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Axonal transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542430/ros-regulation-of-axonal-mitochondrial-transport-is-mediated-by-ca2-and-jnk-in-drosophila
#1
Pin-Chao Liao, Lauren C Tandarich, Peter J Hollenbeck
Mitochondria perform critical functions including aerobic ATP production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, but are also a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To maintain cellular function and survival in neurons, mitochondria are transported along axons, and accumulate in regions with high demand for their functions. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial axonal transport are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, we know little about the connection between these two...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539870/a-select-subset-of-electron-transport-chain-genes-associated-with-optic-atrophy-link-mitochondria-to-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Wendy M Knowlton, Thomas Hubert, Zilu Wu, Andrew D Chisholm, Yishi Jin
The role of mitochondria within injured neurons is an area of active interest since these organelles are vital for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Using mechanosensory neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test regeneration after neuronal injury in vivo, we surveyed genes related to mitochondrial function for effects on axon regrowth after laser axotomy. Genes involved in mitochondrial transport, calcium uptake, mitophagy, or fission and fusion were largely dispensable for axon regrowth, with the exception of eat-3/Opa1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#3
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534083/synthetic-alpha-synuclein-fibrils-cause-mitochondrial-impairment-and-selective-dopamine-neurodegeneration-in-part-via-inos-mediated-nitric-oxide-production
#4
Victor Tapias, Xiaoping Hu, Kelvin C Luk, Laurie H Sanders, Virginia M Lee, J Timothy Greenamyre
Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) are hallmarks of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Exogenous addition of preformed α-syn fibrils (PFFs) into primary hippocampal neurons induced α-syn aggregation and accumulation. Likewise, intrastriatal inoculation of PFFs into mice and non-human primates generates Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites associated with PD-like neurodegeneration. Herein, we investigate the putative effects of synthetic human PFFs on cultured rat ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533267/the-kv1-associated-molecules-tag-1-and-caspr2-are-selectively-targeted-to-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Delphine Pinatel, Bruno Hivert, Margaux Saint-Martin, Nelly Noraz, Maria Savvaki, Domna Karagogeos, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh
Caspr2 and TAG-1 are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) associated with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1/1.2 at regions controlling axonal excitability, the axon initial segment (AIS) and juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons. The distribution of Kv1 at juxtaparanodes requires axo-glial contacts mediated by Caspr2 and TAG-1. In the present study, we showed that TAG-1 strongly co-localizes with Kv1.2 at the AIS of cultured hippocampal neurons whereas Caspr2 is uniformly expressed along the axolemma. Live-cell imaging revealed that Caspr2 and TAG-1 are sorted together in axonal transport vesicles...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528967/chronic-fluoxetine-rescues-changes-in-plasma-membrane-density-of-5-ht1a-autoreceptors-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-olfactory-bulbectomy-rodent-model-of-depression
#6
Mustapha Riad, Antonia Kobert, Laurent Descarries, Sandra Boye, Pierre-Paul Rompré, Jean-Claude Lacaille
Reduced serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of depression. The serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A auto-receptors act in concert to ensure homeostasis of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and regulation of their cell surface expression represent efficient mechanisms to maintain this homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the changes in the subcellular distribution of SERT and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in the rat olfactory bulbectomy model of depression using immuno-gold labelling and electron microscopy, and examined the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant, fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the subcellular distribution of SERT and 5-HT1AR...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#7
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523551/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Jaime M Franco, Soledad Lopez, Juan Miguel Gomez-Zumaquero, Maria Magdalena Leal-Lasarte, Diana E Caballero-Hernandez, Marta Cejudo-Guillén, David Pozo
Despite being clinically described 150 years ago, the mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis have not yet been fully understood. Studies in both animal models of ALS and human patients reveal a plethora of alterations such as increased glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, redox stress, increased apoptosis, defective axonal transport, protein-misfolding events, mitochondrial impairment and sustained unregulated immune responses. Regardless of being sporadic or familiar ALS, the final outcome at the cellular level is the death of upper and lower motor neurons, and once diagnosed, ALS is typically lethal within the next 5 years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516841/us3-and-us9-proteins-contribute-to-the-stromal-invasion-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-in-the-respiratory-mucosa
#9
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Lennert Steukers, Herman W Favoreel, Yewei Li, Shafiqul I Chowdhury, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Brigitte Caij, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection may lead to conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract problems, pneumonia, genital disorders and abortion. BHV-1 is able to spread quickly in a plaque-wise manner and invade by breaching the basement membrane (BM) barrier in the respiratory mucosa. BHV-1 Us3, a serine/threonine kinase, induces a dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization and BHV-1 Us9, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is required for axonal transport of viruses in neurons. In this study, we investigated the role of Us3 and Us9 during BHV-1 infection in the respiratory mucosa...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502805/distinct-phenotypes-of-three-repeat-and-four-repeat-human-tau-in-a-transgenic-model-of-tauopathy
#10
Megan A Sealey, Ergina Vourkou, Catherine M Cowan, Torsten Bossing, Shmma Quraishe, Sofia Grammenoudi, Efthimios M C Skoulakis, Amritpal Mudher
Tau exists as six closely related protein isoforms in the adult human brain. These are generated from alternative splicing of a single mRNA transcript and they differ in the absence or presence of two N-terminal and three or four microtubule binding domains. Typically all six isoforms have been considered functionally similar. However, their differential involvement in particular tauopathies raises the possibility that there may be isoform-specific differences in physiological function and pathological role...
May 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502476/purkinje-cells-are-more-vulnerable-to-the-specific-depletion-of-cathepsin-d-than-to-that-of-atg7
#11
Masato Koike, Masahiro Shibata, Takehiko Sunabori, Junji Yamaguchi, Kenji Sakimura, Masaaki Komatsu, Keiji Tanaka, Yasuo Uchiyama
Neurologic phenotypes of cathepsin D (CTSD)-deficient mice, a murine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, indicate the importance of CTSD for the maintenance of metabolism in central nervous system neurons. To further understand the role of CTSD in central nervous system neurons, we generated mice with a CTSD deficiency specifically in the Purkinje cells (PCs) (CTSD(Flox/Flox);GRID2-Cre) and compared their phenotypes with those of PC-selective Atg7-deficient (Atg7(Flox/Flox);GRID2-Cre) mice. In both strains of mice, PCs underwent degeneration, but the CTSD-deficient PCs disappeared more rapidly than their Atg7-deficient counterparts...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500298/zbp1-phosphorylation-at-serine-181-regulates-its-dendritic-transport-and-the-development-of-dendritic-trees-of-hippocampal-neurons
#12
Anna S Urbanska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Katarzyna Switon, Alicia L Hawthorne, Malgorzata Perycz, Malgorzata Urbanska, Gary J Bassell, Jacek Jaworski
Local protein synthesis occurs in axons and dendrites of neurons, enabling fast and spatially restricted responses to a dynamically changing extracellular environment. Prior to local translation, mRNA that is to be translated is packed into ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) where RNA binding proteins ensure mRNA silencing and provide a link to molecular motors. ZBP1 is a component of RNP transport particles and is known for its role in the local translation of β-actin mRNA. Its binding to mRNA is regulated by tyrosine 396 phosphorylation, and this particular modification was shown to be vital for axonal growth and dendritic branching...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496400/lrp1-modulates-app-intraneuronal-transport-and-processing-in-its-monomeric-and-dimeric-state
#13
Uta-Mareike Herr, Paul Strecker, Steffen E Storck, Carolin Thomas, Verena Rabiej, Anne Junker, Sandra Schilling, Nadine Schmidt, C Marie Dowds, Simone Eggert, Claus U Pietrzik, Stefan Kins
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third) but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487632/nicotinamide-and-wld-s-act-together-to-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-glaucoma
#14
Pete A Williams, Jeffrey M Harder, Nicole E Foxworth, Brynn H Cardozo, Kelly E Cochran, Simon W M John
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive visual dysfunction leading to vision loss. Retinal ganglion cells are the primary affected neuronal population, with a critical insult damaging their axons in the optic nerve head. This insult is typically secondary to harmfully high levels of intraocular pressure (IOP). We have previously determined that early mitochondrial abnormalities within retinal ganglion cells lead to neuronal dysfunction, with age-related declines in NAD (NAD(+) and NADH) rendering retinal ganglion cell mitochondria vulnerable to IOP-dependent stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485037/serotonin-axons-in-the-neocortex-of-the-adult-female-mouse-regrow-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Tymoteusz J Kajstura, Sarah E Dougherty, David J Linden
It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483796/imaging-of-viral-neuroinvasion-in-the-zebrafish-reveals-that-sindbis-and-chikungunya-viruses-favour-different-entry-routes
#16
Gabriella Passoni, Christelle Langevin, Nuno Palha, Bryan C Mounce, Valérie Briolat, Pierre Affaticati, Elodie De Job, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Marco Vignuzzi, Maria-Carla Saleh, Philippe Herbomel, Pierre Boudinot, Jean-Pierre Levraud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are vector‑borne pathogens that cause acute illnesses in humans and are sometimes associated with neuropathies, especially in infants and elderly patients. Little is known about their entry mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS), even for SINV, which has been used extensively as a model for viral encephalopathies. We previously established a CHIKV infection model in the optically transparent zebrafish larva; here we describe a new SINV infection model in this host...
May 8, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482642/extracellular-tau-oligomers-induce-invasion-of-endogenous-tau-into-the-somatodendritic-compartment-and-axonal-transport-dysfunction
#17
Eric Swanson, Leigham Breckenridge, Lloyd McMahon, Sreemoyee Som, Ian McConnell, George S Bloom
Aggregates composed of the microtubule associated protein, tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's tauopathies. Extracellular tau can induce the accumulation and aggregation of intracellular tau, and tau pathology can be transmitted along neural networks over time. There are six splice variants of central nervous system tau, and various oligomeric and fibrillar forms are associated with neurodegeneration in vivo. The particular extracellular forms of tau capable of transferring tau pathology from neuron to neuron remain ill defined, however, as do the consequences of intracellular tau aggregation on neuronal physiology...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473757/the-kinesin-adaptor-calsyntenin-1-organizes-microtubule-polarity-and-regulates-dynamics-during-sensory-axon-arbor-development
#18
Tristan J Lee, Jacob W Lee, Elizabeth M Haynes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary C Halloran
Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472993/humanized-monoclonal-antibody-armanezumab-specific-to-n-terminus-of-pathological-tau-characterization-and-therapeutic-potency
#19
Michael G Agadjanyan, Karen Zagorski, Irina Petrushina, Hayk Davtyan, Konstantin Kazarian, Maxim Antonenko, Joy Davis, Charles Bon, Mathew Blurton-Jones, David H Cribbs, Anahit Ghochikyan
BACKGROUND: The experience from clinical trials indicates that anti-Aβ immunotherapy could be effective in early/pre-clinical stages of AD, whereas at the late stages promoting the clearing of Aβ alone may be insufficient to halt the disease progression. At the same time, pathological tau correlates much better with the degree of dementia than Aβ deposition. Therefore, targeting pathological tau may provide a more promising approach for the treatment of advanced stages of AD. Recent data demonstrates that the N-terminal region of tau spanning aa 2-18 termed "phosphatase activation domain" that is normally hidden in the native protein in 'paperclip'-like conformation, becomes exposed in pathological tau and plays an essential role in the inhibition of fast axonal transport and in aggregation of tau...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472662/the-mammalian-specific-protein-armcx1-regulates-mitochondrial-transport-during-axon-regeneration
#20
Romain Cartoni, Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Chen Wang, Siwei Li, Yiling Zhang, Christopher V Gabel, Thomas L Schwarz, Zhigang He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Neuron
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