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Extinction learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422379/increased-5-hydroxymethylation-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-extinguished-from-cocaine-self-administration
#1
Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Małgorzata Frankowska, Karolina Wydra, Joanna Jastrzębska, Joanna Miszkiel, Małgorzata Filip
Drug craving and relapse risk during abstinence from cocaine are thought to be caused by persistent changes in transcription and chromatin regulation. Although several brain regions are involved in these processes, the hippocampus seems to play an important role in context-evoked craving and drug-seeking behavior. Only a few studies have examined epigenetic alterations during a period of cocaine abstinence. To investigate the effects of cocaine abstinence on DNA methylation and gene expression, rats that self-administered the drug underwent cocaine abstinence in two time points with extinction training...
April 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414478/enhancing-effects-of-contingency-instructions-on-fear-acquisition-and-extinction-in-anxiety-disorders
#2
Puck Duits, Jan Richter, Johanna M P Baas, Iris M Engelhard, Anke Limberg-Thiesen, Ivo Heitland, Alfons O Hamm, Danielle C Cath
Explicit instructions regarding stimulus-threat associations increase acquisition and extinction of fear in healthy participants. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with various anxiety disorders (N = 104) and healthy comparison participants (N = 93) participated in a differential fear conditioning task (within-subjects design). Approximately halfway through the acquisition phase, participants were instructed about the stimulus-threat association, and approximately halfway through the extinction phase, participants were informed that the unconditioned stimulus (US) would no longer be administered...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412771/drug-cue-reactivity-involves-hierarchical-instrumental-learning-evidence-from-a-biconditional-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-task
#3
Lorna Hardy, Chris Mitchell, Tina Seabrooke, Lee Hogarth
RATIONALE: Drug cue reactivity plays a crucial role in addiction, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. According to the binary associative account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation of the drug outcome, which, in turn, elicits the associated drug-seeking response (S-O-R). By contrast, according to the hierarchical account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation that the contingency between the drug-seeking response and the drug outcome is currently more effective, promoting performance of the drug-seeking response (S:R-O)...
April 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408411/active-avoidance-neural-mechanisms-and-attenuation-of-pavlovian-conditioned-responding
#4
Emily A Boeke, Justin Moscarello, Joseph E LeDoux, Elizabeth A Phelps, Catherine A Hartley
Patients with anxiety disorders often experience a relapse in symptoms after exposure therapy. Similarly, threat responses acquired during Pavlovian threat conditioning often return after extinction learning. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative methods to persistently reduce threat responding. Studies in rodents have suggested that exercising behavioral control over an aversive stimulus can persistently diminish threat responses, and that these effects are mediated by the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and striatum...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403387/skin-conductance-responses-and-neural-activations-during-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-recall-across-anxiety-disorders
#5
Marie-France Marin, Rachel G Zsido, Huijin Song, Natasha B Lasko, William D S Killgore, Scott L Rauch, Naomi M Simon, Mohammed R Milad
Importance: The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402571/neural-correlates-of-emotion-acceptance-versus-worry-or-suppression-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#6
Kristen K Ellard, David H Barlow, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D E Gabrieli, Thilo Deckersbach
Recent emotion dysregulation models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) propose chronic worry in GAD functions as a maladaptive attempt to regulate anxiety related to uncertain or unpredictable outcomes. Emotion acceptance is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy increasingly incorporated into newer cognitive-behavioral (CBT) approaches to GAD to counter chronic worry. The current study explores the mechanisms of emotion acceptance as an alternate emotion regulation strategy to worry or emotion suppression using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402515/oxytocin-differentially-modulates-pavlovian-cue-and-context-fear-acquisition
#7
Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Mario Rosero Pahi, Francesca Zidda, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees
Background: Fear acquisition and extinction have been demonstrated as core mechanisms for the development and maintenance of mental disorders, with different contributions of processing cues versus contexts. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) may have a prominent role in this context, as it has been shown to affect fear learning. However, investigations have focused on cue conditioning, and fear extinction. Its differential role for cue and context fear acquisition is still not known...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400163/stress-before-extinction-learning-enhances-and-generalizes-extinction-memory-in-a-predictive-learning-task
#8
Shira Meir Drexler, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Oliver T Wolf
In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397861/preventing-the-return-of-fear-using-reconsolidation-updating-and-methylene-blue-is-differentially-dependent-on-extinction-learning
#9
Allison M Auchter, Jason Shumake, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Many factors account for how well individuals extinguish conditioned fears, such as genetic variability, learning capacity and conditions under which extinction training is administered. We predicted that memory-based interventions would be more effective to reduce the reinstatement of fear in subjects genetically predisposed to display more extinction learning. We tested this hypothesis in rats genetically selected for differences in fear extinction using two strategies: (1) attenuation of fear memory using post-retrieval extinction training, and (2) pharmacological enhancement of the extinction memory after extinction training by low-dose USP methylene blue (MB)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393261/addressing-sufficiency-of-the-cb1-receptor-for-endocannabinoid-mediated-functions-through-conditional-genetic-rescue-in-forebrain-gabaergic-neurons
#10
Floortje Remmers, Maren D Lange, Martina Hamann, Sabine Ruehle, Hans-Christian Pape, Beat Lutz
Genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene in different cell types in the brain has previously revealed necessary functions for distinct synaptic plasticity processes and behaviors. Here, we sought to identify CB1 receptor expression sites that are minimally required to reconstruct normal phenotypes. In a CB1-null background, we re-expressed endogenous CB1 receptors in forebrain GABAergic neurons, thereby assessing the sufficiency of CB1 receptors. Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission was restored in hippocampal and amygdalar circuits...
April 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391115/pavlovian-disgust-conditioning-as-a-model-for-contamination-based-ocd-evidence-from-an-analogue-study
#11
Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced...
March 23, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386075/pavlovian-conditioning-demonstrated-with-neuromorphic-memristive-devices
#12
Zheng-Hua Tan, Xue-Bing Yin, Rui Yang, Shao-Bo Mi, Chun-Lin Jia, Xin Guo
Pavlovian conditioning, a classical case of associative learning in a biological brain, is demonstrated using the Ni/Nb-SrTiO3/Ti memristive device with intrinsic forgetting properties in the framework of the asymmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity of synapses. Three basic features of the Pavlovian conditioning, namely, acquisition, extinction and recovery, are implemented in detail. The effects of the temporal relation between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as well as the time interval between individual training trials on the Pavlovian conditioning are investigated...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383987/the-malleability-of-emotional-perception-short-term-plasticity-in-retinotopic-neurons-accompanies-the-formation-of-perceptual-biases-to-threat
#13
Nina N Thigpen, Felix Bartsch, Andreas Keil
Emotional experience changes visual perception, leading to the prioritization of sensory information associated with threats and opportunities. These emotional biases have been extensively studied by basic and clinical scientists, but their underlying mechanism is not known. The present study combined measures of brain-electric activity and autonomic physiology to establish how threat biases emerge in human observers. Participants viewed stimuli designed to differentially challenge known properties of different neuronal populations along the visual pathway: location, eye, and orientation specificity...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383939/blocking-of-flavor-nausea-learning-by-non-flavor-cues-assessment-through-orofacial-reactivity-responses
#14
Patricia Gasalla, Alberto Soto, Dominic M Dwyer, Matías López
We investigated, using orofacial reactivity assessment, whether nonflavor context cues can elicit conditioned aversive reactions, and also whether context cues interfere, through blocking, with the reduction in taste palatability during taste aversion conditioning. Experiment 1 showed that a context previously paired with LiCl evoked aversive orofacial reactions, and also attenuated the reduction in palatability of a saccharin solution which was paired with LiCl in that context. In Experiment 2, this blocking effect was abolished when the rats were given nonreinforced exposure to the previously LiCl-paired context (context extinction) before aversive conditioning of the saccharin in compound with the context...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383773/a-dissociation-between-renewal-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rats
#15
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
We investigated whether juvenile rats do not express renewal following extinction of conditioned fear due to their inability to form a long-term contextual fear memory. In experiment 1, postnatal day (P) 18 and 25 rats received 3 white-noise and footshock pairings, followed by 60 white-noise alone presentations the next day. When tested in a different context to extinction, P25 rats displayed renewal whereas P18 rats did not. Experiments 2A and 2B surprisingly showed that P18 and P25 rats do not show differences in contextual and cued fear, regardless of the conditioning-test intervals and the number of white-noise-footshock pairings received...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#16
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377177/enhancing-and-impairing-extinction-of-habit-memory-through-modulation-of-nmda-receptors-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum
#17
Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler, Mark G Packard
The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372937/effects-of-aversive-classical-conditioning-on-sexual-response-in-women-with-dyspareunia-and-sexually-functional-controls
#18
Stephanie Both, Marieke Brauer, Philomeen Weijenborg, Ellen Laan
INTRODUCTION: In dyspareunia-a somatically unexplained vulvovaginal pain associated with sexual intercourse-learned pain-related fear and inhibited sexual arousal are supposed to play a pivotal role. Based on research findings indicating that enhanced pain conditioning is involved in the etiology and maintenance of chronic pain, in the present study it was hypothesized that enhanced pain conditioning also might be involved in dyspareunia. AIM: To test whether learned associations between pain and sex negatively affect sexual response; whether women with dyspareunia show stronger aversive learning; and whether psychological distress, pain-related anxiety, vigilance, catastrophizing, and sexual excitation and inhibition were associated with conditioning effects...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360869/the-influence-of-state-anxiety-on-fear-discrimination-and-extinction-in-females
#19
Pauline Dibbets, Elisabeth A T Evers
Formal theories have linked pathological anxiety to a failure in fear response inhibition. Previously, we showed that aberrant response inhibition is not restricted to anxiety patients, but can also be observed in anxiety-prone adults. However, less is known about the influence of currently experienced levels of anxiety on inhibitory learning. The topic is highly important as state anxiety has a debilitating effect on cognition, emotion, and physiology and is linked to several anxiety disorders. In the present study, healthy female volunteers performed a fear conditioning task, after being informed that they will have to perform the Trier Social Stress Test task (n = 25; experimental group) or a control task (n = 25; control group) upon completion of the conditioning task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352511/learner-preference-between-massed-and-alternating-trial-sequencing-when-teaching-stimulus-relations-to-children-with-autism
#20
Paulo Guilhardi, Jennifer Smith, Camille Rivera, Robert K Ross
Two children with autism were assessed for preference between intersession distribution of mastered and unknown instructional trials on a computerized matching-to-sample task consisting of 12 total learning opportunities. Choice responses yielded presentation of either massed-trial sequencing (six unknown/six mastered stimuli relations or vice-versa) or alternating-trial sequencing delivery (alternation of unknown and mastered stimuli relations) followed by reinforcement for correct responses. An extinction condition served as an experimental control...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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