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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331016/brain-wide-maps-of-fos-expression-during-fear-learning-and-recall
#1
Jin-Hyung Cho, Sam D Rendall, Jesse M Gray
Fos induction during learning labels neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus that encode a specific physical environment, revealing a memory trace. In the cortex and other regions, the extent to which Fos induction during learning reveals specific sensory representations is unknown. Here we generate high-quality brain-wide maps of Fos mRNA expression during auditory fear conditioning and recall in the setting of the home cage. These maps reveal a brain-wide pattern of Fos induction that is remarkably similar among fear conditioning, shock-only, tone-only, and fear recall conditions, casting doubt on the idea that Fos reveals auditory-specific sensory representations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329757/neural-ensemble-dynamics-underlying-a-long-term-associative-memory
#2
Benjamin F Grewe, Jan Gründemann, Lacey J Kitch, Jerome A Lecoq, Jones G Parker, Jesse D Marshall, Margaret C Larkin, Pablo E Jercog, Francois Grenier, Jin Zhong Li, Andreas Lüthi, Mark J Schnitzer
The brain's ability to associate different stimuli is vital for long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS and US, respectively). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked the Ca(2+) dynamics of ensembles of amygdalar neurons during fear learning and extinction over 6 days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells' CS-evoked responses...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323200/brief-exercise-enhances-intrusive-memories-of-traumatic-stimuli
#3
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Brief physical exercise enhances memories for neutral events, and recently has been shown to modulate fear learning in animals. To date there is no evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise on emotional memories in humans. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of brief exercise in the development of emotional intrusive memories. Forty-nine university students (18-29 year olds) viewed a car accident film depicting accident and injury, and were then randomly assigned to engage in either 10 minutes of intense exercise or easy walking...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#4
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316773/vitamin-d-treatment-during-pregnancy-prevents-autism-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#5
Stephanie Vuillermot, Wei Luan, Urs Meyer, Darryl Eyles
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-resting-state-function-networks-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#6
Dominic E Nathan, Julie F Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan P Wolf, Terry Oakes, Jeannine B Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD is challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post traumatic stress influences task-free brain networks in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N=44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N=58, PCLC total<30), medium (N=124, PCLC total = 31-49) and high (N=105, PCLC total ≥ 60) post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#7
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300484/factors-associated-with-general-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-menopausal-transition-among-women-from-serbia
#8
Jelena Dotlic, Ilma Kurtagic, Selmina Nurkovic, Nikolina Kovacevic, Sanja Radovanovic, Biljana Rancic, Branislav Milosevic, Milan Terzic, Tatjana Gazibara
This study assessed factors associated with quality of life (QOL) among Serbian peri- and postmenopausal women using two menopause-specific scales. This cross-sectional study included 500 women aged 40-65 years who had a gynecologic check-up in one of two Community Health Centers in Belgrade during February 2014 to January 2015. Women completed: a questionnaire about socio-demographics, habits and health status; a menopause-specific questionnaire, Utian's Quality of Life Scale (UQOL); a Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI)...
March 16, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298553/dissociation-between-complete-hippocampal-context-memory-formation-and-context-fear-acquisition
#9
Jessica Leake, Raphael Zinn, Laura Corbit, Bryce Vissel
Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298552/dynamic-expression-of-fkbp5-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-resiliency-to-conditioned-fear
#10
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Roberto J Morales Silva, Bethzaly Velazquez, Anixa Hernández, María Colon, Emmanuel Cruz, Omar Soler-Cedeño, James T Porter
The factors influencing resiliency to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain to be elucidated. Clinical studies associate PTSD with polymorphisms of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5). However, it is unclear whether changes in FKBP5 expression alone could produce resiliency or susceptibility to PTSD-like symptoms. In this study, we used rats as an animal model to examine whether FKBP5 in the infralimbic (IL) or prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex regulates fear conditioning or extinction...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296810/activation-associated-accelerated-apoptosis-of-memory-b-cells-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#11
Manu Shankar-Hari, David Fear, Paul Lavender, Tracey Mare, Richard Beale, Chad Swanson, Mervyn Singer, Jo Spencer
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulated host responses to infection. Current knowledge of human B-cell alterations in sepsis is sparse. We tested the hypothesis that B-cell loss in sepsis involves distinct subpopulations of B cells and investigated mechanisms of B-cell depletion. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Critical care units. PATIENTS: Adult sepsis patients without any documented immune comorbidity...
March 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296164/brief-clinical-report-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pain-memory-reframing-interventions-for-children-s-needle-procedures
#12
REVIEW
Melanie Noel, C Meghan McMurtry, Maria Pavlova, Anna Taddio
OBJECTIVE: Children's pain memories play a powerful role in shaping future pain experiences. Interventions aiming to reframe children's memories of painful medical procedures hold promise for altering pain memories and improving subsequent pain experience; however, this evidence has not been synthesized. This brief clinical report includes a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing memory-reframing interventions for needle procedures in children and adolescents in order to stimulate future research...
March 14, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288126/manipulating-fear-associations-via-optogenetic-modulation-of-amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Oded Klavir, Matthias Prigge, Ayelet Sarel, Rony Paz, Ofer Yizhar
Fear-related disorders are thought to reflect strong and persistent fear memories. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) form strong reciprocal synaptic connections that play a key role in acquisition and extinction of fear memories. While synaptic contacts of BLA cells onto mPFC neurons are likely to play a crucial role in this process, the BLA connects with several additional nuclei within the fear circuit that could relay fear-associated information to the mPFC, and the contribution of direct monosynaptic BLA-mPFC inputs is not yet clear...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#14
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286213/carbonic-anhydrase-activation-enhances-object-recognition-memory-in-mice-through-phosphorylation-of-the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-cortex-and-the-hippocampus
#15
Lucas Canto de Souza, Gustavo Provensi, Daniela Vullo, Fabrizio Carta, Andrea Scozzafava, Alessia Costa, Scheila Daiane Schmidt, Maria Beatrice Passani, Claudiu T Supuran, Patrizio Blandina
Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity...
March 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283560/hdac7-ubiquitination-by-the-e3-ligase-cbx4-is-involved-in-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-formation
#16
Xu Jing, Wen-Hai Sui, Shuai Wang, Xu-Feng Xu, Rong-Rong Yuan, Xiao-Rong Chen, Hui-Xian Ma, Ying-Xiao Zhu, Jin-Kai Sun, Fan Yi, Zhe-Yu Chen, Yue Wang
Histone acetylation, which comprises an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that HDAC inhibitors may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4 h∼24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283345/cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-derived-hydrogen-sulfide-is-required-for-amygdalar-long-term-potentiation-and-cued-fear-memory-in-rats
#17
Hai-Bo Chen, Wen-Ning Wu, Wei Wang, Xun-Hu Gu, Bin Yu, Bo Wei, Yuan-Jian Yang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule that functions as a neuromodulator in the brain. We previously reported that H2S regulated amygdalar synaptic plasticity and cued fear memory in rats. However, whether endogenous H2S is required for amygdalar long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and cued fear memory formation remains unclear. Here, we show that cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), the predominant H2S-producing enzyme in the brain, was highly expressed in the amygdala of rats. Suppressing CBS activity by inhibitor prevented activity-triggered generation of H2S in the lateral amygdala (LA) region...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275863/post-reexposure-administration-of-d-cycloserine-facilitates-reconsolidation-of-contextual-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#18
Akiyoshi Saitoh, Kie Akagi, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
The effect of D-cycloserine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, on the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memory is not precisely understood. In this study, we clarified the effects of D-cycloserine on the reconsolidation in rats, by performing contextual fear conditioning with a mild fear-conditioning procedure and with post-reexposure administration of the drug. The D-cycloserine (15 mg/kg subcutaneously)-treated rats showed a persistent and greater fear response during the test session compared with the control group...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275346/manipulating-bodily-presence-affects-cross-modal-spatial-attention-a-virtual-reality-based-erp-study
#19
Ville J Harjunen, Imtiaj Ahmed, Giulio Jacucci, Niklas Ravaja, Michiel M Spapé
Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver's body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands, and one VR-free control with hands in view...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274824/extinction-after-fear-memory-reactivation-fails-to-eliminate-renewal-in-rats
#20
Travis D Goode, Crystal M Holloway-Erickson, Stephen Maren
Retrieving fear memories just prior to extinction has been reported to effectively erase fear memories and prevent fear relapse. The current study examined whether the type of retrieval procedure influences the ability of extinction to impair fear renewal, a form of relapse in which responding to a conditional stimulus (CS) returns outside of the extinction context. Rats first underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning with an auditory CS and footshock unconditional stimulus (US); freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear...
March 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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