keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Extinction learning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783061/enhanced-extinction-of-aversive-memories-in-mice-lacking-sparc-related-protein-containing-immunoglobulin-domains-1-spig1-fstl4
#1
Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Yukio Komatsu, Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Masaharu Noda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory. We previously reported that SPARC-related protein-containing immunoglobulin domains 1 (SPIG1, also known as Follistatin-like protein 4, FSTL4) binds to pro-BDNF and negatively regulates BDNF maturation; however, its neurological functions, particularly in learning and memory, have not yet been elucidated. We herein examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of Spig1-knockout (Spig1-KO) mice...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783059/disruption-of-medial-septum-and-diagonal-bands-of-broca-cholinergic-projections-to-the-ventral-hippocampus-disrupt-auditory-fear-memory
#2
Jennifer M Staib, Rebecca Della Valle, Dayan K Knox
In classical fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), which leads to a fear memory. If the CS is repeatedly presented without the US after fear conditioning, the formation of an extinction memory occurs, which inhibits fear memory expression. A previous study has demonstrated that selective cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) prior to fear and extinction learning disrupt contextual fear memory discrimination and acquisition of extinction memory...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#3
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#5
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#6
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750979/ketamine-facilitates-extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-and-enhances-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-rat-model-of-anxiety-vulnerability-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders
#7
Ashley M Fortress, Ian M Smith, Kevin C H Pang
Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) share a common feature of pathological avoidance behavior. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat has been used as a model of anxiety vulnerability, expressing a behaviorally inhibited temperament, acquiring avoidance behavior more rapidly and displaying extinction-resistant avoidance compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Subanesthetic levels of ketamine have gained attention as a rapid antidepressant in treatment-resistant depression. While traditional antidepressants are commonly used to treat anxiety disorders and PTSD, the therapeutic utility of ketamine for these disorders is much less understood...
May 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744783/behavioral-interventions-to-eliminate-fear-responses
#8
REVIEW
Jingli Yue, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Fear memory underlies anxiety-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a fear-based disorder, characterized by difficulties in extinguishing the learned fear response and maintaining extinction. Currently, the first-line treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, which forms an extinction memory to compete with the original fear memory. However, the extinguished fear often returns under numerous circumstances, suggesting that novel methods are needed to eliminate fear memory or facilitate extinction memory...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743496/complex-housing-causes-a-robust-increase-in-dendritic-complexity-and-spine-density-of-medial-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#9
Archana Ashokan, Jamien Wee Han Lim, Nicholas Hang, Rupshi Mitra
Prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, are critical brain regions for generating a flexible behavioral response to changing environmental contingencies. This includes the role of these brain structures in the extinction of learned fear, decision making and retrieval of remote memories. Dendritic structure of medial prefrontal cortex neurons retains significant structural plasticity in adulthood. This has been mainly demonstrated as dendritic atrophy and loss of dendritic spines due to chronic stress...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740293/role-played-by-the-passage-of-time-in-reversal-learning
#10
Estelle H F Goarin, Nura W Lingawi, Vincent Laurent
Reversal learning is thought to involve an extinction-like process that inhibits the expression of the initial learning. However, behavioral evidence for this inhibition remains difficult to interpret as various procedures have been employed to study reversal learning. Here, we used a discrimination task in rats to examine whether the inhibition produced by reversal learning is as sensitive to the passage of time as the inhibition produced by extinction. Experiment 1 showed that when tested immediately after reversal training, rats were able to use the reversed contingencies to solve the discrimination task in an outcome-specific manner...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#11
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723712/the-presence-of-your-absence-a-conditioning-theory-of-grief
#12
Yannick Boddez
I present a conditioning theory of grief. From conditioning research on appetitive disorders (e.g., addiction and binge eating), I borrow the concept cue-elicited craving. More precisely, the theory postulates that, throughout a life together, a variety of cues become associated with the presence of the loved one and that because of this these cues can trigger craving and (an action tendency for) searching for the deceased. Starting from this perspective, I additionally invoke extinction phenomena to explain the possible persistence of grief...
April 24, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704972/safety-behavior-after-extinction-triggers-a-return-of-threat-expectancy
#13
Sophie L van Uijen, Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard
Safety behavior is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders, presumably because it prevents the violation of negative expectancies. Recent research showed that safety behavior is resistant to fear extinction. This fear conditioning study investigated whether safety behavior after fear extinction triggers a return of fear in healthy participants. Participants learned that two stimuli (A and C) were followed by an aversive loud noise ("threat"), and one stimulus (B) was not. Participants then learned to use safety behavior that prevented the loud noise...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704609/complex-learning-induced-modifications-in-synaptic-inhibition-mechanisms-and-functional-significance
#14
REVIEW
Iris Reuveni, Longnian Lin, Edi Barkai
Following training in a difficult olfactory-discrimination (OD) task rats acquire the capability to perform the task easily, with little effort. This new acquired skill, of 'learning how to learn' is termed 'rule learning'. At the single cell level, rule learning in manifested in long-term enhancement of intrinsic neuronal excitability of piriform cortex (PC) pyramidal neurons, and in excitatory synaptic connections between these neuros to maintained cortical stability, such long-lasting increase in excitability must be accompanied by paralleled increase in inhibitory processes that would prevent hyper-excitable activation...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702257/verbal-instruction-can-induce-extinction-of-fear-of-movement-related-pain
#15
Yoshiki Maeda, Shigeyuki Kan, Yuji Fujino, Masahiko Shibata
The fear avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain highlights the importance of pain-related fear in chronification of pain. Although several interventions have been developed based on this model, the following issues remain unresolved: first, whether movement conditioned to pain can evoke fear responses particularly sympathetic activation; second, whether verbal instructions can attenuate conditioned fear of movement-related pain as with direct experience. To investigate these issues, we induced proprioceptive conditioning (learning the relationship between proprioceptive sensations and an aversive event) and extinction learning in healthy volunteers, and we compared psychophysiological and subjective indices of fear between an Instructed and a Normal extinction group...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697824/species-loss-exploring-opportunities-with-art-science
#16
Jennifer Harrower, Jennifer Parker, Martha Merson
Human-induced global change has triggered the sixth major extinction event on earth with profound consequences for humans and other species. A scientifically literate public is necessary to find and implement approaches to prevent or slow species loss. Creating science-inspired art can increase public understanding of the current anthropogenic biodiversity crisis and help people connect emotionally to difficult concepts. In spite of the pressure to avoid advocacy and emotion, there is a rich history of scientists who make art, as well as art-science collaborations resulting in provocative work that engages public interest; however, such interdisciplinary partnerships can often be challenging to initiate and navigate...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694912/individual-differences-in-conditioned-fear-are-associated-with-levels-of-adolescent-early-adult-alcohol-consumption-and-instrumental-extinction
#17
Alisa Pajser, Morgan Breen, Hayley Fisher, Charles L Pickens
Previous research has shown a relationship between alcohol exposure and conditioned fear, but the nature of this relationship remains unclear. We determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be associated with the level of conditioned fear to an auditory cue in male Long Evans rats. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from PND 26-66 and began behavioral testing 10 days later. We found no evidence that voluntary alcohol consumption altered fear...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686260/excitatory-connections-between-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-medial-prefrontal-cortex-show-a-role-for-the-prelimbic-cortex-in-fear-extinction
#18
Roger Marek, Li Xu, Robert K P Sullivan, Pankaj Sah
We elucidated the intrinsic circuitry of the medial prefrontal cortex and its role in regulating fear extinction, using neuronal tracing and optogenetic stimulation in vitro and in vivo. We show that pyramidal neurons in layer 5/6 of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex project to pyramidal cells in layer 5/6 of the infralimbic cortex. Activation of this connection enhances fear extinction, redefining the role of the prelimbic cortex in extinction learning.
May 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685094/effects-of-alcoholic-beverage-treatment-on-spatial-learning-and-fear-memory-in-mice
#19
Narumi Hashikawa-Hobara, Shuta Mishima, Shotaro Nagase, Keishi Morita, Ami Otsuka, Naoya Hashikawa
Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory...
April 24, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683697/inhibition-and-mediated-activation-between-conditioned-stimuli-parallels-between-perceptual-learning-and-associative-conditioning
#20
Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
This series examines the associative basis of inhibitory perceptual learning. Four experiments demonstrate that inhibitory perceptual learning, like Pavlovian conditioned inhibition, is affected by manipulating the number of training trials. Specifically, many interspersed XB/AB training trials (in which letters represent initially neutral stimuli such as tones, clicks, and flashing lights) followed by A-US pairings caused X to act like a conditioned inhibitor (Experiment 1), which is presumed to suggest that an inhibitory association between conditioned stimuli X and A had been formed (i...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
keyword
keyword
25597
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"