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H-S Zhang, X-Y Ke, L-L Hu, J Wang, L-S Gao, J Xie
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study changes and possible roles of epigenetic modification of candidate genes in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder, and provide the basis for clinical diagnosis and analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 150 patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled in this study from January 2014 to June 2015; also, 50 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group. The patients were followed up for 18 months and followed up once every 3 months to review the methylation status...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Charles Bowden, Melissa Martinez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Chase B Hellmer, Tomomi Ichinose
Retinal first-order neurons, photoreceptors, receive visual inputs and convert them to neural signals. The second-order neurons, bipolar cells then sort out the visual signals and encode them through multiple neural streams. Approximately 15 morphological types of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different aspects of visual signals such as motion and color (Ichinose et al. J Neurosci 34(26):8761-8771, 2014; Euler et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(8):507-519, 2014). To investigate functional aspects of OFF bipolar cells, single cell recordings are preferred; however, bipolar cells in the mouse retina are small and hard to distinguish from other types of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johan Pahlberg, Anurima Majumder, Nikolai O Artemyev
Mice have been widely used as a model organism to study mechanisms of phototransduction and synaptic transmission in the retina. Genetic manipulations and electrophysiological techniques for analysis of photoreceptor and rod bipolar cell function in mice are uniquely advanced. Here, we describe a set of biochemical and electrophysiological techniques for evaluation of synaptic transmission at the rod-rod bipolar cell synapse, which represents the first and key step in the processing of dim-light visual information...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Naoyuki Tanimoto, Mathias W Seeliger
Electroretinography (ERG) is important for functional diagnostics of the retina. Types of information about retinal function obtainable by ERG differ depending on recording conditions, e.g., a combination of light stimulus and adaptation. In terms of stimulation, single-flash and flicker stimuli are frequently used because response properties have been well investigated, allowing an assessment of fundamental retinal functionality; for example, how photoreceptors and bipolar cells, including signal transmission between them, are affected under pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoshihiko Tsukamoto
The mouse retina has a layered structure that is composed of five classes of neurons supported by Müller glial and pigment epithelial cells. Recent studies have made progress in the classification of bipolar and ganglion cells, and also in the wiring of rod-driven signaling, color coding, and directional selectivity. Molecular biological techniques, such as genetic manipulation, transcriptomics, and fluorescence imaging, have contributed a lot to these advancements. The mouse retina has consistently been an important experimental system for both basic and clinical neurosciences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dicle Sapmaz, Saliha Baykal, Seher Akbaş
The aim of this study was to describe clinical features of PBD comorbidity in children with ASD. Forty children with ASD and PBD aged 6-18 years, and 40 age- and sex-matched ASD subjects with no affective episodes were included in the study. Autism Behavior CheckList, Abberant Behavior CheckList, and Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version were completed. This study shows that PBD comorbidity in children with ASD involves a highly episodic course, with manic episodes, subsyndromal symptoms and interepisodic periods commonly being described in the manic symptom profile of these children...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
H-J Assion, A Schweppe, H Reinbold, U Frommberger
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are severe mental illnesses, each with a prevalence of approximately 1-2% in the general population. There is considerable controversy about differentiating schizophrenia from schizoaffective or bipolar disorder owing to many similarities in psychopathology, progression, and biological factors. The aim of this study was to identify similarities and differences in the pharmacological treatment of these disorders by comparing the prescription patterns...
March 21, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Weon-Yoo Kim, Myung-Sup Ko, Se-Won Lee, Kwang-Sub Kim
Purpose: This study characterizes the short-term outcomes of ceramic coated metal-on-metal (MoM) large head total hip arthroplasty (THA) in prospectively selected patients aged 70 to 75 years. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (18 hips) between the ages of 70 and 75-years old with THA using ceramic-coated MoM large heads between June 2014 and December 2014 were evaluated. We prospectively selected patients younger than 70 years for bipolar hemiarthroplasty and older than 75 years for conventional THA...
March 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam Anil, Badr Ratnakaran, Nisha Suresh
Hyponatremia has been reported with the use of psychotropic drugs. Olanzapine does not find much mention as a cause of hyponatremia in literature; however, it has been found to be the second most frequently reported atypical antipsychotic to cause it. We report a case of hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion which occurred at a rapid onset following the administration of low-dose olanzapine during inpatient treatment of a patient with bipolar disorder. We would like to highlight our case for the need to be vigil about such fatal side complications apart from metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Andrew Todd Ham
A thorough understanding of the governing concepts of polarity behavior within electroencephalograph (EEG) promotes analytical and thus technical proficiency of the technologist by providing a skill set to logically resolve the myriad of waveform presentations that are expected across all montage derivations. In addition to avoiding a reliance on cursory conceptualization techniques, a solid grasp of the underlying theory of EEG polarity permits a fundamental realization of the cause-effect relationships between the various directions of eye movement and the resulting multitude of wave deflection presentations observed across all montages...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Daniel Ianni Filho, Ilka de Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin, Ademar Yamanaka
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis are common structural hepatic change in patients with chronic hepatitis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the extent of liver fibrosis. Considering the technical difficulties and cost, improvements in non-invasive screening tools are greatly needed. Bioimpedance have been shown to be safe to evaluate tissue fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of using monofrequential bipolar bioimpedance for the detection of severity of liver fibrosis consistent with chronic viral hepatitis C infections...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Yoshihiro Kawakubo, Masaya Yanagi, Noa Tsujii, Osamu Shirakawa
In applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical psychiatry settings in Japan, a phonemic verbal fluency test (VFT) that includes "switching" (the ability to shift efficiently to a new word subcategory) to assess phonemic fluency is employed to capture disease-specific hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, to extend the specific features of this test, the VFT was repeated to examine an activation change in NIRS measurements in 20 healthy males. Without task performance change, the hemodynamic activation induced by the VFT was significantly attenuated in the left PFC through repetition of the task...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Hulcová, Kateřina Breiterová, Tomáš Siatka, Kamila Klímová, Lara Davani, Marcela Šafratová, Anna Hošťálková, Angela De Simone, Vincenza Andrisano, Lucie Cahlíková
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lauren R Klein, Marc L Martel, Brian E Driver, Mackenzie Reing, Jon B Cole
Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rens Bexkens, Femke M A P Claessen, Izaäk F Kodde, Luke S Oh, Denise Eygendaal, Michel P J van den Bekerom
Background: Radiographs are part of routine clinical care after radial head arthroplasty (RHA). Therefore, the aim of this diagnostic study was to assess the interobserver reliability of radiographic assessment following RHA. Methods: Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of 24 consecutive patients who underwent press-fit bipolar RHA were evaluated with respect to 14 parameters by 14 orthopaedic surgeons specializing in the elbow: shaft loosening (AP, lateral), subcollar bone resorption, nonbridging heterotopic ossification, capitellar erosion, capitellar osteopenia, implant size, ulnohumeral joint gapping, ulnohumeral joint degeneration, proximal radio-ulnar joint congruency, stem size, stem positioning (AP, lateral) and component dissociation or polyethylene wear of the head with increased angulation...
April 2018: Shoulder & Elbow
Hanna Schneegans, Klaus Hoenig, Martin Ruchsow, Manfred Spitzer, Bernhard J Connemann, Markus Kiefer
Deficits in inhibitory function are assumed to underlie psychopathology in bipolar disorder (BD), especially in states of mania. A subdomain of inhibition, semantic inhibition (SI), referring to the suppression of irrelevant word meanings, may underlie formal thought disorder, such as flights of ideas. In the present study, we investigated SI in patients with BD during semantic ambiguity resolution using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. We presented 14 patients with BD with current manic, hypomanic, or mixed clinical states and 28 healthy controls sequentially with word triplets containing either a homonym (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jenna M Reinen, Oliver Y Chén, R Matthew Hutchison, B T Thomas Yeo, Kevin M Anderson, Mert R Sabuncu, Dost Öngür, Joshua L Roffman, Jordan W Smoller, Justin T Baker, Avram J Holmes
Higher-order cognition emerges through the flexible interactions of large-scale brain networks, an aspect of temporal coordination that may be impaired in psychosis. Here, we map the dynamic functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in healthy young adults, leveraging this atlas of transient network configurations (states), to identify state- and network-specific disruptions in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. We demonstrate that dynamic connectivity profiles are reliable within participants, and can act as a fingerprint, identifying specific individuals within a larger group...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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