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Extinction learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301087/response-to-changing-contingencies-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Jessie B Northrup, Klaus Libertus, Jana M Iverson
One recently proposed theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hypothesizes that individuals with the disorder may have difficulty using prior experiences to predict future events [Hellendoorn et al., 2015; Northrup, 2016; Sinha et al., 2014]. To date, this theory has not been tested in infancy. The current study analyzed how young infants at heightened (HR; older sibling with ASD) vs. low risk (LR; no first degree relatives with ASD) for ASD responded to changing contingencies when interacting with two visually identical rattles-one that produced sounds during shaking (Sound), and one that did not (Silent)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294331/context-dependent-extinction-of-an-appetitive-operant-conditioned-response-in-infant-rats
#2
Estefanía Orellana Barrera, Carlos Arias, Felisa González, Paula Abate
The present study evaluated context-dependent learning under an operant conditioning procedure in infant rats. Preweanling rats were trained in context A during postnatal days (PDs) 16 and 17 to learn an appetitive operant conditioning task, employing milk chocolate as appetitive reinforcer. On PD18 the operant response was extinguished in context A, or in an alternative context B. The change from context A to B between acquisition and extinction did not affect the number of responses during extinction, but slightly modified the shape of the extinction curve...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286283/prior-fear-conditioning-does-not-impede-enhanced-active-avoidance-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#3
Pieter Schipper, Marloes J A G Henckens, Bart Borghans, Marlies Hiemstra, Tamas Kozicz, Judith R Homberg
Stressors can be actively or passively coped with, and adequate adaption of the coping response to environmental conditions can reduce their potential deleterious effects. One major factor influencing stress coping behaviour is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability. Abolishment of 5-HTT is known to impair fear extinction but facilitates acquisition of signalled active avoidance (AA), a behavioural task in which an animal learns to avoid an aversive stimulus that is predicted by a cue. Flexibility in adapting coping behaviour to the nature of the stressor shapes resilience to stress-related disorders...
March 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#4
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268256/cannabidiol-regulation-of-emotion-and-emotional-memory-processing-relevance-for-treating-anxiety-related-and-substance-abuse-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson
Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235692/abnormal-fear-circuitry-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-controlled-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#6
Andrea E Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R Milad, Thomas J Spencer, Olivia E Bogucki, Amanda L Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216206/applications-and-limitations-of-behaviorally-conditioned-immunopharmacological-responses
#8
Laura Lückemann, Meike Unteroberdörster, Julia Kirchhof, Manfred Schedlowski, Martin Hadamitzky
The importance of placebo responses for the treatment of various medical conditions has increasingly been recognized, whereas knowledge and systematic application in clinical settings are still sparse. One possible application for placebo responses in pharmacotherapy is given by learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression, aiming at drug dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy of drug treatment. In an established learning paradigm of conditioned taste aversion/avoidance (CTA) in both, rats and humans, respectively, a novel-tasting drinking solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) is paired with an injection of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) as unconditioned stimulus (US)...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216120/no-impact-of-repeated-extinction-exposures-on-operant-responding-maintained-by-different-reinforcer-rates
#9
John Y H Bai, Christopher A Podlesnik
Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#10
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207912/fear-conditioning-and-extinction-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Daniel A Geller, Joseph F McGuire, Scott P Orr, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton, Brent J Small, Tanya K Murphy, Sabine Wilhelm, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Fear acquisition and extinction are central constructs in the cognitive-behavioral model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which underlies exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Youths with OCD may have impairments in fear acquisition and extinction that carry treatment implications. METHODS: Eighty youths (39 OCD, 41 healthy controls [HC]) completed clinical interviews, rating scales, and a differential conditioning task that included habituation, acquisition, and extinction phases...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205604/selectively-bred-rats-provide-a-unique-model-of-vulnerability-to-ptsd-like-behavior-and-respond-differentially-to-fgf2-augmentation-early-in-life
#12
Katherine E Prater, Elyse L Aurbach, Hanna K Larcinese, Taylor N Smith, Cortney A Turner, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Stephen Maren, Huda Akil
Individuals respond differently to traumatic experiences including their propensity to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding individual differences in PTSD vulnerability will allow the development of improved prevention and treatment options. Here, we characterized fear conditioning and extinction in rats selectively bred for differences in their locomotor response to a novel environment. Selectively bred high responder (bHR) and low responder (bLR) male rats are known to differ in their emotional reactivity on a range of measures of spontaneous anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203151/cerebellar-tdcs-effects-on-conditioned-eyeblinks-using-different-electrode-placements-and-stimulation-protocols
#13
Linda Beyer, Giorgi Batsikadze, Dagmar Timmann, Marcus Gerwig
There is good evidence that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition and timing of classically conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Animal studies suggest that the cerebellum is also important in CR extinction and savings. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was reported to modulate CR acquisition and timing in a polarity dependent manner. To extent previous findings three experiments were conducted using standard delay eyeblink conditioning. In a between-group design, effects of tDCS were assessed with stimulation over the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilaterally to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202907/calpain-1-deletion-impairs-mglur-dependent-ltd-and-fear-memory-extinction
#14
Guoqi Zhu, Victor Briz, Jeff Seinfeld, Yan Liu, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Recent studies indicate that calpain-1 is required for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by theta-burst stimulation in field CA1 of hippocampus. Here we determined the contribution of calpain-1 in another type of synaptic plasticity, the long-term depression (LTD) elicited by activation of type-I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). mGluR-LTD was associated with calpain-1 activation following T-type calcium channel opening, and resulted in the truncation of a regulatory subunit of PP2A, B56α...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192193/differential-expression-of-endocannabinoid-system-related-genes-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-following-expression-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#15
Wei Li, Cong-Li Zhang, Zheng-Guo Qiu
The endocannabinoid signaling plays a critical role in mediating rewarding effects to morphine. The relative stability for the expression and reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) suggests the involvement of differential neuroadaptations in learned associations between environmental cues and morphine. Changes in gene expression in hippocampus through the endogenous cannabinoid system (eCB) may accompany and mediate the development of such neuroadaptations to repeated morphine stimulation...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185871/differential-arc-protein-expression-in-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-after-moderate-and-intense-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#16
Diego A González-Franco, Víctor Ramírez-Amaya, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Gina L Quirarte
Intense training refers to training mediated by emotionally arousing experiences, such as aversive conditioning motivated by relatively high intensities of foot-shock, which produces a strong memory that is highly resistant to extinction. Intense training protects memory consolidation against the amnestic effects of a wide variety of treatments, administered systemically or directly into brain structures. The mechanisms of this protective effect are unknown. To determine a potential neurobiological correlate of the protective effect of intense training, rats were trained in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task using different intensities of foot-shock (0...
February 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176352/learning-processes-underlying-avoidance-of-negative-outcomes
#17
Marta Andreatta, Sebastian Michelmann, Paul Pauli, Johannes Hewig
Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock...
February 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170057/animal-models-of-drug-addiction
#18
María Pilar García Pardo, Concepción Roger Sánchez, José Enrique De la Rubia Ortí, María Asunción Aguilar Calpe
The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146250/effect-of-selective-inhibition-of-reactivated-nicotine-associated-memories-with-propranolol-on-nicotine-craving
#19
Yan-Xue Xue, Jia-Hui Deng, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Ping Wu, Geng-Di Huang, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Yu-Mei Wang, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Importance: A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146243/effect-of-a-brief-memory-updating-intervention-on-smoking-behavior-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Lisa J Germeroth, Matthew J Carpenter, Nathaniel L Baker, Brett Froeliger, Steven D LaRowe, Michael E Saladin
Importance: Recent research on addiction-related memory processes suggests that protracted extinction training following brief cue-elicited memory retrieval (ie, retrieval-extinction [R-E] training) can attenuate/eradicate the ability of cues to elicit learned behaviors. One study reported that cue-elicited craving among detoxified heroin addicts was substantially attenuated following R-E training and through 6-month follow-up. Objective: To build on these impressive findings by examining whether R-E training could attenuate smoking-related craving and behavior...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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