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Axonal transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214987/severe-convulsions-and-dysmyelination-in-both-jimpy-and-cx32-47-mice-may-associate-astrocytic-l-channel-function-with-myelination-and-oligodendrocytic-connexins-with-internodal-kv-channels
#1
Y H Gerald Chaban, Ye Chen, Elna Hertz, Leif Hertz
The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212984/hiv-1-vpr-disrupts-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-accelerates-neuronal-aging
#2
Ying Wang, Maryline Santerre, Italo Tempera, Kayla Martin, Ruma Mukerjee, Bassel E Sawaya
Disruption of mitochondria axonal transport, essential for the maintenance of synaptic and neuronal integrity and function, has been identified in neurodegenerative diseases. Whether HIV-1 viral proteins affect mitochondria axonal transport is unknown, albeit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in around half of the patients living with HIV. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) on mitochondria axonal transport. Using mice primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that 4-day Vpr treatment reduced the ratio of moving mitochondria associated with (i) less energy (ATP) supply, (ii) reduction in Miro-1 and (iii) increase of α-synuclein which led to loss of microtubule stability as demonstrated by inconsecutive distribution of acetylated α-tubulin along the axons...
February 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208320/dynamic-model-for-kinesin-mediated-long-range-transport-and-its-local-traffic-jam-caused-by-tau-proteins
#3
Woochul Nam, Bogdan I Epureanu
In neurons, several intracellular cargoes are transported by motor proteins (kinesins) which walk on microtubules (MTs). However, kinesins can possibly unbind from the MTs before they reach their destinations. The unbound kinesins randomly diffuse in neurons until they bind to MTs. Then, they walk again along the MTs to continue their tasks. Kinesins repeat this cycle of motion until they transport their cargoes to the destinations. However, most previous models mainly focused on the motion of kinesins when they walk on MTs...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206711/localization-patterns-of-dopamine-active-transporter-synthesizing-cells-during-development-of-brine-shrimp
#4
Bo Yong Kim, Gyeong Hee Shin, In Soo Lee, Suhng Wook Kim, Ho Seung Kim, Jin Kwan Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
There have been many studies on dopamine active transporter (DAT) in humans and laboratory animals; however, there is a lack of information on DAT in brine shrimp. In this study, we demonstrated the neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics of DAT-synthesizing (DAT(+) cells) during development of brine shrimp. In neuronal cells, the DAT(+) neurons in the central body and lobes of a protocerebrum (PC) controlled the deutocerebrum. The sensory cells of nauplius eyes projected their decussated axons to the PC, and the DAT(+) cells at the posterior region were associated with migration and control of the 10 posterior neurons during the early nauplius stage...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174522/in-vivo-imaging-of-mitochondrial-transport-in-single-axon-regeneration-of-zebrafish-mauthner-cells
#5
Yang Xu, Min Chen, Bingbing Hu, Rongchen Huang, Bing Hu
Mitochondrial transport is essential for neuronal function, but the evidence of connections between mitochondrial transport and axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of living vertebrates remains limited. Here, we developed a novel model to explore mitochondrial transport in a single Mauthner axon (M axon) of zebrafish with non-invasive in vivo imaging. To confirm the feasibility of using this model, we treated labeled zebrafish with nocodazole and demonstrated that it could disrupt mitochondrial transport...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164203/modulating-motility-of-intracellular-vesicles-in-cortical-neurons-with-nanomagnetic-forces-on-chip
#6
Anja Kunze, Coleman Tylor Murray, Chanya Godzich, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Andy Tay, Dino Di Carlo
Vesicle transport is a major underlying mechanism of cell communication. Inhibiting vesicle transport in brain cells results in blockage of neuronal signals, even in intact neuronal networks. Modulating intracellular vesicle transport can have a huge impact on the development of new neurotherapeutic concepts, but only if we can specifically interfere with intracellular transport patterns. Here, we propose to modulate motion of intracellular lipid vesicles in rat cortical neurons based on exogenously bioconjugated and cell internalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) within microengineered magnetic gradients on-chip...
February 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163202/endoneurial-cd34-positive-cells-define-an-intermediate-layer-in-human-digital-pacinian-corpuscles
#7
J García-Piqueras, O García-Suárez, M C Rodríguez-González, J L Cobo, R Cabo, J A Vega, J Feito
The endoneurial and/or perineurial origin of the outer core; i.e. the concentric and continuous lamellae located outside the complex formed by the axon and the Schwann-related cells, in human Pacinian corpuscles is still debated. Here we used immunohistochemistry coupled with a battery of antibodies to investigate the expression of perineurial (Glucose transporter 1 and epithelial membrane antigen) or endoneurial (CD34 antigen) markers in human digital Pacinian corpuscles. CD34 immunoreactivity was restricted to one layer immediately outside the inner core, whereas the proper outer core displayed antigens typical of the perineurial cells...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161363/molecular-determinants-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-iv-mrna-axonal-trafficking
#8
Amar N Kar, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Cai-Yun Chen, Jeffrey A Kowalak, Anthony E Gioio, Barry B Kaplan
In previous studies, we identified a putative 38-nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3' untranslated region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) mRNA that was necessary and sufficient for the axonal localization of the message in primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. However, little is known about the proteins that interact with the COXIV-zipcode and regulate the axonal trafficking and local translation of the COXIV message. To identify proteins involved in the axonal transport of the COXIV mRNA, we used the biotinylated 38-nucleotide COXIV RNA zipcode as bait in the affinity purification of COXIV zipcode binding proteins...
February 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159908/regulation-of-synaptic-a%C3%AE-generation-through-bace1-retrograde-transport-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Xuan Ye, Tuancheng Feng, Prasad Tammineni, Qing Chang, Yu Young Jeong, David J Margolis, Huaibin Cai, Alexander Kusnecov, Qian Cai
: β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides play a key role in synaptic damage and memory deficits in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of Aβ at nerve terminals leads to synaptic pathology and ultimately to neurodegeneration. β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for Aβ generation. However, the mechanisms regulating BACE1 distribution in axons and β cleavage of APP at synapses remain largely unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153028/il-1%C3%AE-impairs-retrograde-flow-of-bdnf-signaling-by-attenuating-endosome-trafficking
#10
Anthony J Carlos, Liqi Tong, G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulate in the brain with age and Alzheimer's disease and can impair neuron health and cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key neurotrophin that supports neuron health, function, and synaptic plasticity. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) impairs BDNF signaling but whether it affects BDNF signaling endosome trafficking has not been studied. METHODS: This study uses an in vitro approach in primary hippocampal neurons to evaluate the effect of IL-1β on BDNF signaling endosome trafficking...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148298/tbk1-a-new-player-in-als-linking-autophagy-and-neuroinflammation
#11
REVIEW
James A Oakes, Maria C Davies, Mark O Collins
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons, resulting in progressive muscle weakness and death by respiratory failure. Protein and RNA aggregates are a hallmark of ALS pathology and are thought to contribute to ALS by impairing axonal transport. Mutations in several genes known to contribute to ALS result in deposition of their protein products as aggregates; these include TARDBP, C9ORF72, and SOD1. In motor neurons, this can disrupt transport of mitochondria to areas of metabolic need, resulting in damage to cells and can elicit a neuroinflammatory response leading to further neuronal damage...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146371/critical-importance-of-rab-proteins-for-synaptic-function
#12
Maria Lidia Mignogna, Patrizia D'Adamo
Neurons are highly polarized cells that exhibit one of the more complex morphology and function. Neuronal intracellular trafficking plays a key role in dictating the directionality and specificity of vesicle formation, transport and fusion, allowing the transmission of information in sophisticate cellular network. Thus, the integrity of protein trafficking and spatial organization is especially important in neuronal cells. RAB proteins, small monomeric GTPases belonging to the RAS superfamily, spatially and temporally orchestrate specific vesicular trafficking steps...
February 1, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145597/proprioceptive-mechanisms-in-occlusion-stimulated-masseter-hypercontraction
#13
Xin Liu, Chunkui Zhang, Dongmei Wang, Hongyun Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Jinlian Li, Meiqing Wang
Neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme) have an axon that branches peripherally to innervate the orofacial region and projects centrally to the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo). They function as the primary neurons conveying proprioceptive messages. The present study aimed to demonstrate the presence of a periodontal-Vme-Vmo circuit and to provide evidence for its involvement in an experimental unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) model, which can induce osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129919/loss-of-huntingtin-stimulates-capture-of-retrograde-dense-core-vesicles-to-increase-synaptic-neuropeptide-stores
#14
Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124054/metal-maps-of-sclerotic-hippocampi-of-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Miloš Opačić, Aleksandar J Ristić, Danijela Savić, Vid Simon Šelih, Marko Živin, Dragoslav Sokić, Savo Raičević, Vladimir Baščarević, Ivan Spasojević
The loss of metal homeostasis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS). Here we applied laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging to establish the spatial distribution of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn in coronal sections of hippocampi of four patients with drug-resistant mTLE-HS who underwent amygdalohippocampectomy. Detailed maps of the metal concentrations in the different morphological areas/layers were built and analyzed...
January 26, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123079/zika-virus-targeting-in-the-developing-brain
#16
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Yang Yang, Sara Ornaghi, John N Davis
: Zika virus (ZIKV), a positive-sense RNA flavivirus, has attracted considerable attention recently for its potential to cause serious neurological problems including microcephaly, cortical thinning and blindness during early development. Recent findings suggest that ZIKV infection of the brain can occur not only during very early stages of development, but also in later fetal/early neonatal stages of maturation. Surprisingly, after peripheral inoculation of immunocompetent mice on the day of birth, the first cells targeted throughout the brain were isolated astrocytes...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123016/cdk5-regulation-of-the-grab-mediated-rab8-rab11-cascade-in-axon-outgrowth
#17
Kotaro Furusawa, Akiko Asada, Pamela Urrutia, Christian Gonzalez-Billault, Mitsunori Fukuda, Shin-Ichi Hisanaga
: Neurons communicate with each other through their axons and dendrites. However, a full characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in axon and dendrite formation is still incomplete. Neurite outgrowth requires the supply of membrane components for surface expansion. Two membrane sources for axon outgrowth are suggested: Golgi secretary vesicles and endocytic recycling endosomes. In non-neuronal cells, trafficking of secretary vesicles from Golgi is regulated by Rab8, a member of Rab small GTPases, and that of recycling endosomes is by Rab11, another member of Rabs...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122264/the-structural-and-functional-evidence-for-vesicular-release-from-astrocytes-in-situ
#18
Kirsten Bohmbach, Martin K Schwarz, Susanne Schoch, Christian Henneberger
The concept of the tripartite synapse states that bi-directional signalling between perisynaptic astrocyte processes, presynaptic axonal boutons and postsynaptic neuronal structures defines the properties of synaptic information processing. Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release from astrocytes, as one of the mechanisms of astrocyte-neuron communication, has attracted particular attention but has also been the subject of intense debate. In neurons, regulated vesicular release is a strongly coordinated process. It requires a complex release machinery comprised of many individual components ranging from vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins to Ca(2+)-sensors and the proteins that spatially and temporally control exocytosis of synaptic vesicles...
January 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122248/mdma-induced-neurotoxicity-of-serotonin-neurons-involves-autophagy-and-rilmenidine-is-protective-against-its-pathobiology
#19
Linda D Mercer, Gavin C Higgins, Chew L Lau, Andrew J Lawrence, Philip M Beart
Toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) towards biogenic amine neurons is well documented and in primate brain predominantly affects serotonin (5-HT) neurons. MDMA induces damage of 5-HT axons and nerve fibres and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Whilst its pathobiology involves mitochondrially-mediated oxidative stress, we hypothesised MDMA possessed the capacity to activate autophagy, a proteostatic mechanism for degradation of cellular debris. We established a culture of ventral pons from embryonic murine brain enriched in 5-HT neurons to explore mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity and recruitment of autophagy, and evaluated possible neuroprotective actions of the clinically approved agent rilmenidine...
January 22, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121396/investigation-of-the-subcellular-neurotoxicity-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-using-a-device-integrating-microfluidic-perfusion-and-chemotactic-guidance
#20
Wei Li, Zhen Xu, Bingzhe Xu, Chung Yuen Chan, Xudong Lin, Ying Wang, Ganchao Chen, Zhigang Wang, Qiuju Yuan, Guangyu Zhu, Hongyan Sun, Wutian Wu, Peng Shi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with the histopathological hallmark of extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in brain senile plaques. Though many studies have shown the neural toxicity from various forms of Aβ peptides, the subcellular mechanisms of Aβ peptide are still not well understood, partially due to the technical challenges of isolating axons or dendrites from the cell body for localized investigation. In this study, the subcellular toxicity and localization of Aβ peptides are investigated by utilizing a microfluidic compartmentalized device, which combines physical restriction and chemotactic guidance to enable the isolation of axons and dendrites for localized pharmacological studies...
January 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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