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Extinction learning

Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Extinction of fear to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is known to be context-specific. When the CS is tested outside the context of extinction, fear returns, or renews. Several studies have demonstrated that renewal depends upon the hippocampus, although there are also studies where renewal was not impacted by hippocampal damage, suggesting that under some conditions context encoding and/or retrieval of extinction depends upon other regions. One candidate region is the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Raffaele Cacciaglia, Frauke Nees, Oliver Grimm, Stephanie Ridder, Sebastian T Pohlack, Slawomira J Diener, Claudia Liebscher, Herta Flor
Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Christian J Merz, Oliver T Wolf
Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Michael N Dretsch, Kimberly H Wood, Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Adam M Goodman, Muriah D Wheelock, Kayli B Wood, Thomas S Denney, Stephanie Traynham, David C Knight
BACKGROUND: Prior work examining emotional dysregulation observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has primarily been limited to fear-learning processes specific to anticipation, habituation, and extinction of threat. In contrast, the response to threat itself has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential disruption in fear conditioning neurocircuitry in service members with PTSD, specifically in response to predictable versus unpredictable threats...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Armin Schnider, Louis Nahum, Radek Ptak
Behaviourally spontaneous confabulation denotes a distinct syndrome consisting of confabulations that patients act upon, disorientation, and amnesia. It corresponds to the stable form of the original Korsakoff syndrome. While the syndrome may also occur in confusional states and degenerative dementia, this article is about the syndrome as it occurs after acute and focal brain damage. The patients act according to ideas and obligations that can mostly be traced back to real experiences in their past, but which are not currently valid guides of thinking and behaviour...
November 1, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Masataka Watanabe
Patients with the damage to the orbital region of the prefrontal cortex and monkeys with lesions in this area show impairment in emotional and motivational behavior. They also have difficulty in the extinction of learned behavior and in the reversal learning. This brain area is concerned with not only the value estimation of reward and aversive stimuli but also the expectation of these stimuli. The lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the integration of emotion/motivation and cognition. The medial prefrontal cortex is concerned with action selection based on the previous reward history...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Nataliia Markova, Nataliia Bazhenova, Daniel C Anthony, Julie Vignisse, Andrey Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Lucien Bettendorff, Tatyana Strekalova
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK-3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, hitherto direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function has not been reported...
November 4, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Anu Asnaani, Carmen P McLean, Edna B Foa
J. P. Watson and I. M. Marks published a seminal article in Behavior Therapy entitled "Relevant and Irrelevant Fear in Flooding-A Crossover Study of Phobic Patients" in 1971 that paved the way for important theoretical developments and empirical studies that examined the mechanisms underlying extinction learning. Indeed, in the 44 years since their article was published, our knowledge about how exposure therapy works has increased considerably. In this review, we explore the progress our field has made in understanding extinction learning and how Watson and Marks' important work has influenced this progress...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Martin E P Seligman
Some inadequacies of the classical conditioning analysis of phobias are discussed: phobias are highly resistant to extinction, whereas laboratory fear conditioning, unlike avoidance conditioning, extinguishes rapidly; phobias comprise a nonarbitrary and limited set of objects, whereas fear conditioning is thought to occur to an unlimited range of conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, phobias, unlike laboratory fear conditioning, are often acquired in one trial and seem quite resistant to change by "cognitive" means...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Michelle G Newman
This is the introduction to the first of two special issues in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. The goal of this issue is to pay tribute to prior seminal Behavior Therapy publications on etiology and mechanisms of change, to provide an updated review of important topics covered by these papers, and to make recommendations for the future. Each invited paper highlights a particular Behavior Therapy publication's contribution to our understanding and also provides an updated review or meta-analysis on the topic of the original paper...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
M Agustina López, M Jimena Santos, Santiago Cortasa, Rodrigo S Fernández, Martin Carbó Tano, María E Pedreira
The reconsolidation process is the mechanism by which strength and/or content of consolidated memories are updated. Prediction error (PE) is the difference between the prediction made and current events. It is proposed as a necessary condition to trigger the reconsolidation process. Here we analyzed deeply the role of the PE in the associative memory reconsolidation in the crab Neohelice granulata. An incongruence between the learned temporal relationship between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS-US) was enough to trigger the reconsolidation process...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Mengjiao Chen, Wei Ren, Xingang Wang
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is strongly implicated in learning and memory. On the other hand, depotentiation, the reversal of synaptic strength from potentiated LTP state to the pre-LTP level, is required in extinction of the obsolete memory. A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers long-term depression (LTD) and LTP, respectively. The present study, introducing calcium influx and calcium release from internal store into the tristable system, further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase to their basal states, thereby depotentiate the synaptic strength...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Onno Kruse, Isabell Tapia León, Rudolf Stark, Tim Klucken
Appetitive extinction receives attention as an important model for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, in humans, its underlying neural correlates remain unknown. To close this gap, we investigated appetitive acquisition and extinction with fMRI in a 2-day Monetary Incentive Delay paradigm.During appetitive conditioning, one stimulus (CS+) was paired with monetary reward, while another stimulus (CS-) was never rewarded. 24h later, subjects underwent extinction, in which neither CS was reinforced...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Nura W Lingawi, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Extinction and latent inhibition each refer to a reduction in conditioned responding: the former occurs when pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) are followed by repeated presentations of the CS alone; the latter occurs when CS alone presentations precede its pairings with the US. The present experiments used fear conditioning to test the hypothesis that both phenomena involve a similar form of inhibitory learning that recruits common neuronal substrates. We found that the initial inhibitory memory established by extinction is reactivated in the infralimbic (IL) cortex during additional extinction...
October 20, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
J Claassen, F Labrenz, T M Ernst, A Icenhour, J Langhorst, M Forsting, D Timmann, S Elsenbruch
There is evidence to support a role of the cerebellum in emotional learning processes, which are demonstrably altered in patients with chronic pain. We tested if cerebellar activation is altered during visceral pain-related fear conditioning and extinction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Cerebellar blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) data from N = 17 IBS patients and N = 21 healthy controls, collected as part of a previous fMRI study, was reanalyzed utilizing an advanced normalizing method of the cerebellum...
October 28, 2016: Cerebellum
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