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Fear memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439099/optogenetic-silencing-of-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-pathway-from-the-central-amygdala-to-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-disrupts-sustained-fear
#1
A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#2
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involve changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438208/amelioration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-deficits-by-dcr3-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#3
Yi-Ling Liu, Wei-Ting Chen, Yu-Yi Lin, Po-Hung Lu, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Irene Han-Juo Cheng
BACKGROUND: Microglia mediate amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation, which is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3)/TNFRSF6B is a pleiotropic immunomodulator that promotes macrophage differentiation toward the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Based on its role as an immunosupressor, we examined whether DcR3 could alleviate neuroinflammation and AD-like deficits in the central nervous system. METHOD: We crossed human APP transgenic mice (line J20) with human DcR3 transgenic mice to generate wild-type, APP, DcR3, and APP/DcR3 mice for pathological analysis...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#4
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430628/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#5
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#6
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426969/chemogenetic-interrogation-of-a-brain-wide-fear-memory-network-in-mice
#7
Gisella Vetere, Justin W Kenney, Lina M Tran, Frances Xia, Patrick E Steadman, John Parkinson, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Behavior depends on coordinated activity across multiple brain regions. Within such networks, highly connected hub regions are assumed to disproportionately influence behavioral output, although this hypothesis has not been systematically evaluated. Previously, by mapping brain-wide expression of the activity-regulated gene c-fos, we identified a network of brain regions co-activated by fear memory. To test the hypothesis that hub regions are more important for network function, here, we simulated node deletion in silico in this behaviorally defined functional network...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426955/the-small-world-of-a-fear-memory
#8
Nicholas I Woods, Mazen A Kheirbek
How are fear memories organized? In this issue of Neuron, Vetere et al. (2017) take a network-based approach to demonstrate the importance of highly interconnected hub regions in the consolidation of a fear memory. By doing so, they provide an elegant framework for predicting behavior from functional network properties.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#9
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417664/low-dose-systemic-scopolamine-disrupts-context-conditioning-in-rats
#10
Laura Luyten, Shauni Nuyts, Tom Beckers
Cholinergic neurotransmission plays a key role in learning and memory. Prior research with rats indicated that a low dose of pre-training scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), a cholinergic receptor antagonist, did not affect cued fear conditioning, but did block renewal when injected before extinguishing a conditioned tone, opening up opportunities to pharmacologically improve exposure therapy for anxiety patients. Before translating these findings to the clinic, it is important to carefully examine how scopolamine affects contextual fear memories...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#11
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411153/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-disrupts-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect
#12
P A Robinson-Drummer, N A Heroux, M E Stanton
Cholinergic function plays a role in a variant of context fear conditioning known as the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE; Robinson-Drummer, Dokovna, Heroux, & Stanton, 2016). In the CPFE, acquisition of a context representation, the context-shock association, and expression of context fear occur across successive phases, usually 24hr apart. Systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, prior to each phase (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and testing) disrupts the CPFE in juvenile rats (Robinson-Drummer et al...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408165/alterations-in-protein-phosphorylation-in-the-amygdala-of-the-5xfamilial-alzheimer-s-disease-animal-model
#13
Eun-Jeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Yunjung Choi, Jean-Pyo Lee, Moon-Jeong Chang, Hye-Sun Kim
Alzheimer's disease is the most common disease underlying dementia in humans. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are neuritic plaques primarily composed of amyloid beta peptide and neurofibrillary tangles primarily composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to impaired memory function, AD patients often display neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal emotional states such as confusion, delusion, manic/depressive episodes and altered fear status. Brains from AD patients show atrophy of the amygdala which is involved in fear expression and emotional processing as well as hippocampal atrophy...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401950/auditory-conditioned-stimulus-presentation-during-nrem-sleep-impairs-fear-memory-in-mice
#14
Ross J Purple, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Externally manipulating memories by presenting conditioned stimuli (CS) during sleep is a new approach to investigating memory processing during sleep. However, whether presenting a CS during REM or NREM sleep enhances or extinguishes fear memory has not been clearly delineated. In this study, mice underwent trace fear conditioning consisting of an auditory CS paired with a foot shock, and the auditory CS was re-presented during subsequent REM or NREM sleep. Mice that received auditory cueing during NREM but not REM sleep showed impaired fear memory upon later presentation of the auditory CS...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400283/the-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors-in-short-and-long-term-fear-recall
#15
Eva Mikics, Mate Toth, Laszlo Biro, Biborka Bruzsik, Boglarka Nagy, Jozsef Haller
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are crucial synaptic elements in long-term memory formation, including the associative learning of fearful events. Although NMDA blockers were consistently shown to inhibit fear memory acquisition and recall, the clinical use of general NMDA blockers is hampered by their side effects. Recent studies revealed significant heterogeneity in the distribution and neurophysiological characteristics of NMDA receptors with different GluN2 (NR2) subunit composition, which may have differential role in fear learning and recall...
April 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397861/preventing-the-return-of-fear-using-reconsolidation-updating-and-methylene-blue-is-differentially-dependent-on-extinction-learning
#16
Allison M Auchter, Jason Shumake, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Many factors account for how well individuals extinguish conditioned fears, such as genetic variability, learning capacity and conditions under which extinction training is administered. We predicted that memory-based interventions would be more effective to reduce the reinstatement of fear in subjects genetically predisposed to display more extinction learning. We tested this hypothesis in rats genetically selected for differences in fear extinction using two strategies: (1) attenuation of fear memory using post-retrieval extinction training, and (2) pharmacological enhancement of the extinction memory after extinction training by low-dose USP methylene blue (MB)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393090/gender-specific-hippocampal-whole-genome-transcriptome-data-from-mice-lacking-the-cav2-3-r-type-or-cav3-2-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel
#17
Anna Papazoglou, Christina Henseler, Andreas Lundt, Carola Wormuth, Julien Soos, Karl Broich, Dan Ehninger, Marco Weiergräber
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are of central relevance in mediating numerous intracellular and transcellular processes including excitation-contraction coupling, excitation secretion-coupling, hormone and neurotransmitter release and gene expression. The Cav2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channel is a high-voltage activated channel which plays a crucial role in neurotransmitter release, long-term potentiation and hormone release. Furthermore, Cav2.3 R-type channels were reported to be involved in ictogenesis, epileptogenesis, fear behavior, sleep, pre-and postsynaptic integration and rhythmicity within the hippocampus...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392321/pharmacological-modulation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-7-impairs-extinction-of-social-fear-in-a-time-point-dependent-manner
#18
David A Slattery, Inga D Neumann, Peter J Flor, Iulia Zoicas
Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392296/anxious-behavior-induces-elevated-hippocampal-cb2-receptor-gene-expression
#19
James M Robertson, Justin K Achua, Justin P Smith, Melissa A Prince, Clarissa D Staton, Patrick J Ronan, Tangi R Summers, Cliff H Summers
Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389208/role-of-the-amygdala-gaba-a-receptors-in-acpa-induced-deficits-during-conditioned-fear-learning
#20
Mohammad Nasehi, Farnaz Roghani, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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