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Axonal transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663737/visualization-of-synaptic-vesicle-dynamics-with-fluorescence-proteins
#1
Wang Li, Chunyang Geng, Bo Liu
Synaptic vesicle (SV) will be transported to the bouton along the axon, once it is formed in a cell body. After docking in the active zone, neurotransmitters will be released upon the stimulation, and then transmission of chemical signals will be initiated. Presently, many advanced technologies and burgeoning molecular sensors are being used to explore the synaptic transmission. These studies provide a new sight into the presynaptic structure and its function. The present review summarizes the application of fluorescent proteins (FPs) for SV tracking and recycling...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652933/rhogapp190-a-potential-player-in-tbph-mediated-neurodegeneration-in-drosophila
#2
Simona Langellotti, Giulia Romano, Fabian Feiguin, Francisco Ernesto Baralle, Maurizio Romano
TDP-43 is an ubiquitous and highly conserved ribonucleoprotein involved in several cellular processes including pre-mRNA splicing, transcription, mRNA stability and transport. Notwithstanding the evidence of TDP-43 involvement in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. ALS and FTLD), the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Given the high degree of functional similarity between the human and fly orthologs of TDP-43, Drosophila melanogaster is a simple and useful model to study the pathophysiological role of this protein in vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650024/vglut1-or-vglut2-mrna-positive-neurons-in-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus-provide-collateral-projections-to-both-the-thalamus-and-the-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#3
Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li, Jin-Lian Li
The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P projection fibers originate from the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp). We previously determined that many vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2) mRNA-positive neurons were distributed in the Vsp of the adult rat, and most of these neurons sent their axons to the thalamus or cerebellum. However, whether VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive projection neurons exist that send their axons to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has not been reported...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649983/ncx-db-a-unified-resource-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger-super-family
#4
Katrin Bode, Damien M O'Halloran
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca2+ extrusion by coupling Ca2+ efflux to the influx of Na+ ions. The Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+ /Ca2+ /K+ exchangers, and Ca2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance...
April 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625118/fus-causes-synaptic-hyperexcitability-in-drosophila-dendritic-arborization-neurons
#5
James B Machamer, Brian M Woolums, Gregory Fuller, Thomas E Lloyd
Mutations in the nuclear localization signal of the RNA binding protein FUS cause both Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). These mutations result in a loss of FUS from the nucleus and the formation of FUS-containing cytoplasmic aggregates in patients. To better understand the role of cytoplasmic FUS mislocalization in the pathogenesis of ALS, we identified a population of cholinergic neurons in Drosophila that recapitulate these pathologic hallmarks. Expression of mutant FUS or the Drosophila homolog, Cabeza (Caz), in class IV dendritic arborization neurons results in cytoplasmic mislocalization and axonal transport to presynaptic terminals...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625080/the-effects-of-age-on-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-axonal-degeneration-after-chronic-iop-elevation-using-a-murine-ocular-explant-model
#6
Elizabeth C Kimball, Joan L Jefferys, Mary E Pease, Ericka N Oglesby, Cathy Nguyen, Julie Schaub, Ian Pitha, Harry A Quigley
The purpose of this study was to compare younger and older mice after chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation lasting up to 4 days with respect to mitochondrial density, structure, and movement, as well as axonal integrity, in an ex vivo explant model. We studied 2 transgenic mouse strains, both on a C57BL/6J background, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in selected axons and one expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in all mitochondria. Mice of 4 months or 14 months of age were exposed to chronic IOP by anterior chamber microbead injection for 14 h, 1, 3, or 4 days...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623918/linking-axon-transport-to-regeneration-using-in-vitro-laser-axotomy
#7
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Richard Eva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623026/the-association-of-tau-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ying Cheng, Feng Bai
Increasing evidence suggests that abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction also has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of AD. In recent years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been strongly associated with tau pathology in AD. Overexpression of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau appears to damage the axonal transport, leading to abnormal mitochondrial distribution. In addition, pathological tau impairs mitochondrial dynamics by regulating mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins, and further causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622628/structure-of-the-herpes-simplex-virus-1-capsid-with-associated-tegument-protein-complexes
#9
Xinghong Dai, Z Hong Zhou
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) rely on capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) for long-range axonal transport of their genome-containing capsids between sites of infection and neuronal cell bodies. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HSV-1 capsid with CATC up to 3.5-angstrom resolution and atomic models of multiple conformers of capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36. Crowning every capsid vertex are five copies of heteropentameric CATC, each containing a pUL17 monomer supporting the coiled-coil helix bundle of a pUL25 dimer and a pUL36 dimer, thus positioning their flexible domains for potential involvement in nuclear capsid egress and axonal capsid transport...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617570/ion-permeability-of-microtubule-in-neuron-environment
#10
Chun Shen, Wanlin Guo
Microtubules, constituted by end-to-end negatively charged α- and β-tubulin dimers, are long hollow pseudo-helical cylinders with internal and external diameters of about 16 and 26 nm, respectively, and widely exist in cell cytoplasm, neuron axons and dendrites. Although their structural functions in physiological processes, such as cell mitosis, cell motility and motor protein transport have been widely accepted, their role play in neuron activity remains attractively elusive. Here we show a new function of microtubules that they can generate instant response to a calcium pulse due to their specific permeability for ions...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615864/molecular-neuropathology-of-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
José J Miguel-Hidalgo
Postmortem studies reveal structural and molecular alterations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in both the gray and white matter (GM and WM) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in human subjects with chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. These glial cellular changes appear to parallel and may largely explain structural and functional alterations detected using neuroimaging techniques in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Moreover, due to the crucial roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neurotransmission and signal conduction, these cells are very likely major players in the molecular mechanisms underpinning alcoholism-related connectivity disturbances between the PFC and relevant interconnecting brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609523/the-contribution-of-fibrinogen-to-inflammation-and-neuronal-density-in-human-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Damian Robert Jenkins, Matthew J Craner, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability, particularly among the young. Despite this, no disease-specific treatments exist. Recently, descriptions of BBB disruption and parenchymal fibrinogen deposition have been reported in acute traumatic brain injury and in long-term survival; however, their contribution to the neuropathology of TBI remains unknown. 1, 2 The presence of fibrinogen - a well-documented activator of microglia/macrophages - may be associated with neuroinflammation, and neuronal/axonal injury...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606421/a-camp-pka-kinesin-1-axis-promotes-the-axonal-transport-of-mitochondria-in-aging-drosophila-neurons
#13
Alessio Vagnoni, Simon L Bullock
Mitochondria play fundamental roles within cells, including energy provision, calcium homeostasis, and the regulation of apoptosis. The transport of mitochondria by microtubule-based motors is critical for neuronal structure and function. This process allows local requirements for mitochondrial functions to be met and also facilitates recycling of these organelles [1, 2]. An age-related reduction in mitochondrial transport has been observed in neurons of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms [3-6], and has been proposed to contribute to the broader decline in neuronal function that occurs during aging [3, 5-7]...
March 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603402/expression-of-crym-in-different-rat-organs-during-development-and-its-decreased-expression-in-degenerating-pyramidal-tracts-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Reiji Hommyo, Satoshi O Suzuki, Nona Abolhassani, Hideomi Hamasaki, Masahiro Shijo, Norihisa Maeda, Hiroyuki Honda, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Toru Iwaki
The protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) is a novel component of the marsupial lens that has two functions: it is a key regulator of thyroid hormone transportation and a reductase of sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines. In this study, we examined changes of the expression pattern of CRYM in different rat organs during development using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. As CRYM is reportedly expressed in the corticospinal tract, we also investigated CRYM expression in human cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using immunohistochemistry...
March 30, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597330/investigation-of-absorption-routes-of-meloxicam-and-its-salt-form-from-intranasal-delivery-systems
#15
Csilla Bartos, Rita Ambrus, Anita Kovács, Róbert Gáspár, Anita Sztojkov-Ivanov, Árpád Márki, Tamás Janáky, Ferenc Tömösi, Gábor Kecskeméti, Piroska Szabó-Révész
The aim of this article was to study the trans-epithelial absorption to reach the blood and to target the brain by axonal transport using nasal formulations with nanonized meloxicam (nano MEL spray) and its salt form known as meloxicam potassium monohydrate (MELP spray). The physicochemical properties and the mucoadhesivity of nasal formulations were controlled. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out. These forms were first investigated in "nose-to-brain" relation. It was found that the in vitro study and in vivo study did not show any significant correlation...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596897/mechanisms-of-neurotrophin-trafficking-via-trk-receptors
#16
REVIEW
Emily Scott-Solomon, Rejji Kuruvilla
In neurons, long-distance communication between axon terminals and cell bodies is a critical determinant in establishing and maintaining neural circuits. Neurotrophins are soluble factors secreted by post-synaptic target tissues that retrogradely control axon and dendrite growth, survival, and synaptogenesis of innervating neurons. Neurotrophins bind Trk receptor tyrosine kinases in axon terminals to promote endocytosis of ligand-bound phosphorylated receptors into signaling endosomes. Trk-harboring endosomes function locally in axons to acutely promote growth events, and can also be retrogradely transported long-distances to remote cell bodies and dendrites to stimulate cytoplasmic and transcriptional signaling necessary for neuron survival, morphogenesis, and maturation...
March 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576115/inhibition-of-rhoa-reduces-propofol-mediated-growth-cone-collapse-axonal-transport-impairment-loss-of-synaptic-connectivity-and-behavioural-deficits
#17
M L Pearn, J M Schilling, M Jian, J Egawa, C Wu, C D Mandyam, M J Fannon-Pavlich, U Nguyen, J Bertoglio, M Kodama, S K Mahata, C DerMardirossian, B P Lemkuil, R Han, W C Mobley, H H Patel, P M Patel, B P Head
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the developing brain to propofol results in cognitive deficits. Recent data suggest that inhibition of neuronal apoptosis does not prevent cognitive defects, suggesting mechanisms other than neuronal apoptosis play a role in anaesthetic neurotoxicity. Proper neuronal growth during development is dependent upon growth cone morphology and axonal transport. Propofol modulates actin dynamics in developing neurones, causes RhoA-dependent depolymerisation of actin, and reduces dendritic spines and synapses...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575063/a-predominantly-glial-origin-of-axonal-ribosomes-after-nerve-injury
#18
Kerstin Müller, Andrea Schnatz, Miriam Schillner, Simone Woertge, Christina Müller, Ilse von Graevenitz, Ari Waisman, Jan van Minnen, Christina F Vogelaar
Axonal mRNA transport and local protein synthesis are crucial for peripheral axon regeneration. To date, it remains unclear how ribosomes localize to axons. They may be co-transported with mRNAs or, as suggested by recent studies, transferred from Schwann cells (SC). Here, we generated transgenic "RiboTracker" mice expressing tdTomato-tagged ribosomal protein L4 in specific cell types when crossed with Cre lines. Two neuronal RiboTracker-Cre lines displayed extremely low levels of axonal L4-tdTomato-positive ribosomes...
March 25, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567716/locally-translated-mtor-controls-axonal-local-translation-in-nerve-injury
#19
Marco Terenzio, Sandip Koley, Nitzan Samra, Ida Rishal, Qian Zhao, Pabitra K Sahoo, Anatoly Urisman, Letizia Marvaldi, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Craig Forester, Cynthia Gomes, Ashley L Kalinski, Agostina Di Pizio, Ella Doron-Mandel, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Indrek Koppel, Jeffery L Twiss, Alma L Burlingame, Mike Fainzilber
How is protein synthesis initiated locally in neurons? We found that mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) was activated and then up-regulated in injured axons, owing to local translation of mTOR messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA was transported into axons by the cell size-regulating RNA-binding protein nucleolin. Furthermore, mTOR controlled local translation in injured axons. This included regulation of its own translation and that of retrograde injury signaling molecules such as importin β1 and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)...
March 23, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563288/age-associated-differences-in-infection-of-human-skin-in-the-scid-mouse-model-of-varicella-zoster-virus-pathogenesis
#20
Leigh Zerboni, Phillip Sung, Gordon Lee, Ann Arvin
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. We utilized human skin xenografts maintained in immunodeficient (SCID) mice to study VZV-induced skin pathology in vivo in fetal and adult skin xenografts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
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