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Extinction learning

Kim L Felmingham, Daniel V Zuj, Ken Chia Ming Hsu, Emma Nicholson, Matthew A Palmer, Kimberley Stuart, James C Vickers, Gin S Malhi, Richard A Bryant
The low expression Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with impaired fear extinction in healthy controls, and poorer response to exposure therapy in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Given that fear extinction underlies exposure therapy, this raises the question of the impact of BDNFVal66Met polymorphism on fear extinction in PTSD, yet this question has not yet been examined. One hundred and six participants (22 PTSD, 46 trauma-exposed controls (TC) and 38 non-trauma exposed controls (NTC)) completed a fear conditioning and extinction task and saliva samples were taken for DNA extraction and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism...
March 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T LeBeau, Michelle G Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Karina R O'Malley, Allison M Waters
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy...
March 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J van Staaden
Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by 'human' drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
James Byron Nelson, Andrew M Fabiano, Jeffrey A Lamoureux
Two experiments assessed the effects of extinguishing a conditioned cue on subsequent context conditioning. Each experiment used a different video-game method where sensors predicted attacking spaceships and participants responded to the sensor in a way that prepared them for the upcoming attack. In Experiment 1 extinction of a cue which signaled a spaceship-attack outcome facilitated subsequent learning when the attack occurred unsignaled. In Experiment 2 extinction of a cue facilitated subsequent learning, regardless of whether the spaceship outcome was the same or different as used in the earlier training...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Madelyne A Bisby, Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are considered critical for the consolidation of extinction but recent work challenges this assumption. Namely, NMDARs are not required for extinction retention in infant rats as well as when extinction training occurs for a second time (i.e., reextinction) in adult rats. In this study, a possible third instance of NMDAR-independent extinction was tested. Although adolescents typically exhibit impaired extinction retention, rats that are conditioned as juveniles and then given extinction training as adolescents (JuvCond-AdolesExt) have good extinction retention...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Frank T Burbrink, Marcelo Gehara
Most phylogenies are typically represented as purely bifurcating. However, as genomic data has become more common in phylogenetic studies, it is not unusual to find reticulation among terminal lineages or among internal nodes (deep time reticulation; DTR). In these situations, gene flow must have happened in the same or adjacent geographic areas for these DTRs to have occurred and therefore biogeographic reconstruction should provide similar area estimates for parental nodes, provided extinction or dispersal has not eroded these patterns...
March 9, 2018: Systematic Biology
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Amanda Flores, Francisco J López, Bram Vervliet, Pedro L Cobos
Recent studies have shown that avoidance behavior may become excessive and inflexible (i.e., detached from its incentive value and resistant to extinction). On the other hand, prospective intolerance of uncertainty (P-IU) has been defined as a factor leading to excessive responding in uncertain situations. Thus, uncertain avoidance situations may be taken as a relevant scenario to examine the role of intolerance of uncertainty as a factor that facilitates excessive and inflexible avoidance behavior. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that P-IU is associated with excessive and inflexible avoidance in an outcome devaluation paradigm...
March 1, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Nura W Lingawi, Nathan M Holmes, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Evidence indicates that the infralimbic cortex (IL) encodes and retrieves the inhibitory memory produced by fear extinction. Recently, we have shown that the IL is also involved in the inhibitory memory generated by stimulus pre-exposure that causes latent inhibition. These results are surprising because a stimulus undergoing fear extinction carries aversive motivational value, whereas a pre-exposed stimulus is neutral. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that the IL encodes inhibition irrespective of the motivational information about the stimulus...
March 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Margot Fortin, Mathilde Valenchon, Frédéric Lévy, Ludovic Calandreau, Cécile Arnould, Léa Lansade
Emotions are recognized as strong modulators of cognitive capacities. However, studies have mainly focused on the effect of negative emotions, with few investigating positive emotions. Recent studies suggest that traits of personality can modulate the effects of emotion on cognitive performance. This study aimed to assess whether emotional states differing according to their valence influenced the ability to achieve instrumental conditioning and learning flexibility and to determine the influence of personality...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Rachel L White, Katie Eberstein, Dawn M Scott
Children nowadays, particularly in urban areas, are more disconnected from nature than ever before, leading to a large-scale "extinction of experience" with the natural world. Yet there are many potential benefits from children interacting with nature first-hand, including via outdoor learning opportunities. Urban environmental education programmes typically aim to increase awareness and knowledge of local biodiversity and to promote positive attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. However, limited research has been conducted evaluating to what extent these interventions achieve their goals...
2018: PloS One
Jarid Goodman, Mark G Packard
The present review describes a role for the dorsal striatum in extinction. Evidence from brain lesion and pharmacological studies indicate that the dorsolateral region of the striatum (DLS) mediates extinction in various maze learning and instrumental learning tasks. Within the context of a multiple memory systems view, the role of the DLS in extinction appears to be selective. Specifically, the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory and is not required for extinction of cognitive memory. Thus, extinction mechanisms mediated by the DLS may involve response-produced inhibition (e...
March 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Persistent responding to food cues may underlie the difficulty to resist palatable foods and to maintain healthy eating habits. Renewal of responding after extinction is a model of persistent food seeking that can be used to study the underlying neural mechanisms. In context-mediated renewal, a return to the context in which the initial cue-food learning occurred induces robust responding to the cues that were extinguished elsewhere. Previous work found sex differences in context-mediated renewal and in the recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during that behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Daniel V Zuj, Matthew A Palmer, Gin S Malhi, Richard A Bryant, Kim L Felmingham
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated noradrenergic signaling, which has an impact on emotional learning and memory. Fear extinction is thought to underlie the processes of exposure therapy, however the relationship between noradrenaline and extinction in PTSD is unclear. Participants with PTSD (n = 21), trauma-exposure without PTSD (TC; n = 36), and non-trauma-exposed controls (NTC; n = 27) completed a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, and conditioned fear was indexed by skin conductance response (SCR)...
February 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Robert D Cole, David A Connor, Brendan Natwora, Thomas J Gould
Anxiety and stress disorders have been linked to deficits in fear extinction. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that acute nicotine impairs contextual fear extinction, suggesting that nicotine exposure may have negative effects on anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction are unknown. Therefore, based on the previous studies showing that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is central for fear extinction learning and acute nicotine dysregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling, we hypothesized that the nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction may involve changes in tyrosine receptor kinase B signaling...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Eirik Søvik, Pauline Berthier, William P Klare, Paul Helliwell, Edwina L S Buckle, Jenny A Plath, Andrew B Barron, Ryszard Maleszka
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive avoidance towards non-dangerous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Despite current therapies being successful in reducing such avoidance, relapse rates remain high. Based on recent findings, according to which learned fear responses were reduced after the presentation of the fear stimulus with a novel-neutral event (novel-based extinction), we tested whether novel-based extinction could diminish conditioned avoidance...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Román Darío Moreno-Fernández, Sara Gil-Rodríguez, Cristina Rosell-Valle, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Antonia Serrano, Francisco J Pavón, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis J Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega
Erasing memories of cocaine-stimuli associations might have important clinical implications for addiction therapy. Stimulating hippocampal plasticity by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a promising strategy because the addition of new neurons may not only facilitate new learning but also modify previous connections and weaken retrograde memories. To investigate whether increasing AHN prompted the forgetting of previous contextual cocaine associations, mice trained in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were administered chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, an endogenous lysophospholipid with pro-neurogenic actions), ki16425 (an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist) or a vehicle solution, and they were tested 23 days later for CPP retention and extinction...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
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