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Extinction learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808247/social-learning-promotes-nicotine-self-administration-by-facilitating-the-extinction-of-conditioned-aversion-in-isogenic-strains-of-rats
#1
Wenyan Han, Tengfei Wang, Hao Chen
Both social environment and genetic factors are critical for smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. We reported that rats developed conditioned flavor (i.e., taste and odor) aversion to intravenously self-administered (IVSA) nicotine, and that social learning promoted nicotine IVSA with flavor cues. We thus tested the hypothesis that socially acquired nicotine IVSA is a heritable trait by using female rats of six inbred strains and six F1 hybrids. Each strain was tested for 10 daily IVSA sessions. We found that the intake of nicotine (15 and 30 μg/kg/inf) varied among these strains by 33...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807795/d-cycloserine-facilitates-extinction-learning-and-enhances-extinction-related-brain-activation
#2
Anne Klass, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff, Silke Lissek
Extinction learning is modulated by N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) particularly in prefrontal and hippocampal brain regions. The use of of NMDA agonists in exposure therapy of anxiety disorders has been investigated in various patient groups. Behavioral results showed beneficial effects of pre-learning administration of the partial NMDAR agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) on therapy success. However, the impact of DCS upon non-fear-related contextual extinction, and associated recruitment of extinction-relevant brain regions is as yet unknown...
August 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802645/p2x7-purinergic-receptors-participate-in-the-expression-and-extinction-processes-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-in-mice
#3
L B Domingos, S C Hott, A L B Terzian, L B M Resstel
The purinergic system consists of two large receptor families - P2X and P2Y. Both are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although presenting different functions. These receptors are present in several brain regions, including those involved in emotion and stress-related behaviors. Hence, they seem to participate in fear- and anxiety-related responses. However, few studies have investigated the purinergic system in threatening situations, as observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Therefore, this study investigated the involvement of purinergic receptors in the expression and extinction of aversive memories...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768158/differential-effects-of-stress-on-fear-learning-and-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-pre-adolescent-and-adult-male-rats
#4
Georgia Barbayannis, Daly Franco, Solange Wong, Josselyn Galdamez, Russell D Romeo, Elizabeth P Bauer
Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764976/more-than-just-noise-inter-individual-differences-in-fear-acquisition-extinction-and-return-of-fear-in-humans-biological-experiential-temperamental-factors-and-methodological-pitfalls
#5
REVIEW
Tina B Lonsdorf, Christian J Merz
Why do only some individuals develop pathological anxiety following adverse events? Fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear paradigms serve as experimental learning models for the development, treatment and relapse of anxiety. Individual differences in experimental performance were however mostly regarded as 'noise' by researchers interested in basic associative learning principles. Our work for the first time presents a comprehensive literature overview and methodological discussion on inter-individual differences in fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758152/sleep-deprivation-disrupts-recall-of-conditioned-fear-extinction
#6
Laura D Straus, Dean T Acheson, Victoria B Risbrough, Sean P A Drummond
BACKGROUND: Learned fear is crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders, and extinction of learned fear is necessary for response to exposure-based treatments. In humans, research suggests disrupted sleep impairs consolidation of extinction, though no studies have examined this experimentally using total sleep deprivation. METHODS: Seventy-one healthy controls underwent a paradigm to acquire conditioned fear to a visual cue...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744133/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Óscar F Gonçalves, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, João R Sato
The current literature provides substantial evidence of brain alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms (eg, checking, cleaning/decontamination, counting compulsions; harm or sexual, symmetry/exactness obsessions), and emotional problems (eg, defensive/appetitive emotional imbalance, disgust, guilt, shame, and fear learning/extinction) and cognitive impairments associated with this disorder (eg, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). Building on this evidence, new clinical trials can now target specific brain regions/networks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739376/functional-inactivation-of-dorsal-medial-striatum-alters-behavioral-flexibility-and-recognition-process-in-mice
#8
Yanhua Qiao, Xingyue Wang, Lian Ma, Shengguang Li, Jing Liang
Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice...
July 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736915/anxiety-symptoms-and-children-s-eye-gaze-during-fear-learning
#9
Kalina J Michalska, Laura Machlin, Elizabeth Moroney, Daniel S Lowet, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Bruno B Averbeck, Melissa A Brotman, Eric E Nelson, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
BACKGROUND: The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
August 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726560/bayesian-methods-for-addressing-long-standing-problems-in-associative-learning-the-case-of-pree
#11
Fernando Blanco, Joaquín Moris
Most associative models typically assume that learning can be understood as a gradual change in associative strength that captures the situation into one single parameter, or representational state. We will call this view single-state learning. However, there is ample evidence showing that under many circumstances different relationships that share features can be learned independently, and animals can quickly switch between expressing one or another. We will call this multiple-state learning. Theoretically, it is understudied because it needs a different data analysis approach from those usually employed...
July 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#12
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720405/persistent-cognitive-and-morphological-alterations-induced-by-repeated-exposure-of-adolescent-rats-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene
#13
K M Braunscheidel, J T Gass, P J Mulholland, S B Floresco, J J Woodward
While thepsychoactive inhalant toluene causes behavioral effects similarto those produced by other drugs of abuse, the persistent behavioral and anatomical abnormalities induced by toluene exposure are not well known. To mimic human "binge-like" inhalant intoxication, adolescent, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor (5700ppm) twice daily for five consecutive days. These rats remained in their home cages until adulthood (P60), when they were trained in operant boxes to respond to a palatable food reward and then challenged with several different cognitive tasks...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716955/acute-exercise-enhances-the-consolidation-of-fear-extinction-memory-and-reduces-conditioned-fear-relapse-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#14
Courtney A Bouchet, Brian A Lloyd, Esteban C Loetz, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Natalie Haddad, Rebecca M Foright, Benjamin N Greenwood
Fear extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear extinction memories are labile and fear tends to return even after successful extinction. The relapse of fear contributes to the poor long-term efficacy of exposure therapy. A single session of voluntary exercise can enhance the acquisition and consolidation of fear extinction in male rats, but the effects of exercise on relapse of fear after extinction are not well understood. Here, we characterized the effects of 2 h of voluntary exercise during the consolidation phase of contextual or auditory fear extinction learning on long-term fear extinction memory and renewal in adult, male and female, Long-Evans rats...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#15
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716589/the-role-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-taste-aversive-learning-and-memory-extinction-after-long-term-sugar-consumption
#16
María Isabel Miranda, José Alejandro Rangel-Hernández, Gabriela Vera-Rivera, Nadia Edith García-Medina, Gerardo Soto-Alonso, Gabriela Rodríguez-García, Luis Núñez-Jaramillo
The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715850/how-willing-are-you-willingness-as-a-predictor-of-change-during-treatment-of-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Adam M Reid, Lauryn E Garner, Nathaniel Van Kirk, Christina Gironda, Jason W Krompinger, Brian P Brennan, Brittany M Mathes, Sadie Cole Monaghan, Eric D Tifft, Marie-Christine André, Jordan Cattie, Jesse M Crosby, Jason A Elias
OBJECTIVE: Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet a substantial number of individuals with OCD do not fully respond to this intervention. Based on emerging experimental and clinical research on acceptance, this study sought to explore whether willingness to experience unpleasant thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations during ERP was associated with improved treatment response. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight adults with OCD receiving residential ERP provided self-rated willingness and other exposure-related variables during each daily coached ERP session...
July 17, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715353/learned-expectations-and-uncertainty-facilitate-pain-during-classical-conditioning
#18
Veronique A Taylor, Luke Chang, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Roy
Pain spontaneously activates adaptive and dynamic learning processes affecting the anticipation of, and the responses to, future pain. Computational models of associative learning effectively capture the production and ongoing changes in conditioned anticipatory responses (eg, skin conductance response), but the impact of this dynamic process on unconditional pain responses remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dynamic modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex by fear learning in healthy human adult participants undergoing a classical conditioning procedure involving an acquisition, reversal and extinction phase...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705679/the-effects-of-cognitive-reappraisal-on-conditioned-disgust-in-contamination-based-ocd-an-analogue-study
#19
Bunmi O Olatunji, Hannah Berg, Rebecca C Cox, Amber Billingsley
Experimental research has shown that conditioned disgust is resistant to extinction, which may account for the slower habituation to disgust relative to fear in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined the efficacy of interventions that may attenuate conditioned disgust responses. Studies of cognitive reappraisal have demonstrated that reinterpreting a stimulus can alter emotional responding. This technique is based on cognitive theories which suggest that anxiety disorders arise from biased cognitions; therefore, changing a person's thoughts will elicit durable changes in emotional responses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701956/administration-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-into-the-basolateral-amygdala-enhances-memory-consolidation-delays-extinction-and-increases-hippocampal-bdnf-levels
#20
Fernanda E Valiati, Mailton Vasconcelos, Martina Lichtenfels, Fernanda S Petry, Rosa M M de Almeida, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Nadja Schröder, Caroline B de Farias, Rafael Roesler
Gene expression related to the formation and modification of memories is regulated epigenetically by chromatin remodeling through histone acetylation. Memory formation and extinction can be enhanced by treatment with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a brain area critically involved in regulating memory for inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, previous studies have not examined the effects of HDAC inhibition in the amygdala on memory for IA. Here we show that infusion of an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), trichostatin A (TSA), into the BLA, enhanced consolidation of IA memory in rats when given at 1...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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