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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534459/differences-in-neural-response-to-extinction-recall-in-young-adults-with-or-without-history-of-behavioral-inhibition
#1
Tomer Shechner, Nathan A Fox, Jamie A Mash, Johanna M Jarcho, Gang Chen, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is associated with risk for anxiety disorders, yet only about half of behaviorally inhibited children manifest anxiety later in life. We compared brain function and behavior during extinction recall in a sample of nonanxious young adults characterized in childhood with BI (n = 22) or with no BI (n = 28). Three weeks after undergoing fear conditioning and extinction, participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging extinction recall task assessing memory and threat differentiation for conditioned stimuli...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531760/the-relationship-between-processing-style-trauma-memory-processes-and-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Anna McKinnon, Neil Brewer, Kate Cameron, Reginald D V Nixon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data-driven processing, peri-event fear, and trauma memory characteristics are hypothesised to play a core role in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed the relationships between these characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms in a sample of youth. METHODS: Study 1 (N = 36, 7-16 years), involved a sample of children who had undergone a stressful orthopaedic procedure. One week later they answered a series of probed recall questions about the trauma (assessed for accuracy by comparison to a video) and reported on their PTS symptoms...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530312/-the-second-victim-treating-the-health-care-providers
#3
REVIEW
Shimrit Shor, Orna Tal, Ron Maymon
During their professional careers, physicians and other health care providers are repeatedly exposed to emotional stress. This is usually secondary to coping with the results of a medical error or complicated medical event. Generally, in the above cases, the patient and his/her family are in the center of the medical system, being "the first victim" of such an event, while the involved caregiver, who provided the medical service, is categorized as the "second victim". "Second victims" may feel anxiety, fear, guilt or anger and experience social withdrawal, which may lead to troubling memories, depression and insomnia...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527907/behavioral-and-cognitive-impact-of-early-life-stress-insights-from-an-animal-model
#4
Hesong Liu, Fatin Atrooz, Ankita Salvi, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages...
May 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523223/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-may-modulate-extinction-memory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Mascha Van't Wout, Sharon M Longo, Madhavi K Reddy, Noah S Philip, Marguerite T Bowker, Benjamin D Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in fear extinction and recall are core components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from animal and human studies point to a role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction learning and subsequent retention of extinction memories. Given the increasing interest in developing noninvasive brain stimulation protocols for psychopathology treatment, we piloted whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during extinction learning, vs...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515681/the-activity-induced-long-non-coding-rna-meg3-modulates-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-in-primary-cortical-neurons
#6
Men C Tan, Jocelyn Widagdo, Yu Q Chau, Tianyi Zhu, Justin J-L Wong, Allen Cheung, Victor Anggono
Transcription of new RNA is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Although the importance of synaptic plasticity-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is well established, the role of a large group of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in long-term potentiation (LTP) is not known. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of a lncRNA cluster, namely maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3), retrotransposon-like gene 1-anti-sense (Rtl1-AS), Meg8 and Meg9, which is located in the maternally imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region on mouse chromosome 12qF1, in primary cortical neurons following glycine stimulation in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511981/role-of-cholinergic-receptors-in-memory-retrieval-depends-on-gender-and-age-of-memory
#7
Rashid Habiba, Mahboob Aamra, Ahmed Touqeer
The phenomenon of utilizing information acquired in the past to make decision and performance in present depends on memory retrieval, which is affected in retrograde amnesia. Role of cholinergic receptors in memory retrieval is not much explored. In this study we evaluated the gender specific role of cholinergic receptors, i.e. muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, in memory retrieval in young Balb/c mice. Acute (only one injection, 30minutes before test) and sub-chronic (five days) muscarinic blockade (using scopolamine=1mg/kg) before test impaired retrieval of contextual fear memory in male (31...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511979/water-and-t-maze-protocols-are-equally-efficient-methods-to-assess-spatial-memory-in-3xtg-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#8
K E Davis, K Burnett, J Gigg
Rodent spatial memory is commonly tested using the water-maze; however, there is a potential confound of stress on learning in this behavioural paradigm. This is particularly relevant when testing spatial memory in models of neurodegeneration, such as the 3xTg mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we first confirmed that 3xTgAD mice express fear conditioning and then compared the performance of young and middle-aged mice on short-duration versions of the radial arm water-maze (RAWM) and the minimally stressful T-maze spontaneous alternation task...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#9
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507033/response-specific-sex-difference-in-the-retention-of-fear-extinction
#10
Meagan E Voulo, Ryan G Parsons
Fear conditioning studies in rodents allow us to assess vulnerability factors which might underlie fear-based psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite PTSD being more prevalent in females than males, very few fear conditioning studies in rodents have tested females. Our study assessed fear conditioning and extinction in male and female rats using both fear-potentiated startle and freezing behavior as measures. Rats were trained to fear cues that predicted the occurrence of shock and then subsequently exposed to an extinction training procedure where the cue was presented repeatedly in the absence of shock...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507032/%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-influence-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-mice
#11
Shahrdad Lotfipour, Celina Mojica, Sakura Nakauchi, Marcela Lipovsek, Sarah Silverstein, Jesse Cushman, James Tirtorahardjo, Andrew Poulos, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Katumi Sumikawa, Michael S Fanselow, Jim Boulter
The absence of α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of α2* nAChRs (Chrna2(L9'S/L9'S) and Chrna2(KO)) influence hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and CA1 synaptic plasticity. We substituted a serine for a leucine (L9'S) in the α2 subunit (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) to make a hypersensitive nAChR...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#12
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506618/the-ptz-kindling-mouse-model-of-epilepsy-exhibits-exploratory-drive-deficits-and-aberrant-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-both-familiar-and-novel-space
#13
Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Jean-Philippe Dufour, Erich Seifritz, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Bechara J Saab
Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506142/the-frustrated-and-helpless-healer-pathways-approaches-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorders
#14
Donald Moss
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychophysiological disorder, characterized by the following: chronic sympathetic nervous activation; persisting perceptual/sensory vigilance for threats; recurrent distressing memories of the event, including intrusive memories, flashbacks lived as if in the present moment, and nightmares; and a persisting negative emotional state including fear and shame. The psychophysiological basis for this disorder calls for psychophysiologically based interventions. This article presents the case narrative of a 29-year-old national guardsman, exposed to combat trauma and later to civilian trauma in public safety work...
July 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503670/encoding-of-contextual-fear-memory-requires-de-novo-proteins-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#15
Valerio Rizzo, Khalid Touzani, Bindu L Raveendra, Supriya Swarnkar, Joan Lora, Beena M Kadakkuzha, Xin-An Liu, Chao Zhang, Doron Betel, Robert W Stackman, Sathyanarayanan V Puthanveettil
BACKGROUND: Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. METHODS: Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502731/the-influence-of-a-probiotic-supplementation-on-memory-in-quail-suggests-a-role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cognitive-abilities-in-birds
#16
Severine Parois, Ludovic Calandreau, Narjis Kraimi, Irène Gabriel, Christine Leterrier
The gut microbiota is involved in host behaviour and memory in mammals. Consequently, it may also influence emotional behaviour and memory in birds. Quail from two genetic lines with different fearfulness (LTI: long tonic immobility, n=37; STI: short tonic immobility, n=32) were either or not supplemented with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) from hatching. Emotional reactivity was measured in a tonic immobility test (d6 and 7 of age) and two open-field tests (d13 to 15; d22 to 24). Memory was measured in a test rewarded with mealworms, where quail had to remember the cups previously visited (d34 to 36)...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502270/insecure-attachment-predicts-depression-and-death-anxiety-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#17
Katharina Scheffold, Rebecca Philipp, Susan Koranyi, Dorit Engelmann, Frank Schulz-Kindermann, Martin Härter, Anja Mehnert
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of depression as well as adjustment and anxiety disorders is high in advanced cancer patients, and research exploring intraindividual factors leading to high psychological distress is underrepresented. Cancer patients' feelings about security and trust in their healthcare providers have a significant influence on how they deal with their disease. The perception of social support is affected by patients' attachment styles and influences their reactions to feelings of dependency and loss of control...
May 15, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501754/expectant-futures-and-an-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-knowing-and-its-consequences
#18
Julia Swallow
Efforts to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) at earlier stages as a means to managing the risks of an ageing population, dominate scientific research and healthcare policy in the UK. It is anticipated that early diagnosis will maximise treatment options and enable patients to 'prepare for their future' in terms of care. Drawing on qualitative data gathered across an out-patient memory service and in-patient hospital in the UK, the purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which the hopeful promissory claims of early diagnosis as it maintains the dominant biomedical model for managing AD, are negotiated by healthcare practitioners...
May 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500221/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-promotes-hippocampus-dependent-memory-via-its-deubiquitinating-effect-on-trkb
#19
Yun-Yun Guo, Lu Yi, Yuan Zheng, Xiao-Rong Chen, Jun-Lu Dong, Rong-Rong Yuan, Shu-Hong Huang, Hui Yu, Yue Wang, Zhe-Yu Chen, Bo Su
Multiple studies have established that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity via its receptor TrkB. In addition to being phosphorylated, TrkB has also been demonstrated to be ubiquitinated. However, the mechanisms of TrkB ubiquitination and its biological functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) promotes contextual fear conditioning (CFC) learning and memory via the regulation of ubiquitination of TrkB...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498605/brain-structural-connectivity-and-context-dependent-extinction-memory
#20
Andrea Hermann, Rudolf Stark, Carlo R Blecker, Mohammed R Milad, Christian J Merz
BACKGROUND: Extinction of conditioned fear represents an important mechanism in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Return of fear after successful extinction or exposure therapy in patients with anxiety disorders might be linked to poor temporal or contextual generalization of extinction due to individual differences in brain structural connectivity. The goal of this magnetic resonance imaging study was therefore to investigate the association of context-dependent extinction recall with brain structural connectivity...
May 12, 2017: Hippocampus
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