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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#1
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238297/short-term-total-sleep-deprivation-impairs-contextual-fear-memory-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-reduces-rem-sleep-in-moderately-anxious-swiss-mice
#2
Munazah F Qureshi, Sushil K Jha
The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i) sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii) contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231765/imaging-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-nociceptin-in-addiction-and-ptsd-models
#3
Savannah Tollefson, Michael Himes, Rajesh Narendran
Addiction is composed of three phases: intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Negative reinforcement, strengthening a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus, has been associated with the withdrawal phase. An imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain's stress (nociceptin, neuropeptide Y) and anti-stress (CRF, norepinephrine, etc.) system is attributed to negatively reinforced compulsive behaviours associated with relapse. Similarly, post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by an overactive stress system...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230165/fear-conditioning-downregulates-rac1-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-astrocytes-to-facilitate-the-formation-of-fear-memory
#4
Zhaohui Liao, Yezheng Tao, Xiaomu Guo, Deqin Cheng, Feifei Wang, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Astrocytes are well known to scale synaptic structural and functional plasticity, while the role in learning and memory, such as conditioned fear memory, is poorly elucidated. Here, using pharmacological approach, we find that fluorocitrate (FC) significantly inhibits the acquisition of fear memory, suggesting that astrocyte activity is required for fear memory formation. We further demonstrate that fear conditioning downregulates astrocytic Rac1 activity in basolateral amygdala (BLA) in mice and promotes astrocyte structural plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#5
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225748/multiple-exposures-of-sevoflurane-during-pregnancy-induces-memory-impairment-in-young-female-offspring-mice
#6
Woosuk Chung, Seunghwan Yoon, Yong Sup Shin
Background: Earlier studies have reported conflicting results regarding long-term behavioral consequences after anesthesia during the fetal period. Previous studies also suggest several factors that may explain such conflicting data. Thus, we examined the influence of age and sex on long-term behavioral consequences after multiple sevoflurane exposures during the fetal period. Methods: C57BL/6J pregnant mice received oxygen with or without sevoflurane for 2 hours at gestational day (GD) 14-16...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225045/post-reexposure-administration-of-riluzole-attenuates-the-reconsolidation-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#7
Kie Akagi, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223783/prior-stress-promotes-the-generalization-of-contextual-fear-memories-involvement-of-the-gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex
#8
C L Bender, A Otamendi, G D Calfa, V A Molina
Fear generalization occurs when a response, previously acquired with a threatening stimulus, is transferred to a similar one. However, it could be maladaptive when stimuli that do not represent a real threat are appraised as dangerous, which is a hallmark of several anxiety disorders. Stress exposure is a major risk factor for the occurrence of anxiety disorders and it is well established that it influences different phases of fear memory; nevertheless, its impact on the generalization of contextual fear memories has been less studied...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221166/high-salt-induced-hypertension-leads-to-cognitive-defect
#9
Cui-Ping Guo, Zhen Wei, Fang Huang, Min Qin, Xing Li, Yu-Man Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Hong-Lian Li, Xiao-Chuan Wang
Although increasing evidences suggest a relationship between hypertension and brain function for years, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a risk factor for cognitive decline and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, an experimental animal model of hypertension simply by feeding rats with high salt diet was employed. We found that long-term high salt intake caused a marked increase of systolic blood pressure linked to a declined regional cerebral blood flow. Fear conditioning and morris water maze behavioral test revealed that high salt diet induced hippocampal dependent spatial reference memory deficits, while a decreased synaptogenesis without neuronal loss in hippocampus was observed in high salt treated rats...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213077/allosteric-nanobodies-uncover-a-role-of-hippocampal-mglu2-receptor-homodimers-in-contextual-fear-consolidation
#10
Pauline Scholler, Damien Nevoltris, Dimitri de Bundel, Simon Bossi, David Moreno-Delgado, Xavier Rovira, Thor C Møller, Driss El Moustaine, Michaël Mathieu, Emilie Blanc, Heather McLean, Elodie Dupuis, Gérard Mathis, Eric Trinquet, Hervé Daniel, Emmanuel Valjent, Daniel Baty, Patrick Chames, Philippe Rondard, Jean-Philippe Pin
Antibodies have enormous therapeutic and biotechnology potential. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the main targets in drug development, are of major interest in antibody development programs. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are dimeric GPCRs that can control synaptic activity in a multitude of ways. Here we identify llama nanobodies that specifically recognize mGlu2 receptors, among the eight subtypes of mGluR subunits. Among these nanobodies, DN10 and 13 are positive allosteric modulators (PAM) on homodimeric mGlu2, while DN10 displays also a significant partial agonist activity...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209168/direct-neuronal-glucose-uptake-is-required-for-contextual-fear-acquisition-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#11
Liang Kong, Yan Zhao, Wen-Juan Zhou, Hui Yu, Shuai-Wen Teng, Qi Guo, Zheyu Chen, Yue Wang
The metabolism of glucose is a nearly exclusive source of energy for maintaining neuronal survival, synaptic transmission and information processing in the brain. Two glucose metabolism pathways have been reported, direct neuronal glucose uptake and the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), which can be involved in these functions simultaneously or separately. Although ANLS in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been proved to be required for memory consolidation, the specific metabolic pathway involved during memory acquisition remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208680/subtle-modifications-to-oxytocin-produce-ligands-that-retain-potency-and-improved-selectivity-across-species
#12
Markus Muttenthaler, Åsa Andersson, Irina Vetter, Rohit Menon, Marta Busnelli, Lotten Ragnarsson, Christian Bergmayr, Sarah Arrowsmith, Jennifer R Deuis, Han Sheng Chiu, Nathan J Palpant, Margaret O'Brien, Terry J Smith, Susan Wray, Inga D Neumann, Christian W Gruber, Richard J Lewis, Paul F Alewood
Oxytocin and vasopressin mediate various physiological functions that are important for osmoregulation, reproduction, cardiovascular function, social behavior, memory, and learning through four G protein-coupled receptors that are also implicated in high-profile disorders. Targeting these receptors is challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining ligands that retain selectivity across rodents and humans for translational studies. We identified a selective and more stable oxytocin receptor (OTR) agonist by subtly modifying the pharmacophore framework of human oxytocin and vasopressin...
December 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#13
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203227/behaviour-of-adult-5-ht1a-receptor-knockout-mice-exposed-to-stress-during-prenatal-development
#14
Veronika Kiryanova, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle, Richard H Dyck
Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy can have long-term, detrimental consequences for the offspring. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mediating these effects is essential for devising therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined whether serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) mediates the effects of maternal stress on the behavioural outcomes of the offspring as adults. Heterozygous (HET) mouse dams were bred with HET males and were randomly assigned to stress or control groups. Pregnant dams in the stress group were exposed to a regime of chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic day 7 to 18...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203208/systems-consolidation-revisited-but-not-revised-the-promise-and-limits-of-optogenetics-in-the-study-of-memory
#15
REVIEW
Hardt Oliver, Nadel Lynn
Episodic memories (in humans) and event-like memories (in non-human animals) require the hippocampus for some time after acquisition, but at remote points seem to depend more on cortical areas instead. Systems consolidation refers to the process that promotes this reorganization of memory. Various theoretical frameworks accounting for this process have been proposed, but clear evidence favoring one or another of these positions has been lacking. Addressing this issue, a recent study deployed some of the most advanced neurobiological technologies - optogenetics and calcium imaging - and provided high resolution, precise observations regarding brain systems involved in recent and remote contextual fear memories...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199957/the-ampa-receptor-associated-protein-shisa7-regulates-hippocampal-synaptic-function-and-contextual-memory
#16
Leanne J M Schmitz, Remco V Klaassen, Marta Ruiperez-Alonso, Azra Elia Zamri, Jasper Stroeder, Priyanka Rao-Ruiz, Johannes C Lodder, Rolinka J van der Loo, Huib D Mansvelder, August B Smit, Sabine Spijker
Glutamatergic synapses rely on AMPA receptors (AMPARs) for fast synaptic transmission and plasticity. AMPAR auxiliary proteins regulate receptor trafficking, and modulate receptor mobility and its biophysical properties. The AMPAR auxiliary protein Shisa7 (CKAMP59) has been shown to interact with AMPARs in artificial expression systems, but it is unknown whether Shisa7 has a functional role in glutamatergic synapses. We show that Shisa7 physically interacts with synaptic AMPARs in mouse hippocampus. Shisa7 gene deletion resulted in faster AMPAR currents in CA1 synapses, without affecting its synaptic expression...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197563/gabaergic-interneurons-the-orchestra-or-the-conductor-in-fear-learning-and-memory
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Lucas, Roger L Clem
Fear conditioning is a form of associative learning that is fundamental to survival and involves potentiation of activity in excitatory projection neurons (PNs). Current models stipulate that the mechanisms underlying this process involve plasticity of PN synapses, which exhibit strengthening in response to fear conditioning. However, excitatory PNs are extensively modulated by a diverse array of GABAergic interneurons whose contributions to acquisition, storage, and expression of fear memory remain poorly understood...
November 29, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197324/altered-phosphorylation-electrophysiology-and-behavior-on-attenuation-of-pde4b-action-in-hippocampus
#18
Susan L Campbell, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Lisa High Mitchell Smoot, Graeme B Bolger
BACKGROUND: PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate 3', 5' cAMP abundance in the CNS and thereby regulate PKA activity and phosphorylation of CREB, which has been implicated in learning and memory, depression and other functions. The PDE4 isoform PDE4B1 also interacts with the DISC1 protein, implicated in neural development and behavioral disorders. The cellular functions of PDE4B1 have been investigated extensively, but its function(s) in the intact organism remained unexplored...
December 2, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191578/gastrin-releasing-peptide-attenuates-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#19
A Murkar, P Kent, C Cayer, J James, Z Merali
BACKGROUND: Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) may play a role in fear learning. The GRP Receptor is expressed in the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus, and central administration of GRP mediates fear learning. The effects of GRP on reconsolidation, however, have been minimally explored. Reconsolidation, the process by which formed memories are rendered labile following recall, provides a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention. Although evidence suggests the window of opportunity to alter reactivated consolidation memory can be as long as 6h, shorter intervals have not been extensively investigated...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189822/-cognitive-traps-and-clinical-decisions
#20
Matteo Motterlini
We are fallible, we have limited computational capabilities, limited access to information, little memory. Moreover, in everyday life, we feel joy, fear, anger, and other emotions that influence our decisions in a little, "calculated" way. Not everyone, however, is also aware that the mistakes we make are often systematic and therefore, in particular circumstances, are foreseeable. Doctors and patients are constantly called upon to make decisions. They need to identify relevant information (for example, the symptoms or outcome of an examination), formulate a judgment (for example a diagnosis), choose an action course among the various possible ones based on one's own preferences (e...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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