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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#1
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528358/dna-topoisomerase-targeting-chemotherapeutics-what-s-new
#2
REVIEW
Selma M Cuya, Mary-Ann Bjornsti, Robert C A M van Waardenburg
To resolve the topological problems that threaten the function and structural integrity of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and RNA molecules, human cells encode six different DNA topoisomerases including type IB enzymes (TOP1 and TOP1mt), type IIA enzymes (TOP2α and TOP2β) and type IA enzymes (TOP3α and TOP3β). DNA entanglements and the supercoiling of DNA molecules are regulated by topoisomerases through the introduction of transient enzyme-linked DNA breaks. The covalent topoisomerase-DNA complexes are the cellular targets of a diverse group of cancer chemotherapeutics, which reversibly stabilize these reaction intermediates...
May 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528119/autophagy-plays-a-dual-role-during-intracellular-sirna-delivery-by-lipoplex-and-polyplex-nanoparticles
#3
Wen Song, Zhiwei Ma, Yumei Zhang, Chuanxu Yang
Growing evidence indicates that autophagy plays a vital role during the intracellular DNA delivery mediated by lipoplex and polyplex nanoparticles. However, autophagy in intracellular siRNA delivery has not been well understood. In this study, lipofectamine 2000 and chitosan were used to formulate lipoplex and polyplex with siRNA for systematically investigating the interplay between siRNA delivery and autophagy. After transfection of H1299 cells with lipoplex and polyplex, the number of autophagic vacuoles was increased significantly indicated by the accumulation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527957/streptozotocin-alters-glucose-transport-connexin-expression-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-functions-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#4
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sarika Singh
The study was undertaken to explore the cell specific streptozotocin (STZ) induced mechanistic alterations. STZ induced rodent model is a well established experimental model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in our previous studies we have established it as an in vitro screening model of AD by employing N2A neuronal cells. Therefore, STZ was selected in the present study to understand the STZ induced cell specific alterations by utilizing neuronal N2A and astrocytes C6 cells. Both neuronal and astrocyte cells were treated with STZ at 10, 50, 100 and 1000μM concentration for 48 h...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527797/mir-26b-promoter-analysis-reveals-regulatory-mechanisms-by-lipid-related-transcription-factors-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#5
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Qiuya He, Dawei Yao, Jiao Wu, Juan J Loor
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate protein abundance and control diverse aspects of cellular processes and biological functions associated with lipid metabolism. MiR-26b and its host gene CTDSP1 regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by synergistically suppressing the insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1); however, the direct regulators of miR-26b expression remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the activity of a novel putative promoter region in miR-26b. Results revealed that promoter activity and miR-26b expression are dynamically regulated by different transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and liver X receptor α (LXRα)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527674/analysis-of-full-coding-sequence-of-the-tp53-gene-in-invasive-vulvar-cancers-implications-for-therapy
#6
Karl Kashofer, Sigrid Regauer
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the frequency and type of TP53 gene mutations and HPV status in 72 consecutively diagnosed primary invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) during the past 5years. METHODS: DNA of formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tumour tissue was analysed for 32 HPV subtypes and the full coding sequence of the TP53 gene, and correlated with results of p53 immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: 13/72 (18%) cancers were HPV-induced squamous cell carcinomas, of which 1/13 (8%) carcinoma harboured a somatic TP53 mutation...
May 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#7
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527408/subcellular-localization-based-comparative-study-on-radioresistant-bacteria-a-novel-approach-to-mine-proteins-involve-in-radioresistance
#8
Divya Vishambra, Malay Srivastava, Kamal Dev, Varun Jaiswal
Radioresistant bacteria (RRB) are among the most radioresistant organisms and has a unique role in evolution. Along with the evolutionary role, radioresistant organisms play important role in paper industries, bioremediation, vaccine development and possibility in anti-aging and anti-cancer treatment. The study of radiation resistance in RRB was mainly focused on cytosolic mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanism, cell cleansing activity and high antioxidant activity. Although it was known that protein localized on outer areas of cell play role in resistance towards extreme condition but the mechanisms/proteins localized on the outer area of cells are not studied for radioresistance...
May 10, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527403/interplay-between-bacillus-subtilis-recd2-and-the-recg-or-ruvab-helicase-in-recombinational-repair
#9
Rubén Torres, Hector Romero, Violeta Rodríguez-Cerrato, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis AddAB, RecS, RecQ, PcrA, HelD, DinG, RecG, RuvAB, PriA and RecD2 are genuine recombinational repair enzymes, but the biological role of RecD2 is poorly defined. A ΔrecD2 mutation sensitizes cells to DNA-damaging agents that stall or collapse replication forks. We found that this ΔrecD2 mutation impaired growth, and that a mutation in the pcrA gene (pcrA596) relieved this phenotype. The ΔrecD2 mutation was not epistatic to ΔaddAB, ΔrecQ, ΔrecS, ΔhelD, pcrA596 and ΔdinG, but epistatic to recA...
May 12, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527402/a-rare-e13a3-b2a3-bcr-abl1-fusion-transcript-with-normal-karyotype-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-the-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-monitoring-minimal-residual-disease-mrd
#10
M-H Duan, H Li, H Cai
Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have a t (9;22)(q34;q11.2) or variant translocation that results in a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. For many years, conventional karyotyping has been used as the standard diagnostic tool for t (9;22) (q34;q11.2). However, it has several limitations that may lead to failure for detecting BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements in around 5% of all CML patients. Although reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has evolved as a sensitive method for detecting BCR-ABL1 translocation, this method fail to detect certain BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript type, such as e13a3 (also known as b2a3), as a result of many commercially available and laboratory-developed primer sets...
May 12, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527390/on-filter-direct-amplification-of-legionella-pneumophila-for-rapid-assessment-of-its-abundance-and-viability
#11
Farag A Samhan, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Hassan Waseem, Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, Syed A Hashsham
Guidelines and regulations to control Legionella pneumophila in cooling water systems of large buildings are evolving due to the increasing number of outbreaks. Rapid, on-site, simple, and sensitive quantification methods that are also able to assess viability may be extremely useful in monitoring and control. Culture-based methods for measuring L. pneumophila may take 4-10 days and qPCR-based methods are also slow, requiring at least a day from sample to result, albeit mainly due to the need for sample transport to a centralized laboratory...
May 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526979/the-probabilities-of-one-and-multi-track-events-for-modeling-radiation-induced-cell-kill
#12
Uwe Schneider, Fabiano Vasi, Jürgen Besserer
In view of the clinical importance of hypofractionated radiotherapy, track models which are based on multi-hit events are currently reinvestigated. These models are often criticized, because it is believed that the probability of multi-track hits is negligible. In this work, the probabilities for one- and multi-track events are determined for different biological targets. The obtained probabilities can be used with nano-dosimetric cluster size distributions to obtain the parameters of track models. We quantitatively determined the probabilities for one- and multi-track events for 100, 500 and 1000 keV electrons, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526868/chitosan-dextran-sulfate-coated-doxorubicin-loaded-plga-pva-nanoparticles-caused-apoptosis-in-doxorubicin-resistance-breast-cancer-cells-through-induction-of-dna-damage
#13
Sumit Siddharth, Anmada Nayak, Deepika Nayak, Birendra Kumar Bindhani, Chanakya Nath Kundu
To overcome the toxicity, pharmacokinetics and drug resistance associated with doxorubicin (DOX), a strategy was developed by encapsulating DOX- loaded-PLGA-PVA- nanoparticles within chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles (CS-DS) [CS-DS-coated-DOX-loaded -PLGA-PVA-NP] and study the sensitivity against DOX- resistance- breast cancer cells (MCF-7-DOX-R). These CS-DS and PLGA-PVA double coated DOX are spherical, stable, polydispersed and have zeta potential +2.89 mV. MCF-7- DOX-R cells were derived by exposing increasing doses of DOX in MCF-7 cells...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526807/dihydroartemisinin-induces-autophagy-dependent-death-in-human-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells-through-dna-double-strand-break-mediated-oxidative-stress
#14
Xinli Shi, Li Wang, Xiaoming Li, Jing Bai, Jianchun Li, Shenghao Li, Zeming Wang, Mingrui Zhou
Dihydroartemisinin is an effective antimalarial agent with multiple biological activities. In the present investigation, we elucidated its therapeutic potential and working mechanism on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). It was demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly inhibit cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay in vitro. Meanwhile, autophagy was promoted in the Cal-27 cells treated by dihydroartemisinin, evidenced by increased LC3B-II level, increased autophagosome formation, and increased Beclin-1 level compared to dihydroartemisinin-untreated cells...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526804/ova12-promotes-tumor-growth-by-regulating-p53-expression-in-human-cancer-cells
#15
Renfeng Zhang, Xicai Wu, Xiangfeng Xia, Asma Khanniche, Feifei Song, Bingchang Zhang, Ying Wang, Hailiang Ge
Ovarian cancer-associated antigen 12 (OVA12) was first identified in an ovarian carcinoma complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library and has been shown to play an important role in tumor growth. Here, we found that overexpression of OVA12 accelerated tumor growth in different tumor cells, whereas OVA12 depletion was associated with the opposite effect. Moreover, knocking down OVA12 led to a significant increase in the protein levels of p53, and the overexpression of OVA12 significantly decreased endogenous p53 levels...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526794/raffinose-induces-biofilm-formation-by-streptococcus-mutans-in-low-concentrations-of-sucrose-by-increasing-production-of-extracellular-dna-and-fructan
#16
Ryo Nagasawa, Tsutomu Sato, Hidenobu Senpuku
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries and causes tooth decay by forming a firmly attached biofilm on tooth surfaces. Biofilm formation is induced by the presence of sucrose, which is a substrate for the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides, but not in the presence of oligosaccharides. Nonetheless, in this study, we found that raffinose, which is an oligosaccharide with an intestinal regulatory function and antiallergic effect, induced biofilm formation by S. mutans in a mixed culture with sucrose which was at concentrations less than those required to induce biofilm formation directly...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526682/aeroallergens-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-dna-damage-and-dampen-antioxidant-responses-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Tze Khee Chan, W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, W S Fred Wong
Exposure to environmental allergens is a major risk factor for asthma development. Allergens possess proteolytic activity that is capable of disrupting the airway epithelium. Although there is increasing evidence pointing to asthma as an epithelial disease, the underlying mechanism that drives asthma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the direct DNA damage potential of aeroallergens on human bronchial epithelial cells and elucidated the mechanisms mediating the damage. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, directly exposed to house dust mites (HDM) resulted in enhanced DNA damage, as measured by the CometChip and the staining of DNA double-strand break marker, γH2AX...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526635/arsenic-exposures-alter-clinical-indicators-of-anemia-in-a-male-population-of-smokers-and-non-smokers-in-bangladesh
#18
Faruque Parvez, Sebastian Medina, Regina Santella, Tariqul Islam, Fredine T Lauer, Nur Alam, Mahbubul Eunus, Mizanour Rahman, Pam Factor-Litvak, Habib Ahsan, Joseph Graziano, Ke Jian Liu, Scott W Burchiel
Drinking water arsenic (WAs) exposure has been linked to a number of detrimental health outcomes including anemia, primarily among pregnant women. Little is known about the effects of arsenic (As) on hematological disorders among men. We have examined the role of As exposure on hematological indicators of anemia in a group of men exposed to a wide range of As in their drinking water. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation among 119 healthy men in the Health Effects of As Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, in rural Bangladesh...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526407/sirtuin-inhibition-leads-to-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-preimplantation-blastocysts
#19
Min Gyeong Kim, Duk Hyoun Kim, Hye Ran Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Su Jin Jin, Hoon Taek Lee
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent class III histone deacetylase proteins that play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, and lifespan. Previous studies have shown that sirtuin inhibition leads to embryonic developmental arrest and oxidative stress in porcine and murine. However, sirtuin-mediated mechanisms have not been examined in porcine preimplantation blastocysts. We therefore investigated the relationship between sirtuins and autophagy. Embryos were cultured with 100 μM sirtinol (SIRT1/2 inhibitor) in NCSU-23 media after in vitro fertilization...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526340/unfolding-the-pathogenesis-of-scleroderma-through-genomics-and-epigenomics
#20
REVIEW
Pei-Suen Tsou, Amr H Sawalha
With unknown etiology, scleroderma (SSc) is a multifaceted disease characterized by immune activation, vascular complications, and excessive fibrosis in internal organs. Genetic studies, including candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-exome sequencing have supported the notion that while genetic susceptibility to SSc appears to be modest, SSc patients are genetically predisposed to this disease. The strongest genetic association for SSc lies within the MHC region, with loci in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DOA1 being the most replicated...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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