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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101715/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-gene-expression-is-severely-impaired-in-mice-orally-treated-with-alcl3
#1
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Aamra Mahboob, Touqeer Ahmed
Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#2
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099477/chronic-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-mice-affects-anxiety-night-time-energy-expenditure-and-sleep-patterns-but-not-circadian-rhythm-in-male-offspring
#3
Randy F Crossland, Alfred Balasa, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sangeetha K Mahadevan, Marta L Fiorotto, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#4
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093566/estrogen-dependent-association-of-hdac4-with-fear-in-female-mice-and-women-with-ptsd
#5
S A Maddox, V Kilaru, J Shin, T Jovanovic, L M Almli, B G Dias, S D Norrholm, N Fani, V Michopoulos, Z Ding, K N Conneely, E B Binder, K J Ressler, A K Smith
Women are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. Recent studies suggest that this may be mediated, in part, by circulating estrogen levels. This study evaluated the hypothesis that individual variation in response to estrogen levels contributes to fear regulation and PTSD risk in women. We evaluated DNA methylation from blood of female participants in the Grady Trauma Project and found that serum estradiol levels associates with DNA methylation across the genome...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#6
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#7
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly Sambrook, Maya Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
: Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N=60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#8
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#9
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088551/individual-and-sex-differences-in-high-and-low-responder-phenotypes
#10
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#11
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#12
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#13
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074533/netrin-g1-its-downregulation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-cocaine-conditioned-mice-and-genetic-association-in-human-cocaine-dependence
#14
Sabah Kelaï, Nicolas Ramoz, Jean-Marie Moalic, Florence Noble, Naguib Mechawar, Sandrine Imbeaud, Gustavo Turecki, Michel Simonneau, Philip Gorwood, Gilles Maussion
Netrin G1 is a presynaptic ligand involved in axonal projection. Although molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction are still poorly understood, Netrin G1 might have a role as a regulator of anxiety, fear and spatial memory, behavioural traits impaired in the context of cocaine exposure. In this study, the Netrin G1 (Ntng1) expression was investigated in the nucleus accumbens of mice primarily conditioned to cocaine using a place preference paradigm. A genetic association study was then conducted on 146 multiplex families of the Collaborative study on Genetics of Alcoholism, in which seven single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NTNG1 gene were genotyped...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#15
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071689/haploinsufficiency-of-ehmt1-improves-pattern-separation-and-increases-hippocampal-cell-proliferation
#16
Marco Benevento, Charlotte A Oomen, Alexa E Horner, Houshang Amiri, Tessa Jacobs, Charlotte Pauwels, Monica Frega, Tjitske Kleefstra, Maksym V Kopanitsa, Seth G N Grant, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Catharina E E M Van der Zee, Hans van Bokhoven, Jeffrey C Glennon, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions of the human Euchromatin Histone Methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene are the main causes of Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired memory, autistic features and mostly severe intellectual disability. Previously, Ehmt1(+/-) heterozygous knockout mice were found to exhibit cranial abnormalities and decreased sociability, phenotypes similar to those observed in Kleefstra syndrome patients. In addition, Ehmt1(+/-) knockout mice were impaired at fear extinction and novel- and spatial object recognition...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067923/-a-phd-completed-8-are-extreme-dental-treatment-anxiety-fainting-or-gagging-separate-or-overlapping-phenomena
#17
C M H H van Houtem
Extreme dental treatment anxiety, fainting or gagging in the dentist's chair can seriously hinder a patient's dental treatment. While a series of widely diverse studies on extreme dental treatment anxiety have been carried out, less is known about gagging and fainting. The most important questions in this dissertation research were whether dental treatment anxiety ('stimuli') can be identified and whether dental treatment anxiety and fainting or gagging are separate or overlapping phenomena. Fear of dental treatment can be divided into several subtypes: fear of invasive treatments, loss of control and aversive physical sensations...
January 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067903/modulation-of-excitation-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-by-neuroligin-3-regulates-the-hippocampal-network
#18
Jai S Polepalli, Hemmings Wu, Debanjan Goswami, Casey H Halpern, Thomas C Südhof, Robert C Malenka
Hippocampal network activity is generated by a complex interplay between excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. Although much is known about the molecular properties of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cells, comparatively little is known about excitatory synapses on interneurons. Here we show that conditional deletion of the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-3 in parvalbumin interneurons causes a decrease in NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability by selectively impairing the inhibition of glutamate release by presynaptic Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067785/relationships-between-gat1-and-ptsd-depression-and-substance-use-disorder
#19
Kaitlin E Bountress, Wei Wei, Christina Sheerin, Dongjun Chung, Ananda B Amstadter, Howard Mandel, Zhewu Wang
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have large public health impacts. Therefore, researchers have attempted to identify those at greatest risk for these phenotypes. PTSD, MDD, and SUD are in part genetically influenced. Additionally, genes in the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system are implicated in the encoding of emotional and fear memories, and thus may impact these phenotypes. The current study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAT1 individually, and at the gene level, using a principal components (PC) approach, with PTSD, PTSD comorbid with MDD, and PTSD comorbid with SUD in 486 combat-exposed veterans...
January 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065842/fear-extinction-and-memory-reconsolidation-as-critical-components-in-behavioral-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-potential-augmentation-of-these-processes
#20
REVIEW
Noelle B Smith, Jennifer M Doran, Lauren M Sippel, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in critical brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. This brief review has two objectives: (1) to discuss research examining extinction and reconsolidation processes as mechanisms in PTSD psychotherapy, and (2) present possibilities for augmenting extinction and reconsolidation within treatment through alterations to therapeutic interventions and novel approaches. A key component of many effective PTSD therapies is exposure, which involves intentional confrontation and processing of the traumatic memory...
January 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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