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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453849/association-between-frailty-and-components-of-the-frailty-phenotype-with-modifiable-risk-factors-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Kristine M Erlandson, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Robert C Kalayjian, Ronald J Ellis, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on frailty among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults has not been well described. HIV-infected participants aged ≥40 years with initial ART receipt through a randomized, controlled AIDS Clinical Trials Group trial completed a frailty assessment. Ordinal logistic regression models examined factors associated with frailty. Of 1016 participants, 6% were frail, and 38% were prefrail. Frailty was associated with lower education, older age, Medicare/Medicaid, initial efavirenz, smoking, obesity, and neurocognitive impairment; physical activity and alcohol use were protective...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453717/reaching-the-global-target-to-reduce-stunting-an-investment-framework
#2
Meera Shekar, Jakub Kakietek, Mary R D'Alimonte, Hilary E Rogers, Julia Dayton Eberwein, Jon Kweku Akuoku, Audrey Pereira, Shan Soe-Lin, Robert Hecht
Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453572/assessment-of-coronary-artery-calcium-by-chest-ct-compared-with-ekg-gated-cardiac-ct-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#3
Divay Chandra, Aman Gupta, Joseph K Leader, Meghan Fitzpatrick, Lawrence A Kingsley, Eric Kleerup, Sabina A Haberlen, Matthew J Budoff, Mallory Witt, Wendy S Post, Frank C Sciurba, Alison Morris
RATIONALE: Individuals with HIV are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Early detection of subclinical CAD by assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC) may help risk stratify and prevent CAD events in these individuals. However, the current standard to quantify CAC i.e. Agatston scoring requires EKG-gated cardiac CT imaging. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the assessment of CAC using non-EKG-gated chest CT and the Weston scoring system is a useful surrogate for Agatston scores in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453525/high-mortality-among-male-hiv-infected-patients-after-prison-release-art-is-not-enough-after-incarceration-with-hiv
#4
Florence Huber, Alice Merceron, Yoann Madec, Gueda Gadio, Vincent About, Agathe Pastre, Isabelle Coupez, Antoine Adenis, Leila Adriouch, Mathieu Nacher
CONTEXT: French Guiana is a South American French territory, where HIV prevalence consistently exceeds 1% in the adult population. In the only correctional facility, HIV prevalence fluctuates at around 4%. AIMS: After describing the population of HIV-positive inmates, we aimed to evaluate mortality after release from the correctional facility, and to identify its predictive factors. RATIONALE: Outside North American settings, data on treatment outcome and vital status of HIV-positive former inmates are scarce...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453403/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigenemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kakuri-kaduna-state-north-west-nigeria
#5
Cornelius Arome Omatola, Bernard Anyebe Onoja, Temitope Thomas
Globally, increased incidence of liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. This is because both viruses share common routes of transmission. We determined prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfection and the influence of some risk factors on concomitant infection among people living with HIV in a treatment center in Kakuri, Kaduna State. Two hundred consenting individuals with HIV infection participated in the study...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449059/marijuana-use-impacts-midlife-cardiovascular-events-in-hiv-infected-men
#6
David R Lorenz, Anupriya Dutta, Shibani S Mukerji, Alex Holman, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
Background.: Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with HIV, but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown. Methods.: A prospective study of 558 HIV-infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1990-2010: 182 HIV seroconverters and 376 with viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Associations between heavy marijuana use and HIV disease markers or white blood cell (WBC) count were examined using mixed-effects and linear regression models...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448963/paradoxical-aging-in-hiv-immune-senescence-of-b-cells-is-most-prominent-in-young-age
#7
Stefano Rinaldi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Varghese K George, Lesley R de Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Celeste M Sanchez, Maria Fernanda Pallin, Li Pan, Nicola Cotugno, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Louis Gonzalez, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (>60 yrs)...
April 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448615/emphysema-is-associated-with-thoracic-vertebral-bone-attenuation-on-chest-ct-scan-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Alycia Petraglia, Joseph K Leader, Matthew Gingo, Meghan Fitzpatrick, John Ries, Cathy Kessinger, Lorrie Lucht, Danielle Camp, Alison Morris, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Age-related chronic diseases are prevalent in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Bone mineral density (BMD) loss and emphysema have separately been shown to occur at a younger age and with lesser risk exposure in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. In non-HIV infected smokers, emphysema has been shown to independently predict low BMD. We hypothesized that emphysema would independently associate with thoracic vertebral bone attenuation, a surrogate for bone mineral density, in HIV-infected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446421/testing-a-computerized-cognitive-training-protocol-in-adults-aging-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-randomized-controlled-trial-rationale-and-protocol
#9
David Vance, Pariya Fazeli, John Shacka, William Nicholson, Peggy McKie, James Raper, Andres Azuero, Virginia Wadley, Karlene Ball
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in nearly 50% of adults with HIV. Such disorders can interfere with everyday functioning such as driving and medication adherence. Therefore, cognitive interventions are needed to address such neurocognitive disorders as well as improve everyday functioning, especially as people age with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This article reports and discusses the overall rationale and development of speed of processing training, a computerized Internet cognitive training program, to improve this specific neurocognitive ability as well as everyday functioning and quality of life in adults aging with HIV...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445686/when-a-relationship-is-imperative-will-young-women-knowingly-place-their-sexual-health-at-risk-a-sample-of-african-american-adolescent-girls-in-the-juvenile-justice-system
#10
Jerris L Raiford, Puja Seth, Amy M Fasula, Ralph J DiClemente
Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445685/outcomes-following-detection-of-low-level-plasma-hiv-rna-in-hiv-infected-patients-previously-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-observational-study
#11
Annabelle M Warren, Allen C Cheng, Kerrie Watson, Sharon R Lewin, Jennifer F Hoy
Background: Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. Methods: A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA <20 copies/mL) over 2 years (2010 to 2012), with follow-up to June 2013...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445608/sexual-and-gender-minority-adolescents-views-on-hiv-research-participation-and-parental-permission-a-mixed-methods-study
#12
Brian Mustanski, Ryan Coventry, Kathryn Macapagal, Miriam R Arbeit, Celia B Fisher
CONTEXT: Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. METHODS: Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections...
April 26, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445088/predicting-the-need-for-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-by-identifying-patients-at-high-risk-for-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#13
Dorina Onoya, Cornelius Nattey, Eric Budgell, Liudmyla van den Berg, Mhairi Maskew, Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line)...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444628/moving-beyond-age-an-exploratory-qualitative-study-on-the-context-of-young-african-american-men-and-women-s-sexual-debut
#14
Yzette Lanier, Jennifer M Stewart, Jean J Schensul, Barbara J Guthrie
African American youth continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. Early sexual debut has been identified as a major determinant of HIV risk. However, emerging research suggests that the overarching context in which first sex occurs may have greater implications for sexual health than simply age alone. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to better understand the broader context of African Americans' sexual debut. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 African American men and women aged 18-24 years...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444470/sexual-orientation-differences-in-health-and-wellbeing-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada-findings-from-a-national-cohort-study
#15
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Angela Kaida, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Kath Webster, Tracey Conway, Mona Loutfy
Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444469/modelling-the-unaids-90-90-90-treatment-cascade-for-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-south-africa-using-the-findings-of-a-data-triangulation-process-to-map-a-way-forward
#16
Andrew Scheibe, Michael Grasso, Henry Fisher Raymond, Albert Manyuchi, Thomas Osmand, Tim Lane, Helen Struthers
A data triangulation exercise was carried out between 2013 and 2015 to assess the HIV epidemic and response among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in South Africa. We used the findings to assess progress in achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals for GBMSM in the country. Three scenarios were developed using different GBMSM population factors (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0% of males aged ≥15) to estimate the population size, HIV prevalence of 13.2-49.5%, and 68% of GBMSM knowing their status. Due to data gaps, general population data were used as estimates of GBMSM on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and virologically suppressed (25...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#17
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444057/determinant-factors-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-std-aids-and-viral-hepatitis-among-youths-aged-18-to-29-years-in-brazil
#18
Miguel Barbosa Fontes, Rodrigo Campos Crivelaro, Alice Margini Scartezini, David Duarte Lima, Alexandre de Araújo Garcia, Rafael Tsuyoshi Fujioka
The scope of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of Brazilian youths to STDs/HIV&AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. Interviews were conducted with 1,208 youths aged 18 to 29 in 15 states and the Federal District. The regional and national adjusted margin of error of the research was 2.8%. The study was approved by the School of Medicine of Brasilia University with support from PAHO and the Ministry of Health. A scale with 35 questions (knowledge, attitudes and practices) was the main dependent variable. Adjusted linear regression models identified the demographic and social determinant factors that explain scale variations...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444004/relation-between-hiv-status-risky-sexual-behavior-and-mental-health-in-an-msm-sample-from-three-chilean-cities
#19
Fabiola Gómez, Jaime Barrientos, Manuel Cárdenas
Objective: To explore the association among HIV status; negative psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and hostility); and risky sexual behaviors (multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse) in a Chilean sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design and a sample of 325 MSM whose ages ranged from 18 to 64 years (mean: 30.8; standard deviation: 9.8). Association tests (chi-squared) and group mean comparisons (Student's t-tests and F-tests) were performed...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443971/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-by-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-a-municipality-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo
#20
Jaqueline Scaramuza Foresto, Elizabete Santos Melo, Christefany Régia Braz Costa, Marcela Antonini, Elucir Gir, Renata Karina Reis
Objective: To assess adherence to antiretroviral drugs by people living with HIV/AIDS and identify its association with sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study using a sociodemographic instrument and CEAT-HIV, with data collected in the period from 2014-2015. Results: A 75.0% was identified as having a good/proper adhesion. It was found that individuals between ages 40 and 59 (p = 0.029) and with morethan eight years of formal education (p = 0...
April 20, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
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