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Axonal transport

Sara H Mokhtar, Min Joung Kim, Kylie A Magee, Pei Mun Aui, Speros Thomas, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, David L Steer, Rachel Kenny, Catriona McLean, Michael F Azari, Antonis Birpanagos, Ewlina Lipiec, Philip Heraud, Bayden Wood, Steven Petratos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Prior to the development of these characteristic pathological hallmarks of AD, anterograde axonal transport is impaired. However, the key proteins that initiate these intracellular impairments remain elusive. The collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) plays an integral role in kinesin-1-dependent axonal transport and there is evidence that phosphorylation of CRMP-2 releases kinesin-1...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Mathieu Dubé, Alain Le Coupanec, Alan H M Wong, James M Rini, Marc Desforges, Pierre J Talbot
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are recognized respiratory pathogens for which accumulating evidence indicates that in vulnerable patients, the infection can cause more severe pathologies. HCoVs are not always confined to the upper respiratory tract and can invade the CNS upon still unclear circumstances. HCoV-induced neuropathologies in human are difficult to diagnose early enough to allow therapeutic interventions. Making use of our already described animal model of HCoV neuropathogenesis, we describe the route of neuropropagation from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex then brainstem...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
David H Root, Shiliang Zhang, David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Bing Liu, Hui-Ling Wang, Marisela Morales
For decades, it has been thought that glutamate and GABA are released by distinct neurons. However, some mouse neurons innervating the lateral habenula (LHb) co-release glutamate and GABA. Here, we mapped the distribution of neurons throughout the rat brain that co-express vesicular transporters for the accumulation of glutamate (VGluT2) or GABA (VGaT) and for GABA synthesis (GAD). We found concentrated groups of neurons that co-express VGluT2, VGaT, and GAD mRNAs within subdivisions of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), entopeduncular (EPN), and supramammillary (SUM) nuclei...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Duo Yu, Yunfeng Li, Zhihui Ming, Hongyong Wang, Zhuo Dong, Ling Qiu, Tiejun Wang
Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. Malignant tumors develop resistance mechanisms and are less sensitive to or do not respond to irradiation. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, circular RNA (circRNA) has been identified in an increasing number of diseases, especially cancers. It has been reported that circRNA can compete with microRNAs (miRNAs) to change the stability or translation of target RNAs, thus regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level...
2018: PeerJ
Simona D'Agostino, Chiara Della Monica, Eleonora Palizzi, Fabio Di Pietrantonio, Massimiliano Benetti, Domenico Cannatà, Marta Cavagnaro, Dariush Sardari, Pasquale Stano, Alfonsina Ramundo-Orlando
Among the many biological effects caused by low intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields (EHF-EMF) reported in the literature, those on the nervous system are a promising area for further research. The mechanisms by which these fields alter neural activity are still unclear and thus far there appears to be no frequency dependence regarding neuronal responses. Therefore, proper in vitro models for preliminary screening studies of the interaction between neural cells with EMF are needed. We designed an artificial axon model consisting of a series of parallel RC networks...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maja Radulovic, Harald Stenmark
The multisubunit endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is a key regulator of cellular membrane dynamics. Initially characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its involvement in cargo sorting to the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, this protein complex has emerged over the past decade as a driver for diverse membrane remodeling processes. Its pleiotropic functional connection is mirrored in numerous cellular processes, such as cytokinetic abscission during the final step of cell division, nuclear pore quality control, nuclear envelope sealing and repair, plasma membrane repair, vesicle shedding from the plasma membrane, viral budding, and axonal pruning...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Daniela Pletto, Silvia Capra, Adele Finardi, Francesca Colciaghi, Paola Nobili, Giorgio Stefano Battaglia, Denise Locatelli, Cinzia Cagnoli
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration, caused by disruptions of the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 (Smn1) gene. The main product of SMN1 is the full-length SMN protein (FL-SMN), that plays an established role in mRNA splicing. FL-SMN is also involved in neurite outgrowth and axonal transport. A shorter SMN isoform, axonal-SMN or a-SMN, displays a more specific axonal localization and has remarkable axonogenic properties in NSC-34...
2018: PloS One
Guruprasada Reddy Sure, Anusheela Chatterjee, Nikhil Mishra, Vidur Sabharwal, Swathi Devireddy, Anjali Awasthi, Swetha Mohan, Sandhya P Koushika
We investigate the role of axonal transport in regulating neuronal mitochondrial density. We show that the density of mitochondria in the touch receptor neuron (TRN) of adult Caenorhabditis elegans is constant. Mitochondrial density and transport are controlled both by the Kinesin heavy chain and the Dynein-Dynactin complex. However, unlike in other models, the presence of mitochondria in C. elegans TRNs depends on a Kinesin light chain as well. Mutants in the three C. elegans miro genes do not alter mitochondrial density in the TRNs...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melissa Wee, Fariba Chegini, John H T Power, Shohreh Majd
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology consists of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, made of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in Aβ plaques. There is an extensive debate as to which pathology initiates and responsible for cellular loss in AD. METHODS: Using confocal and light microscopy, post mortem brains from control and AD cases, an antibody to SOD2 as a marker for mitochondria and an antibody to all forms of tau, we analyzed mitochondrial density in tau positive neurons along with nuclear degradation by calculating the raw integrative density...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Sean X Naughton, Caterina M Hernandez, Wayne D Beck, Indrani Poddar, Nathan Yanasak, Ping-Chang Lin, Alvin V Terry
Organophosphates (OPs) are found in hundreds of valuable agricultural, industrial, and commercial compounds; however, they have also been associated with a variety of harmful effects in humans. The acute toxicity of OPs is attributed to the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE); however, this mechanism may not account for all of the deleterious neurologic effects of OPs, especially at doses that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity. In this study, the effects of two weeks of daily subcutaneous exposure to the OP-nerve agent diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in doses ranging from 0...
June 9, 2018: Toxicology
Da Eun Nam, Da Hye Yoo, Sun Seong Choi, Byung-Ok Choi, Ki Wha Chung
The kinesin heavy chain isoform 5A (KIF5A) gene, which encodes a microtubule-based motor protein, plays an important role in the transport of organelles in the nerve cells. Mutations in the KIF5A showed a wide phenotypic spectrum from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) to axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth peripheral neuropathy type 2 (CMT2). This study identified three pathogenic KIF5A mutations in Korean CMT2 patients by whole exome sequencing. Two mutations (p.Arg204Trp and p.Arg280His) were previously reported, but p...
January 2018: Genes & Genomics
Yasuhiro Watanabe, Takashi Matsuba, Mami Nakanishi, Mio Une, Ritsuko Hanajima, Kenji Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is taken up at nerve terminals and undergoes retrograde migration. The toxic properties of TeNT reside in the toxin light chain (L), but like complete TeNT, the TeNT heavy chain (TTH) and the C-terminal domain (TTC) alone can bind and enter into neurons. Here, we explored whether atoxic fragments of TeNT could act as drug delivery vehicles in neurons. In this study, we used Bcl-2, a protein known to have anti-apoptotic properties in vivo and in vitro, as a parcel to couple to TeNT fragments...
June 11, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Suellen Almeida-Corrêa, Michael Czisch, Carsten T Wotjak
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a powerful tool for in vivo non-invasive whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity. Mn2+ enters active neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels and increases local contrast in T1 -weighted images. Given the property of Mn2+ of axonal transport, this technique can also be used for tract tracing after local administration of the contrast agent. However, MEMRI is still not widely employed in basic research due to the lack of a complete description of the Mn2+ dynamics in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Naoki Yamawaki, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Gordon M G Shepherd, Jelena Radulovic
Learning to associate stressful events with specific environmental contexts depends on excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, but how this information is transmitted to the neocortex for lasting memory storage is unclear. We identified dorsal hippocampal (DH) projections to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which arise mainly from the subiculum and contain either the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) or vGlut2. Both vGlut1+ and vGlut2+ axons strongly excite and disynaptically inhibit RSC pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, but vGlut2+ axons trigger greater inhibition that spreads to deep layers, indicating that these pathways engage RSC circuits via partially redundant, partially differentiated cellular mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Zi Li, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Yungang Lan, Shiyu Hu, Junchao Shi, Jiyu Guan, Yawen Yang, Huijun Lu, Hongbin He, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus and causes neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS), but the neuropathological mechanism of PHEV remains poorly understood. We report that Unc51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1/Unc51.1) is a pivotal regulator of PHEV-induced neurological disorders and functions to selectively control the initiation of NGF/TrkA endosome trafficking. We first identified the function of Ulk1 by histopathologic evaluation in PHEV-infected mouse model where neuronal loss was accompanied by the suppression of Ulk1 expression...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Johannes Knabbe, Joris Paul Nassal, Matthijs Verhage, Thomas Kuner
Neuronal dense core vesicles (DCVs) transport many cargo molecules like neuropeptides and neurotrophins to their release sites in dendrites or axons. The transport properties of DCVs in axons of the intact mammalian brain are unknown. We used viral expression of a DCV cargo reporter (NPY-Venus/Cherry) in the thalamus and two-photon in vivo imaging to visualize axonal DCV trafficking in thalamocortical projections of anesthetized and awake mice. We found an average speed of 1 μm/s, maximal speeds of up to 5 μm/s and a pausing fraction of ˜11 %...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Amy K Reeve, John P Grady, Eve M Cosgrave, Emma Bennison, Chun Chen, Philippa D Hepplewhite, Christopher M Morris
Mitochondrial dysfunction within the cell bodies of substantia nigra neurons is prominent in both ageing and Parkinson's disease. The loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons in Parkinson's disease is associated with loss of synapses within the striatum, and this may precede neuronal loss. We investigated whether mitochondrial changes previously reported within substantia nigra neurons were also seen within the synapses and axons of these neurons. Using high resolution quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry we determined mitochondrial density within remaining dopaminergic axons and synapses, and quantified deficiencies of mitochondrial Complex I and Complex IV in these compartments...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Arunima Banerjee, Janet L Paluh, Amitava Mukherjee, K Gaurav Kumar, Archisman Ghosh, Mrinal K Naskar
Aim: In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), molecular changes spanning multiple subcellular compartments of the neuron contribute to neurodegeneration and altered axonal signaling. Computational modeling of end-to-end linked events benefit mechanistic analysis and can be informative to understand disease progression and accelerate development of effective therapies. In the calcium-amyloid beta model of AD, calcium ions that are an important regulator of neuronal function undergo dysregulated homeostasis that disrupts cargo loading for neurotrophic signaling along axonal microtubules (MTs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Patrizia Lamberti, Michele Compitiello, Stefania Romeo
Pulsed electric fields with duration in the sub- and ns time scale (nsPEFs) increase the permeability of cell membranes, enabling the transport of normally impermeant molecules into or out of the cell (electroporation). Such effect is associated to intracellular alterations and indicates nsPEFs as a new stimulus to modulate cell functions. In particular, studies dealing with the application of nsPEFs to excitable cells suggest their use for the stimulation/inhibition of cell excitation. In this paper, the circuital model per surface unit of the plasma membrane of an axon was developed to implement the Hodgkin and Huxley equations, describing the action potential activation process...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Louise A Mesentier-Louro, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Carito, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Marcelo F Santiago, Paolo Rama, Alessandro Lambiase, Paola Tirassa
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs within 2 weeks following optic nerve crush (ONC) as a consequence of reduced retro-transport of growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis that intravitreal (ivt) and eye drop (ed) administration of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) might counteract ONC in adult rats is explored in this study. We found that both ivt- and ed-rhNGF reduced RGC loss and stimulated axonal regrowth. Chiefly, survival and regenerative effects of rhNGF were associated with a reduction of cells co-expressing Nogo-A/p75NTR at crush site borders, which contribute to glia scar formation following nerve injury, and induce further degeneration...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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