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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911458/spondylodiscitis-a-rare-complication-following-percutaneous-nephrostomy
#3
Francesco Chiancone, Maurizio Fedelini, Clemente Meccariello, Luigi Pucci, Marco Fabiano, Paolo Fedelini
Spondylodiscitis is an inflammation of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies. The spondylodiscitis can not only be a complication of medical interventions such as an operation near spinal column but also urogenital and vascular interventions and intravenous catheter use. A 71-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with fever and severe abdominal pain. Antibiotic therapy had been performed with intravenous administration of 2 g of ceftriaxone and the patient underwent the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy according to Seldinger technique...
November 28, 2016: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911452/rationally-encapsulated-gold-nanorods-improving-both-linear-and-nonlinear-photoacoustic-imaging-contrast-in-vivo
#4
Fei Gao, Linyi Bai, Siyu Liu, Ruochong Zhang, Jingtao Zhang, Xiaohua Feng, Yuanjin Zheng, Yanli Zhao
Photoacoustic tomography has emerged as a promising non-invasive imaging technique that integrates the merits of high optical contrast with high ultrasound resolution in deep scattering medium. Unfortunately, the blood background in vivo seriously impedes the quality of imaging due to its comparable optical absorption with contrast agents, especially in conventional linear photoacoustic imaging modality. In this study, we demonstrated that two hybrids consisting of gold nanorods (Au NRs) and zinc tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (ZnTPP) exhibited a synergetic effect in improving optical absorption, conversion efficiency from light to heat, and thermoelastic expansion, leading to a notable enhancement in both linear (four times greater) and nonlinear (more than six times) photoacoustic signals as compared with conventional Au NRs...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911441/sirt1-protects-the-heart-from-er-stress-induced-cell-death-through-eif2%C3%AE-deacetylation
#5
Alexandre Prola, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Lola Lecru, Jérôme Piquereau, Maxance Ribeiro, Philippe Mateo, Mélanie Gressette, Dominique Fortin, Céline Boursier, Cindy Gallerne, Anaïs Caillard, Jane-Lise Samuel, Hélène François, David A Sinclair, Pierre Eid, Renée Ventura-Clapier, Anne Garnier, Christophe Lemaire
Over the past decade, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Cardiac therapy based on ER stress modulation is viewed as a promising avenue toward effective therapies for the diseased heart. Here, we tested whether sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, participates in modulating ER stress response in the heart. Using cardiomyocytes and adult-inducible SIRT1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that SIRT1 inhibition or deficiency increases ER stress-induced cardiac injury, whereas activation of SIRT1 by the SIRT1-activating compound STAC-3 is protective...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911397/nanostructured-ag-zeolite-composites-as-luminescence-based-humidity-sensors
#6
Eduardo Coutino-Gonzalez, Wouter Baekelant, Bjorn Dieu, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Johan Hofkens
Small silver clusters confined inside zeolite matrices have recently emerged as a novel type of highly luminescent materials. Their emission has high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) and spans the whole visible spectrum. It has been recently reported that the UV excited luminescence of partially Li-exchanged sodium Linde type A zeolites [LTA(Na)] containing luminescent silver clusters can be controlled by adjusting the water content of the zeolite. These samples showed a dynamic change in their emission color from blue to green and yellow upon an increase of the hydration level of the zeolite, showing the great potential that these materials can have as luminescence-based humidity sensors at the macro and micro scale...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911381/a-novel-approach-for-the-administration-of-medications-and-fluids-in-emergency-scenarios-and-settings
#7
Akilesh Honasoge, Neal Lyons, Kathleen Hesse, Braden Parker, Robert Mokszycki, Kelly Wesselhoff, Rolla Sweis, Erik B Kulstad
The available routes of administration commonly used for medications and fluids in the acute care setting are generally limited to oral, intravenous, or intraosseous routes, but in many patients, particularly in the emergency or critical care settings, these routes are often unavailable or time-consuming to access. A novel device is now available that offers an easy route for administration of medications or fluids via rectal mucosal absorption (also referred to as proctoclysis in the case of fluid administration and subsequent absorption)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911343/pink1-parkin-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-what-can-we-learn-about-parkinson-s-disease-pathobiology
#8
Dominika Truban, Xu Hou, Thomas R Caulfield, Fabienne C Fiesel, Wolfdieter Springer
The first clinical description of Parkinson's disease (PD) will embrace its two century anniversary in 2017. For the past 30 years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a central role in the pathobiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. The identifications of mutations in genes encoding PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) and Parkin (E3 ubiquitin ligase) in familial PD and their functional association with mitochondrial quality control provided further support to this hypothesis. Recent research focused mainly on their key involvement in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process known as mitophagy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911267/oncogenic-secretory-clusterin-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-expression-at-early-staging-and-emerging-molecular-target
#9
Wenjie Zheng, Min Yao, Qi Qian, Wenli Sai, Liwei Qiu, Junling Yang, Wei Wu, Zhizhen Dong, Dengfu Yao
Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression by contributing to angiogenesis, chemoresistance, cell survival, and metastasis. However, the sCLU expression at early stage of HCC progression remains to be clarified. In this study, the alteration of sCLU oncogenicity was firstly evaluated in HCC- and their para-cancerous- tissues. The incidence of sCLU expression in HCC was significantly higher than that in their non-tumorous tissues at message RNA (mRNA) or protein level, gradually increasing with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911233/elevated-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-worse-survival-after-resection-in-patients-with-brain-metastasis
#10
Koichi Mitsuya, Yoko Nakasu, Takeshi Kurakane, Nakamasa Hayashi, Hideyuki Harada, Kazuhiko Nozaki
OBJECTIVE The median postoperative survival duration of patients with brain metastases who undergo tumor resection is 12 months. Most of these patients die of systemic metastases or the progression of primary cancer but not brain metastases. The criteria for indicating resection are still controversial. Systemic assessment is restricted, especially in patients who need emergent management for their large-size or life-threatening brain metastases. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is reported to correlate with survival time or progression-free survival in patients with various cancers...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911143/factors-predicting-life-threatening-infections-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adult-patients
#11
Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Young Rock Jang, Min-Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911122/an-update-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta
Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911120/new-frontiers-in-anticoagulation-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-in-stroke-prevention
#13
Valentina Arnao, Marianna Riolo, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto, Brigida Fierro, Paolo Aridon
Non vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are direct and specific inhibitors of the coagulation factors IIa (dabigatran) and Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban) which share many pharmacokinetic properties. However, indications are lacking regarding the use of NOACs during thrombolysis, surgery and bleeding events. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors retrospectively analyzed the relevant literature on the NOACs using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Expert Commentary: Although warfarin is effective in cardioembolic stroke prevention, easier handling and more favorable risk-benefit profile often render NOACs a more preferable therapy choice for neurologists...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911084/caught-in-a-bad-romance-reconsidering-the-negative-association-between-sociosexuality-and-relationship-functioning
#15
David Rodrigues, Diniz Lopes, C Veronica Smith
Sociosexuality refers to individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in sexual activity without an emotional connection. Unrestricted sociosexuality is associated with a greater likelihood of infidelity and with poorer relationship quality. However, previous research has failed to examine relationship-specific characteristics that may moderate these findings. Two studies of romantically involved adults examined whether relationship commitment and different relationship agreement types moderate the associations between unrestricted sociosexuality and infidelity...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911079/trans-acting-epigenetic-effects-of-chromosomal-aneuploidies-lessons-from-down-syndrome-and-mouse-models
#16
Catherine Do, Zhuo Xing, Y Eugene Yu, Benjamin Tycko
An important line of postgenomic research seeks to understand how genetic factors can influence epigenetic patterning. Here we review epigenetic effects of chromosomal aneuploidies, focusing on findings in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Recent work in human DS and mouse models has shown that the extra chromosome 21 acts in trans to produce epigenetic changes, including differential CpG methylation (DS-DM), in specific sets of downstream target genes, mostly on other chromosomes. Mechanistic hypotheses emerging from these data include roles of chromosome 21-linked methylation pathway genes (DNMT3L and others) and transcription factor genes (RUNX1, OLIG2, GABPA, ERG and ETS2) in shaping the patterns of DS-DM...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#17
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911069/-urological-pathology-of-lymphatic-origin
#18
A Domènech, A Serrano, I Forner-Cordero, F Gómez, D Maldonado, C Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic disease is a rarely cause of some very unspecific genitourinary manifestations, assuming a diagnostic challenge in most cases. The aim of this paper is to warn about the possible etiology of these urological lymphatic presentations and discuss its management. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical data in pediatric patients with urological pathology of lymphatic origin between 2008-2014. Three patients, two boys and a girl, were included...
January 25, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911040/retrospective-study-evaluating-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-blood-donors-and-in-swine-veterinarians-in-italy-2004
#19
L De Sabato, I Di Bartolo, E Montomoli, C Trombetta, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general population, ranging between 0.26% and 52.5%. A higher seroprevalence was described among workers who come in contact with pigs...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911025/effect-of-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-positioning-a-patient-specific-numerical-model
#20
Matteo Bianchi, Gil Marom, Ram P Ghosh, Harold A Fernandez, James R Taylor, Marvin J Slepian, Danny Bluestein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a life-saving and effective alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk, elderly patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. Despite its early promise, certain limitations and adverse events, such as suboptimal placement and valve migration, have been reported. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of various TAVR deployment locations on the procedural outcome by assessing the risk for valve migration. The deployment of a balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN valve was simulated via finite element analysis in a patient-specific calcified aortic root, which was reconstructed from CT scans of a retrospective case of valve migration...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
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