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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651358/rem-sleep-theta-changes-in-frequent-nightmare-recallers
#1
Louis-Philippe Marquis, Tyna Paquette, Cloé Blanchette-Carrière, Gaëlle Dumel, Tore Nielsen
The sleep of individuals suffering from frequent non-traumatic nightmares (NM) could prove useful in uncovering neural mechanisms involved in NM production. Past research has shown enhanced relative 10-14.5Hz activity ('high alpha') during REM sleep in frequent NM recallers, while other findings are consistent with a role for theta activity in REM-dependent memory processing. To replicate and expand upon this study, we computed spectral activity for sleep and wake EEG recordings from 18 frequent NM recallers and 15 control participants...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650315/transient-acidosis-while-retrieving-a-fear-related-memory-enhances-its-lability
#2
Jianyang Du, Margaret P Price, Rebecca J Taugher, Daniel Grigsby, Jamison J Ash, Austin C Stark, Md Zubayer Hossain Saad, Kritika Singh, Juthika Mandal, John A Wemmie, Michael J Welsh
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648820/selective-erasure-of-distinct-forms-of-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-different-forms-of-memory-in-the-same-postsynaptic-neuron
#3
Jiangyuan Hu, Larissa Ferguson, Kerry Adler, Carole A Farah, Margaret H Hastings, Wayne S Sossin, Samuel Schacher
Generalization of fear responses to non-threatening stimuli is a feature of anxiety disorders. It has been challenging to target maladaptive generalized memories without affecting adaptive memories. Synapse-specific long-term plasticity underlying memory involves the targeting of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) to activated synapses. If distinct tags and PRPs are used for different forms of plasticity, one could selectively remove distinct forms of memory. Using a stimulation paradigm in which associative long-term facilitation (LTF) occurs at one input and non-associative LTF at another input to the same postsynaptic neuron in an Aplysia sensorimotor preparation, we found that each form of LTF is reversed by inhibiting distinct isoforms of protein kinase M (PKM), putative PRPs, in the postsynaptic neuron...
June 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648815/age-dependent-changes-in-autophosphorylation-of-alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-ii-in-hippocampus-and-amygdala-after-contextual-fear-conditioning
#4
Ton Fang, Kamillia Kasbi, Stephanie Rothe, Wajeeha Aziz, K Peter Giese
The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala...
June 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647452/differential-roles-of-the-infralimbic-and-prelimbic-areas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-reconsolidation-of-a-traumatic-memory
#5
Natali Levin, Milly Kritman, Mouna Maroun, Irit Akirav
Studies about reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories have shown that pharmacological manipulation at memory reactivation can attenuate or enhance the subsequent expression of the conditioned fear response. Here we examined the effects of a single injection of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (Rap) into the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas [which compose the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC)] on reconsolidation and extinction of a traumatic fear memory. We found opposite effects of Rap infused into the PL and IL on reconsolidation and extinction: intra-PL Rap and systemic Rap impaired reconsolidation and facilitated extinction whereas intra-IL Rap enhanced reconsolidation and impaired extinction...
June 22, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643193/assessing-cancer-specific-anxiety-in-chinese-men-with-prostate-cancer-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-memorial-anxiety-scale-for-prostate-cancer-max-pc
#6
Qingmei Huang, Ping Jiang, Zijun Zhang, Jie Luo, Yun Dai, Li Zheng, Wei Wang
PURPOSE: The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) was developed to identify and assess cancer-specific anxiety among men with prostate cancer (PCa); however, there is no Chinese version. The aim of our study was to translate the English version of MAX-PC into Chinese and evaluate the psychometric properties of it. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 254 participants. Internal consistency including the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlations were used to measure the reliability of the scale...
June 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642476/prevention-of-long-term-memory-loss-after-retrieval-by-an-endogenous-camkii-inhibitor
#7
Fabio Antonio Vigil, Keiko Mizuno, Walter Lucchesi, Victoria Valls-Comamala, Karl Peter Giese
CaMK2N1 and CaMK2N2 are endogenous inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a key synaptic signaling molecule for learning and memory. Here, we investigated the learning and memory function of CaMK2N1 by knocking-down its expression in dorsal hippocampus of mice. We found that reduced CaMK2N1 expression does not affect contextual fear long-term memory (LTM) formation. However, we show that it impairs maintenance of established LTM, but only if retrieval occurs. CaMK2N1 knockdown prevents a decrease of threonine-286 (T286) autophosphorylation of αCaMKII and increases GluA1 levels in hippocampal synapses after retrieval of contextual fear LTM...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638915/-optogenetic-activation-of-dorsal-hippocampal-astrocytic-rac1-blocks-the-learning-of-associative-memory
#8
Xiao-Mu Guo, Zhao-Hui Liao, Ye-Zheng Tao, Fei-Fei Wang, Lan Ma
Rac1 belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, and plays important roles in the brain function. It affects the cell migration and axon guidance via regulating the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. However, the effect of its dynamic activation in regulating physiological function remains unclear. Recently, a photoactivatable analogue of Rac1 (PA-Rac1) has been developed, allowing the activation of Rac1 by the specific wavelength of light in living cells. Thus, we constructed recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) of PA-Rac1 and its light-insensitive mutant PA-Rac1-C450A under the control of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (mGFAP) promoter to manipulate Rac1 activity in astrocytes by optical stimulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636948/pten%C3%AE-modulates-camkii-signaling-and-controls-contextual-fear-memory-and-spatial-learning
#9
Pan Wang, Fan Mei, Jiapan Hu, Minglu Zhu, Hailong Qi, Xi Chen, Ruiqi Li, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) has multiple functions, and recent studies have shown that the PTEN family has isoforms. The roles of these PTEN family members in biologic activities warrant specific evaluation. Here, we show that PTENα maintains CaMKII in a state that is competent to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) with resultant regulation of contextual fear memory and spatial learning. PTENα binds to CaMKII with its distinctive N terminus and resets CaMKII to an activatable state by dephosphorylating it at sites T305/306...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634451/berberine-ameliorates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-through-modulation-of-aberrant-inflammation-response-and-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-dm-rats
#10
Qingjie Chen, Ran Mo, Ninghua Wu, Xin Zou, Cai Shi, Jing Gong, Jingbin Li, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Deshen Yang, Kaifu Wang, Juan Chen
Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr) have been described in peripheral tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#11
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633346/tetramethylpyrazine-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-by-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE
#12
Fen Lu, Xu Li, Wei Li, Ke Wei, Yong Yao, Qianlin Zhang, Xinliang Liang, Jiewen Zhang
Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626015/reciprocal-interaction-of-dendrite-geometry-and-nuclear-calcium-vegfd-signaling-gates-memory-consolidation-and-extinction
#13
Thekla J Hemstedt, C Peter Bengtson, Omar Ramírez, Ana Mm Oliveira, Hilmar Bading
Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end-point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene VEGFD is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#14
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#15
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624583/pre-adolescent-and-adolescent-mice-are-less-sensitive-to-the-effects-of-acute-nicotine-on-extinction-and-spontaneous-recovery
#16
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Dana Zeid, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Adolescence is a period of high risk for the initiation of nicotine product usage and exposure to traumatic events. In parallel, nicotine exposure has been found to age-dependently modulate acquisition of contextual fear memories; however, it is unknown if adolescent nicotine exposure alters extinction of fear related memories. Age-related differences in sensitivity to the effects of nicotine on fear extinction could increase or decrease susceptibility to anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine administration on extinction and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memories in pre-adolescent (PND 23), late adolescent (PND 38), and adult (PND 53) C57B6/J mice...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624572/role-of-beta-catenin-and-endocannabinoids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-extinction-in-rats-exposed-to-shock-and-reminders
#17
Nachshon Korem, Rachel Lange, Cecilia J Hillard, Irit Akirav
The response to a traumatic experience may be rapid recovery or development of psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Impaired extinction of fear memories is thought to contribute to the development of the persistent trauma memories and avoidance. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the endocannabinoid system appear to play significant roles in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here we examined the involvement of β-catenin in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in extinction in rats exposed to the shock and reminders model of PTSD...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623635/italian-cultural-adaptation-of-the-memorial-anxiety-for-prostate-cancer-scale-for-the-population-of-men-on-active-surveillance
#18
Maria F Alvisi, Claudia Repetto, Tiziana Rancati, Fabio Badenchini, Tiziana Magnani, Cristina Marenghi, Silvia Villa, Nicola Nicolai, Roberto Salvioni, Barbara Avuzzi, Riccardo Valdagni, Lara Bellardita
PURPOSE: The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) is a self-report questionnaire that was developed in English to assess prostate cancer (PCa)-related anxiety. The aim of this study was to perform a cultural adaptation for the tool to be used in a population of Italian men on active surveillance (AS). METHODS: A total of 222 patients with localized PCa who were recruited for the Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) protocol completed the MAX-PC...
June 14, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620339/the-stress-acceleration-hypothesis-of-nightmares
#19
Tore Nielsen
Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620325/reduced-consolidation-reinstatement-and-renewal-of-conditioned-fear-memory-by-repetitive-treatment-of-radix-polygalae-in-mice
#20
Jung-Won Shin, Hyunwoo Park, Yoonju Cho, Suck Lee, Jiwon Yoon, Sungho Maeng
The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP) is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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