of 104 conjunctival swabs from 104 HIV patients on ART underwent microbiological evaluation to describe the flora. RESULT: There were 71 (68.26%) women and 33 (31.74%) men. The mean age was 42.9 ± 9.77 (range: 22-70) years. Negative cultures were found in 39 (37.50%) cases. Bacterial growth occurred in 65 (62...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814336/risk-behaviour-determinants-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-stockholm-sweden-over-a-10-year-period-from-2002-to-2012
#9
Niklas Karlsson, Michele Santacatterina, Kerstin Käll, Maria Hägerstrand, Susanne Wallin, Torsten Berglund, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) frequently engage in injection risk behaviours exposing them to blood-borne infections. Understanding the underlying causes that drive various types and levels of risk behaviours is important to better target preventive interventions. METHODS: A total of 2150 PWID in Swedish remand prisons were interviewed between 2002 and 2012. Questions on socio-demographic and drug-related variables were asked in relation to the following outcomes: Having shared injection drug solution and having lent out or having received already used drug injection equipment within a 12 month recall period...
August 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#10
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811694/estimation-of-upper-limit-of-normal-for-serum-alanine-transaminase-in-healthy-south-indian-population
#11
Pazhanivel Mohan, Varun Sundar, Emmanuel Bhaskar, Syluvai Anthony
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most common and cost effective screening test for asymptomatic liver disease. There is paucity of data on normal ALT among healthy individuals in India. An observational cross sectional study was conducted from January to July 2013 to estimate the upper limit of normal for ALT in healthy south Indian population. Adults undergoing voluntary or pre-employment health screening were included. Those with current and past alcoholism or smoking, acute illness or hospitalization during preceding 12 months, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or over the counter medication use within a month, current or past intake of herbal medications, any chronic medical illness, abnormal body mass index (BMI), fatty liver in ultrasound, abnormality in haemoglobin, platelet count, blood sugar, creatinine, lipid profile and thyroid function test and positive serology (Hepatitis B, C or HIV) were excluded...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811073/quality-of-life-of-people-living-with-hiv-compared-with-that-of-the-general-population-in-japan
#12
Shinichi Hikasa, Shota Shimabukuro, Kyoko Hideta, Norihiro Kuroda, Satoshi Higasa, Akihiro Sawada, Tazuko Tokugawa, Asuka Ikegami, Asuna Kotani, Takeshi Kimura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people living with HIV (PLWH) in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted between June and December 2016 on PLWH. HRQOL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and the three-component model of SF-36 scores was used. The values from the present study were compared with the published general Japanese values. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with the HRQOL of PLWH...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810669/hiv-status-disclosure-facility-based-delivery-and-postpartum-retention-of-mothers-in-a-prevention-clinical-trial-in-rural-nigeria
#13
Kidane A Sarko, Meridith Blevins, Aimalohi A Ahonkhai, Carolyn M Audet, Troy D Moon, Usman I Gebi, Ahmed M Gana, C William Wester, Sten H Vermund, Muktar H Aliyu
Background: Within the context of a cluster randomized prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) trial, we evaluated the impact of disclosure on selected PMTCT continuum of care measures. Methods: In 12 rural matched-pair clinics randomly assigned to an intervention package versus standard-of-care, we enrolled 372 HIV-infected pregnant women from April 2013 to March 2014. This secondary analysis included 327 (87.9%) women with unknown HIV status or who were treatment naïve at presentation to antenatal care...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810475/hiv-symptom-management-self-efficacy-mediates-the-relationship-of-internalized-stigma-and-quality-of-life-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-china
#14
Guangyu Zhou, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou
HIV-related stigma negatively influences quality of life among people living with HIV. Little is known about psychological protective factors that mitigate negative impacts. This study aims to examine the role of self-efficacy in reducing effects of stigma on quality of life. A total of 2987 people living with HIV (age: M = 42.46 years, SD = 12.83; time since diagnosis: M = 3.23 years, SD = 2.39) provided data on internalized stigma, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life, as well as covariates...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809948/-when-i-first-saw-a-condom-i-was-frightened-a-qualitative-study-of-sexual-behavior-love-and-life-of-young-cross-border-migrants-in-urban-chiang-mai-thailand
#15
Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Patou Masika Musumari, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Veruree Manoyos, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara, Suwat Chariyalertsak
BACKGROUND: Many young migrant workers move across the border to Chiang Mai, a major city in Northern Thailand, in search of work opportunities. This study describes their sexual behavior, lifestyles, relationships and experiences with youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. METHODS: This is the qualitative arm of a mixed methods study using focus group discussions (FGDs) among young MWs aged 15-24 years in urban Chiang Mai. We conducted 6 FGDs with 84 participants (43 males, 41 females) organized in groups of 10-15 people, including 3 groups of males, 2 groups of females, and 1 group of both males and females...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809619/the-effect-of-hiv-status-on-clinical-outcomes-of-surgical-sepsis-in-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#16
Samantha Green, Victor Y Kong, Jocinta Odendaal, Benn Sartorius, Damian L Clarke, Petra Brysiewicz, Jereme L Bruce, Grant L Laing, Wanda Bekker
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA), has long been the epicentre of the HIV epidemic, but the impact of HIV co-infection on the clinical outcomes of emergency surgical patients with sepsis remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with the management of patients with HIV co-infection and to compare the disease spectrum and outcome with those without HIV infection. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken at the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Surgical Service (PMSS), SA over a 5-year period from January 2010 to December 2014...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809613/enrolling-hiv-positive-adolescents-in-mental-health-research-a-case-study-reflecting-on-legal-and-ethical-complexities
#17
Nataly Woollett, John Peter, Lucie Cluver, Heena Brahmbhatt
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV are an emerging group in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mental health in this population affects HIV care, treatment, consequential morbidity and secondary transmission. There is a paucity of research regarding these youth in South Africa (SA), partly because section 71 of the National Health Act of 2003 (NHA) requires parental or guardian's consent. OBJECTIVE: To explore legal and ethical issues related to conducting adolescent mental health research in SA...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808480/salvage-chemotherapy-for-adults-with-relapsed-or-refractory-lymphoma-in-malawi
#18
Bongani Kaimila, Toon van der Gronde, Christopher Stanley, Edwards Kasonkanji, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Paula Fox, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is highly associated with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which contributes to worse outcomes relative to resource-rich settings, and frequent failure of first-line chemotherapy. However, there are no second-line treatment descriptions for adults with relapsed or refractory lymphoma (RRL) in SSA. METHODS: We describe HIV+ and HIV- patients with RRL receiving salvage chemotherapy in Malawi. Patients were prospectively treated at a national teaching hospital in Lilongwe, with the modified EPIC regimen (etoposide, prednisolone, ifosfamide, cisplatin) between June 2013 and May 2016, after failing prior first-line chemotherapy...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807740/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-the-americas
#19
B Crabtree Ramírez, Y Caro Vega, B E Shepherd, C Le, M Turner, C Frola, B Grinsztejn, C Cortes, D Padgett, T R Sterling, C C McGowan, A Person
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with substantial mortality in HIV-infected patients. Optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons with CM represents a clinical challenge, and the burden of CM in Latin America has not been well described. Studies suggest that early ART initiation is associated with higher mortality, but data from the Americas are scarce. METHODS: HIV-infected adults in care between 1985-2014 at participating sites in the Latin America (the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet)) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) and who had CM were included...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807605/adjuvant-hpv-vaccination-for-anal-cancer-prevention-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-time-is-now
#20
Ashish A Deshmukh, Scott B Cantor, Elisabeth Fenwick, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Alan G Nyitray, Elizabeth A Stier, Stephen E Goldstone, Timothy Wilkin, Jagpreet Chhatwal
IMPORTANCE: Outcomes of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to anal cancer, remain uncertain. Emerging evidence shows that post HSIL treatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves the effectiveness of treatment. However, no recommendations exist regarding the use of qHPV vaccine as an adjuvant form of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether post-treatment adjuvant vaccination should be adopted in HIV-infected MSM (individuals at highest risk for anal cancer) on the basis of cost-effectiveness determined using existing evidence or whether future research is needed...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
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