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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916626/contextual-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#1
Justin W Kenney, Ian C Scott, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913644/affective-associative-two-process-theory-a-neurocomputational-account-of-partial-reinforcement-extinction-effects
#2
Robert Lowe, Alexander Almér, Erik Billing, Yulia Sandamirskaya, Christian Balkenius
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain...
September 14, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910291/minimizing-nocebo-effects-by-conditioning-with-verbal-suggestion-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-healthy-humans
#3
Danielle J P Bartels, Antoinette I M van Laarhoven, Michiel Stroo, Kim Hijne, Kaya J Peerdeman, A Rogier T Donders, Peter C M van de Kerkhof, Andrea W M Evers
Nocebo effects, i.e., adverse treatment effects which are induced by patients' expectations, are known to contribute to the experience of physical symptoms such as pain and itch. A better understanding of how to minimize nocebo responses might eventually contribute to enhanced treatment effects. However, little is known about how to reduce nocebo effects. In the current randomized controlled study, we tested whether nocebo effects can be minimized by positive expectation induction with respect to electrical and histaminic itch stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906303/relationship-of-low-doses-of-alcohol-voluntarily-consumed-during-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-with-subsequent-behavioral-flexibility
#4
Hayley Fisher, Nicholas Bright, Mark Gallo, Alisa Pajser, Charles L Pickens
Previous alcohol use is associated with impaired decision-making and impulsivity in humans, but the relationship between alcohol use and decision-making/impulsivity is unclear. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be correlated with performance in a go/no-go reversal task, a devaluation task, or operant extinction. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from postnatal day 26 to 66 and then behavioral testing was initiated 1...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#5
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894004/waiting-can-be-an-optimal-conservation-strategy-even-in-a-crisis-discipline
#6
Gwenllian D Iacona, Hugh P Possingham, Michael Bode
Biodiversity conservation projects confront immediate and escalating threats with limited funding. Conservation theory suggests that the best response to the species extinction crisis is to spend money as soon as it becomes available, and this is often an explicit constraint placed on funding. We use a general dynamic model of a conservation landscape to show that this decision to "front-load" project spending can be suboptimal if a delay allows managers to use resources more strategically. Our model demonstrates the existence of temporal efficiencies in conservation management, which parallel the spatial efficiencies identified by systematic conservation planning...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893668/learning-mechanisms-underlying-threat-absence-and-threat-relief-influences-of-trait-anxiety
#7
Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli
Impaired safety learning has been proposed as a risk factor for anxiety disorders, but safety can be indicated by either threat absence or threat termination (i.e., relief). Here, we investigated the role of trait anxiety for both kinds of safety learning. Ninety-one participants underwent an acquisition phase during which one shape (threatCS) predicted a painful electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), one shape (reliefCS) followed the US, and one shape (absenceCS) became never associated with the US. In a following extinction phase, the three cues were presented again plus a control shape (controlCS)...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893566/does-fear-extinction-in-the-laboratory-predict-outcomes-of-exposure-therapy-a-treatment-analog-study
#8
Eduard Forcadell, David Torrents-Rodas, Bram Vervliet, David Leiva, Miquel Tortella-Feliu, Miquel A Fullana
Fear extinction models have a key role in our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment with exposure therapy. Here, we tested whether individual differences in fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall in the laboratory were associated with the outcomes of an exposure therapy analog (ETA). Fifty adults with fear of spiders participated in a two-day fear-learning paradigm assessing fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall, and then underwent a brief ETA. Correlational analyses indicated that enhanced extinction learning was associated with better ETA outcome...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889104/machine-learning-analysis-identifies-drosophilagrunge-atrophin-as-an-important-learning-and-memory-gene-required-for-memory-retention-and-social-learning
#9
Balint Z Kacsoh, Casey S Greene, Giovanni Bosco
High throughput experiments are becoming increasingly common, and scientists must balance hypothesis driven experiments with genome wide data acquisition. We sought to predict novel genes involved in Drosophila learning and long-term memory from existing public high-throughput data. We performed an analysis using PILGRM, which analyzes public gene expression compendia using machine learning. We evaluated the top prediction alongside genes involved in learning and memory in IMP, an interface for functional relationship networks...
September 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888982/disrupting-nnos-psd-95-coupling-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-promotes-extinction-memory-retrieval
#10
Jun Li, Zhou Han, Bo Cao, Cheng-Yun Cai, Yu-Hui Lin, Fei Li, Hai-Ying Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Granule cells in the dentate gyrus regenerate constantly in adult hippocampus and then integrate into neural circuits in the hippocampus thereby providing the neural basis for learning and memory. Promoting the neurogenesis in the hippocampus facilitates learning and memory such as spatial learning, object identification, and extinction learning. The interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is reported to negatively regulate neurogenesis in brain, so we hypothesized that disrupting this interaction might facilitate the neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and thus enhance the extinction memory retrieval of fear learning...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887561/enhancement-of-extinction-memory-by-pharmacological-and-behavioral-interventions-targeted-to-its-reactivation
#11
Josué Haubrich, Adriano Machado, Flávia Zacouteguy Boos, Ana P Crestani, Rodrigo O Sierra, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Jorge A Quillfeldt
Extinction is a process that involves new learning that inhibits the expression of previously acquired memories. Although temporarily effective, extinction does not erase an original fear association. Since the extinction trace tends to fade over time, the original memory can resurge. On the other hand, strengthening effects have been described in several reconsolidation studies using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations. In order to know whether an extinction memory can be strengthened by reactivation-based interventions in the contextual fear conditioning task, we began by replicating the classic phenomenon of spontaneous recovery to show that brief reexposure sessions can prevent the decay of the extinction trace over time in a long-lasting way...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883019/suppression-of-striatal-prediction-errors-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-placebo-hypoalgesia
#12
Lieven A Schenk, Christian Sprenger, Selim Onat, Luana Colloca, Christian Büchel
Classical learning theories predict extinction after discontinuation of reinforcement through prediction errors. However, placebo hypoalgesia, although mediated by associative learning, has been shown to be resistant to extinction. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by suppression of prediction error processing through the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We compared pain modulation through treatment cues (placebo hypoalgesia, treatment context) with pain modulation through stimulus intensity cues (stimulus context) during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 48 male and female healthy volunteers...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882692/hippocampal-theta-phase-contingent-memory-retrieval-in-delay-and-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#13
Tomi Waselius, Eveliina Pöllänen, Jan Wikgren, Markku Penttonen, Miriam S Nokia
Hippocampal theta oscillations (3-12Hz) play a prominent role in learning. It has been suggested that encoding and retrieval of memories are supported by different phases of the theta cycle. Our previous study on trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits suggests that the timing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in relation to theta phase affects encoding but not retrieval of the memory trace. Here, we directly tested the effects of hippocampal theta phase on memory retrieval in two experiments conducted on adult female New Zealand White rabbits...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877104/activation-of-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-facilitates-active-avoidance-learning-through-enhancement-of-glutamate-levels-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus
#14
Jing Lv, Hao Feng, Ling Chen, Wei-Yao Wang, Xue-Ling Yue, Qing-Hua Jin
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely accepted as the best studied model for neurophysiological mechanisms that could underlie learning and memory formation. Despite a number of studies indicating that β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is involved in the modulation of learning and memory as well as LTP, few studies have used glutamate release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of β-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of propranolol (an antagonist of β-adrenoceptor) and isoproterenol (an agonist of β-adrenoceptor) on extracellular concentrations of glutamate and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during active avoidance learning in freely moving conscious rats...
September 4, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875035/classification-of-crystal-structure-using-a-convolutional-neural-network
#15
Woon Bae Park, Jiyong Chung, Jaeyoung Jung, Keemin Sohn, Satendra Pal Singh, Myoungho Pyo, Namsoo Shin, Kee-Sun Sohn
A deep machine-learning technique based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) is introduced. It has been used for the classification of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns in terms of crystal system, extinction group and space group. About 150 000 powder XRD patterns were collected and used as input for the CNN with no handcrafted engineering involved, and thereby an appropriate CNN architecture was obtained that allowed determination of the crystal system, extinction group and space group. In sharp contrast with the traditional use of powder XRD pattern analysis, the CNN never treats powder XRD patterns as a deconvoluted and discrete peak position or as intensity data, but instead the XRD patterns are regarded as nothing but a pattern similar to a picture...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872745/neural-mechanisms-of-extinguishing-drug-and-pleasant-cue-associations-in-human-addiction-role-of-the-vmpfc
#16
Anna B Konova, Muhammad A Parvaz, Vladimir Bernstein, Anna Zilverstand, Scott J Moeller, Mauricio R Delgado, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the resistance of drug cue associations to extinction in addiction remain unknown. Fear extinction critically depends on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here, we tested if this same region plays a role in extinction of non-fear, drug and pleasant cue associations. Eighteen chronic cocaine users and 15 matched controls completed three functional MRI scans. Participants first learned to associate an abstract cue (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with a drug-related (CSD+ ) or pleasant (CSP+ ) image...
September 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864206/mice-lacking-hippocampal-left-right-asymmetry-show-non-spatial-learning-deficits
#17
Akihiro Shimbo, Yutaka Kosaki, Isao Ito, Shigeru Watanabe
Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry...
August 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#18
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857504/persistent-histone-modifications-at-the-bdnf-and-cdk-5-promoters-following-extinction-of-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#19
Matthew R Castino, Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram S Ratnu, Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris, Timothy W Bredy, Neil A Youngson, Kelly J Clemens
Drugs of addiction lead to a wide range of epigenetic changes at the promoter regions of genes directly implicated in learning and memory processes. We have previously shown that the histone deactylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), accelerates the extinction of nicotine-seeking and provides resistance to relapse. Here we explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Rats received intravenous nicotine or saline self-administration, followed by six days of extinction training, with each extinction session followed immediately by treatment with NaB or vehicle...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856531/pro-neurogenic-memory-enhancing-and-anti-stress-effects-of-df302-a-novel-fluorine-gamma-carboline-derivative-with-multi-target-mechanism-of-action
#20
Tatyana Strekalova, Nataliia Bahzenova, Alexander Trofimov, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Nataliia Markova, Vladimir Grigoriev, Vladimir Zamoyski, Tatiana Serkova, Olga Redkozubova, Daria Vinogradova, Alexei Umriukhin, Vladimir Fisenko, Christina Lillesaar, Elena Shevtsova, Vladimir Sokolov, Alexey Aksinenko, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Sergey Bachurin
A comparative study performed in mice investigating the action of DF302, a novel fluoride-containing gamma-carboline derivative, in comparison to the structurally similar neuroprotective drug dimebon. Drug effects on learning and memory, emotionality, hippocampal neurogenesis and mitochondrial functions, as well as AMPA-mediated currents and the 5-HT6 receptor are reported. In the step-down avoidance and fear-conditioning paradigms, bolus administration of drugs at doses of 10 or 40 mg/kg showed that only the higher dose of DF302 improved long-term memory while dimebon was ineffective at either dosage...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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