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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222511/evaluation-of-a-dna-a%C3%AE-42-vaccine-in-aged-nzw-rabbits-antibody-kinetics-and-immune-profile-after-intradermal-immunization-with-full-length-dna-a%C3%AE-42-trimer
#1
Doris Lambracht-Washington, Min Fu, Mary Wight-Carter, Matthew Riegel, Roger N Rosenberg
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid plaques in the brain consisting of aggregated amyloid-β 42 peptide (Aβ42) derived from cellular amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Based on successful experiments in mouse AD models, active immunization with Aβ42 peptide and passive immunizations with anti-Aβ42 antibodies were started in clinical trials. Active Aβ42 peptide immunization in humans had led to an inflammatory autoimmune response, and the trial was stopped. Passive immunizations had shown some effects in slowing AD pathology...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222432/extracellular-hmgb1-modulates-glutamate-metabolism-associated-with-kainic-acid-induced-epilepsy-like-hyperactivity-in-primary-rat-neural-cells
#2
Yuji Kaneko, Colleen Pappas, Teresita Malapira, Fernando Ĺ Vale, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar V Borlongan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroinflammatory processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of seizure/epilepsy. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a non-histone DNA binding protein, behaves like an inflammatory cytokine in response to epileptogenic insults. Kainic acid (KA) is an excitotoxic reagent commonly used to induce epilepsy in rodents. However, the molecular mechanism by which KA-induced HMGB1 affords the initiation of epilepsy, especially the role of extracellular HMGB1 in neurotransmitter expression, remains to be elucidated...
February 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222398/isolation-of-a-new-resorcinolic-lipid-from-mangifera-zeylanica-hook-f-bark-and-its-cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-potential
#3
Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Achyut Adhikari, Ira Thabrew, E Dilip de Silva
Mangifera zeylanica is a plant endemic to Sri Lanka and its bark has been used in traditional medicine to treat some cancers. This study was aimed to isolate potentially cytotoxic compound/s from the hexane extract of the bark of M. zeylanica by bio-activity guided fractionation. The structure of the isolated compound (1) was elucidated using (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. Compound 1 was identified as a new resorcinolic lipid (5-((8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-hexatriaconta-8, 11, 14-trienyl) benzene-1,3-diol)...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222389/correlation-between-ploidy-status-using-flow-cytometry-and-nucleolar-organizer-regions-in-benign-and-malignant-epithelial-odontogenic-tumors
#4
Sarah Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud, Dalia Hussein El-Rouby, Safa Fathy Abd El-Ghani, Omnia Mohamed Badawy
OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between the aggressive benign odontogenic tumors and their malignant counterparts is controversial and difficult. While flow cytometry (FCM) allowed DNA analysis in neoplasia, argyrophilic organizer regions (AgNORs) number and/or size in a nucleus are correlated with the ribosomal gene activity and therefore with cellular proliferation. The aim of this research was to study the diagnostic accuracy of FCM and AgNORs staining in differentiating between benign and malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors and to correlate between these two interventions...
February 14, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222172/rhoa-promotes-epidermal-stem-cell-proliferation-via-pkn1-cyclin-d1-signaling
#5
Fan Wang, Rixing Zhan, Liang Chen, Xia Dai, Wenping Wang, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Zhe Li, Liang Wang, Shupeng Huang, Jie Shen, Shirong Li, Chuan Cao
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play a critical role in wound healing, but the mechanism underlying ESC proliferation is not well defined. Here, we explore the effects of RhoA on ESC proliferation and the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: Human ESCs were enriched by rapid adhesion to collagen IV. RhoA(+/+)(G14V), RhoA(-/-)(T19N) and pGFP control plasmids were transfected into human ESCs. The effect of RhoA on cell proliferation was detected by cell proliferation and DNA synthesis assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222153/dissecting-nutrient-related-co-expression-networks-in-phosphate-starved-poplars
#6
Mareike Kavka, Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, but its availability is often limited in soil. Here, we studied changes in the transcriptome and in nutrient element concentrations in leaves and roots of poplars (Populus × canescens) in response to P deficiency. P starvation resulted in decreased concentrations of S and major cations (K, Mg, Ca), in increased concentrations of N, Zn and Al, while C, Fe and Mn were only little affected. In roots and leaves >4,000 and >9,000 genes were differently expressed upon P starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222125/streptococcus-sanguinis-induces-neutrophil-cell-death-by-production-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#7
Ryuichi Sumioka, Masanobu Nakata, Nobuo Okahashi, Yixuan Li, Satoshi Wada, Masaya Yamaguchi, Tomoko Sumitomo, Mikako Hayashi, Shigetada Kawabata
Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221970/genomic-tools-for-customized-recovery-and-detection-of-foodborne-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Michael Knowles, Sara Stinson, Dominic Lambert, Catherine Carrillo, Adam Koziol, Martine Gauthier, Burton Blais
Genomic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prediction tools have the potential to support foodborne illness outbreak investigations through their application in the analysis of bacterial genomes from causative strains. The AMR marker profile of a strain of interest, initially identified in outbreak-associated clinical samples, may serve as the basis for customization of selective enrichment media, facilitating its recovery from samples in a food safety investigation. Different possibilities for AMR analyses include the use of comprehensive AMR gene databases such as the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database, which can be mined with in-house bioinformatics alignment tools (e...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221135/impaired-respiration-elicits-srrab-dependent-programmed-cell-lysis-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Ameya A Mashruwala, Adriana Van De Guchte, Jeffrey M Boyd
Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#10
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221040/magnetic-fullerene-dna-hyaluronic-acid-nanovehicles-with-magnetism-reduction-dual-responsive-triggered-release
#11
Ling Wang, Yitong Wang, Jingcheng Hao, Shuli Dong
We create the dual-responsive nanovehicle that can effectively combine and abundantly utilize magnetic and glutathione (GSH)-reductive triggers to control the drug delivery and achieve more intelligent and powerful targeting. In the nanovehicles, paramagnetic fullerene (C60@CTAF) was prepared via one-step modification of fullerene with magnetic surfactant CTAF by hydrophobic interaction for the first time. The perfect conjugation of C60 and CTAF increased the solubility or dispersity of fullerenes and qualify CTAF with more powerful assembly capability with DNA...
February 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221022/quantitative-13c-traces-of-glucose-fate-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-hepatocytes
#12
Qianfen Wan, Yulan Wang, Huiru Tang
Quantitative characterization of 13C-labeled metabolites is an important part of the stable isotope tracing method widely used in metabolic flux analysis. Due to long relaxation time and low sensitivity of 13C nuclei, direct measurement of 13C labeled metabolites using one dimensional 13C NMR often fails to meet the demand of metabolomics studies especially with large number of samples and metabolites having low abundance. Although HSQC-based 2D NMR methods have improved sensitivity with inversion detection, they are time-consuming thus unsuitable for high-throughput absolute quantification of 13C-labeled metabolites...
February 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221015/taking-orders-from-light-photo-switchable-working-inactive-smart-surfaces-for-protein-and-cell-adhesion
#13
Junji Zhang, Wenjing Ma, Xiao-Peng He, He Tian
Photo-responsive smart surfaces are promising candidates for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and sensing devices. The use of light as an order-signal provides advantages of remote and non-invasive control with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Modification of the photo-switches with target bio-macromolecules, such as peptides, DNA and small-molecules including folic acid derivatives and sugars, has recently become a popular strategy to empower the smart surfaces with an improved detection efficiency and specificity...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220904/recent-advances-in-occupational-and-environmental-health-hazards-of-workers-exposed-to-gasoline-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Christopher E Ekpenyong, Asuquo E Asuquo
The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220902/twist1-induces-mmp3-expression-through-up-regulating-dna-hydroxymethylation-and-promotes-catabolic-responses-in-human-chondrocytes
#15
Joe Hasei, Takeshi Teramura, Toshiyuki Takehara, Yuta Onodera, Takuro Horii, Merissa Olmer, Izuho Hatada, Kanji Fukuda, Toshifumi Ozaki, Martin K Lotz, Hiroshi Asahara
The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220899/group-a-streptococcal-m1-protein-provides-resistance-against-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-histones
#16
Simon Döhrmann, Christopher N LaRock, Ericka L Anderson, Jason N Cole, Brinda Ryali, Chelsea Stewart, Poochit Nonejuie, Joe Pogliano, Ross Corriden, Partho Ghosh, Victor Nizet
Histones are essential elements of chromatin structure and gene regulation in eukaryotes. An unexpected attribute of these nuclear proteins is their antimicrobial activity. A framework for histone release and function in host defense in vivo was revealed with the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps, a specialized cell death process in which DNA-based structures containing histones are extruded to ensnare and kill bacteria. Investigating the susceptibility of various Gram-positive pathogens to histones, we found high-level resistance by one leading human pathogen, group A Streptococcus (GAS)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220845/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-a1-regulates-rhythmic-synthesis-of-mouse-nfil3-protein-via-ires-mediated-translation
#17
Hyo-Jin Kim, Hwa-Rim Lee, Ji-Young Seo, Hye Guk Ryu, Kyung-Ha Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Kyong-Tai Kim
Nuclear factor, interleukin 3, regulated (Nfil3, also known as E4 Promoter-Binding Protein 4 (E4BP4)) protein is a transcription factor that binds to DNA and generally represses target gene expression. In the circadian clock system, Nfil3 binds to a D-box element residing in the promoter of clock genes and contributes to their robust oscillation. Here, we show that the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Nfil3 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and that IRES-mediated translation occurs in a phase-dependent manner...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220827/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-excitoxic-effects-of-diethyl-oxopropanamide-an-ethyl-pyruvate-bioisoster-exert-robust-neuroprotective-effects-in-the-postischemic-brain
#18
Hye-Kyung Lee, Il-Doo Kim, Seung-Woo Kim, Hahnbie Lee, Ju-Young Park, Sung-Hwa Yoon, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of pyruvic acid and has been shown to have robust neuroprotective effects via its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic functions. In an effort to develop novel EP derivatives with greater protective potencies than EP, we generated four EP isosteres, among them the neuroprotective potency of N,N-diethyl-2-oxopropanamide (DEOPA), in which the ethoxy group of EP was replaced with diethylamine, was far greater than that of EP. When DEOPA was administered intravenously (5 mg/kg) to rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model at 6 hrs post-surgery, it suppressed infarct formation, ameliorated neurological and sensory/motor deficits, and inhibited microglial activation and neutrophil infiltrations in the postischemic brain more effectively than EP...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220825/notch1-promoted-trpa1-expression-in-erythroleukemic-cells-suppresses-erythroid-but-enhances-megakaryocyte-differentiation
#19
Ji-Lin Chen, Yueh-Hsin Ping, Min-Jen Tseng, Yuan-I Chang, Hsin-Chen Lee, Rong-Hong Hsieh, Tien-Shun Yeh
The Notch1 pathway plays important roles in modulating erythroid and megakaryocyte differentiation. To screen the Notch1-related genes that regulate differentiation fate of K562 and HEL cells, the expression of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) was induced by Notch1 receptor intracellular domain (N1IC), the activated form of Notch1 receptor. N1IC and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (Ets-1) bound to TRPA1 promoter region to regulate transcription in K562 cells. Transactivation of TRPA1 promoter by N1IC depended on the methylation status of TRPA1 promoter...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220703/whole-cell-biocatalytic-synthesis-of-cinnamyl-acetate-with-a-novel-esterase-from-the-dna-library-of-acinetobacter-haemolyticus
#20
Hao Dong, Francesco Secundo, Changhu Xue, Xiangzhao Mao
Cinnamyl acetate has a wide application in the flavor and fragrance industry because of its sweet, balsamic and floral odor. Up to now, lipases have been mainly used in enzyme-mediated synthesis of cinnamyl acetate, while esterases are only used in a few cases. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes is often a disadvantage which leads to increases of the production costs. In this paper, a genomic DNA library of Acinetobacter haemolyticus was constructed, and a novel esterase (EstK1) was identified. After expressed in E...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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