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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743163/alk-and-ros1-testing-on-lung-cancer-cytologic-samples-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Pasquale Pisapia, Maria D Lozano, Elena Vigliar, Claudio Bellevicine, Francesco Pepe, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone
Cytologic sampling is the mainstay of diagnosing advanced lung cancer. Moreover, to select patients for personalized first-line or second-line treatment, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements are tested on cytologic preparations. Commercially available fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays have primarily been used for the identification of cells harboring ALK or ROS1 gene fusions on histologic rather than cytologic preparations...
July 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743149/-the-influence-of-anesthesia-on-perioperative-outcome-in-children-institutional-and-individual-factors
#3
Frank Fideler, Christian Grasshoff
The perioperative care of children is challenging for health care providers. Since anesthetists cannot affect the nature of the disease and have hardly an impact on the decision for surgery we summarized in this review individual and institutional factors for improving perioperative outcome by anesthetists. Individual factors include the level of education and the professional experience of the anesthetist as well as an anesthetic management that is focused on the maintenance of an adequate cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743130/sglt-2-inhibition-a-potential-new-treatment-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#4
Robert D Toto
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure. Treatments with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have proven beneficial in slowing kidney disease progression among those with diabetes; their benefit is limited and they do not stop disease progression. Despite multiple clinical trials of various interventions including dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system over the past 15 years, no new therapies have emerged to slow kidney disease progression in diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of antiglycemic drugs that have been shown to lower blood glucose by inhibition of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#5
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743051/enhancing-women-s-confidence-for-physiologic-birth-maternity-care-providers-perspectives
#6
Melissa A Saftner, Carrie Neerland, Melissa D Avery
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research study was to explore MCP's beliefs and attitudes about physiologic birth and to identify components of antenatal care that providers believe may impact a woman's confidence for physiologic labor and birth. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study included maternity care providers (N=31) in the Midwestern United States. Providers participated in semi-structured interviews to describe their beliefs about physiologic birth, their role in providing information to women and specific care practices to promote women's confidence for physiologic birth...
July 18, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743003/patterned-disordered-cell-motion-ensures-vertebral-column-symmetry
#7
Dipjyoti Das, Veena Chatti, Thierry Emonet, Scott A Holley
The biomechanics of posterior embryonic growth must be dynamically regulated to ensure bilateral symmetry of the spinal column. Throughout vertebrate trunk elongation, motile mesodermal progenitors undergo an order-to-disorder transition via an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and sort symmetrically into the left and right paraxial mesoderm. We combine theoretical modeling of cell migration in a tail-bud-like geometry with experimental data analysis to assess the importance of ordered and disordered cell motion...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743000/cilia-control-fat-deposition-during-tissue-repair
#8
Eusebio Perdiguero, Antonio L Serrano, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
Fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are emerging as crucial regulators of fibrous and fat deposits during skeletal muscle regeneration. In a recent issue of Cell, Kopinke et al. (2017) report that primary cilia induce the adipogenic fate of FAPs in injured and diseased muscle by restraining Hedgehog signaling.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742952/na%C3%A3-ve-simplicity-the-overlooked-piece-of-the-complexity-simplicity-paradigm
#9
Franklin W Schwartz, Ganming Liu, Pradeep Aggarwal, Cynthia M Schwartz
Concepts of simplicity and complexity in modeling have been explored in papers, editorials, and talks. The concept is not well understood because there are at least two flavors of simplicity. Modelers envision simplicity (i.e., elegant simplicity) as the sought-after goal in modeling, but naïve simplicity, which is the focus of this paper, is commonly unrecognized and dangerous. The problem is that naïve or simple ideas are often mistaken for settled science and come with the prospect of being more wrong than right...
July 25, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742937/models-for-discovery-of-targeted-therapy-in-genetic-epileptic-encephalopathies
#10
REVIEW
Snezana Maljevic, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe disorders emerging in the first days to years of life that commonly include refractory seizures, various types of movement disorders, and different levels of developmental delay. In recent years, many de novo occurring variants have been identified in individuals with these devastating disorders. To unravel disease mechanisms the functional impact of detected variants associated with epileptic encephalopathies is investigated in a range of cellular and animal models. This review addresses efforts to advance and use such models to identify specific molecular and cellular targets for the development of novel therapies...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742936/benefits-and-limitations-of-belatacept-in-4-hand-transplanted-patients
#11
J Grahammer, A Weissenbacher, B G Zelger, B Zelger, C Boesmueller, M Ninkovic, A Mühlbacher, I Peschel, G Brandacher, D Öfner, S Schneeberger
Belatacept (CTLA4Ig) is an emerging treatment in kidney transplantation. Lack of nephrotoxicity and possibly an inhibitory effect on the development of donor specific antibodies (DSA) make it an interesting agent in hand transplantation. In order to reduce CNI immunosuppression and preserve kidney function, we have added belatacept to the therapeutic regimen of 4 hand transplanted patients at month 4, at 6, 9, and 13 years after hand/forearm transplantation. Patients received 5mg/kg belatacept every 2 weeks, the dosing interval was extended to 4 weeks after 5 applications...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742935/response-to-telling-the-whole-story-about-simulation-based-education
#12
Christopher W H Yau, Elena Pizzo, Steve Morris, David E Odd, Cathy Winter, Timothy J Draycott
We thank Barsuk et al. for their letter, "Telling the whole story about simulation-based education" (1). We acknowledge that our paper, "The cost of local, multi-professional obstetric emergencies training"(2), focussed on the cost of training and did not elaborate on cost savings, value for money or return on investment (ROI). The authors' call for a ROI analysis is welcome. Others have estimated the potential savings of obstetric training (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 25, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742926/intravenous-immunoglobulin-as-adjunct-therapy-for-refractory-pyoderma-gangrenosum-systematic-review-of-cases-and-case-series
#13
REVIEW
H Song, N Lahood, A Mostaghimi
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis. Treatment regimens for refractory cases are non-standardized. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an emerging treatment with reported success, but the efficacy of IVIG for PG is unknown. In this systematic review of cases and case series, we assessed the efficacy of IVIG for treatment of PG, as observed at our institution and reported in the literature. A retrospective chart review at two tertiary care hospitals between 2000-2015, and literature searches in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science from all years were conducted...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742870/factors-contributing-to-food-insecurity-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-study
#14
Kathryn P Derose, Denise D Payán, María Altagracia Fulcar, Sergio Terrero, Ramón Acevedo, Hugo Farías, Kartika Palar
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742850/genes-cells-and-biobanks-yes-there-s-still-a-consent-problem
#15
Timothy Caulfield, Blake Murdoch
From a research perspective, the interest in biobanking continues to intensify. Governments and industry have invested heavily in biobanks, as exemplified by initiatives like the United Kingdom Biobank and United States' Precision Medicine Initiative. But despite this enthusiasm, many profound legal and ethical challenges remain unresolved. Indeed, there continues to be disagreements about how best to obtain consent and the degree and nature of control that research participants retain over donated samples and health information...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742834/contacts-in-the-last-90-000-years-over-the-strait-of-gibraltar-evidenced-by-genetic-analysis-of-wild-boar-sus-scrofa
#16
Carmen Soria-Boix, Maria P Donat-Torres, Vicente Urios
Contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar in the Pleistocene have been studied in different research papers, which have demonstrated that this apparent barrier has been permeable to human and fauna movements in both directions. Our study, based on the genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa), suggests that there has been contact between Africa and Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (at least in the last 90,000 years), as shown by the partial analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Cytochrome b and the control region from North African wild boar indicate a close relationship with European wild boar, and even some specimens belong to a common haplotype in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742814/wetlands-wild-bovidae-species-richness-and-sheep-density-delineate-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks-in-the-african-continent-and-arabian-peninsula
#17
Michael G Walsh, Allard Willem de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742805/intra-dialytic-hypertension-is-associated-with-high-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Chi-Young Choi, Jae Seok Park, Kyu Tae Yoon, Hyo Wook Gil, Eun Young Lee, Sae Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Intra-dialytic hypertension (IDH) is emerging as an important issue in hemodialysis patients. Its risk factors and clinical outcomes are unclear. METHODS: A total of 73 prevalent hemodialysis patients were enrolled. They included 14 (19.2%) patients with baseline IDH and 59 patients without IDH. Their clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and mortality were investigated over 78 months. RESULTS: The risks factor of IDH included low serum potassium levels, low ultrafiltration, and low arm muscle area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742801/tracking-the-return-of-aedes-aegypti-to-brazil-the-major-vector-of-the-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-viruses
#19
Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Adalgisa Caccone, Benjamin Evans, Renata Schama, Ademir Jesus Martins, Jeffrey R Powell
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742770/role-of-the-perioperative-surgical-home-in-optimizing-the-perioperative-use-of-opioids
#20
Thomas R Vetter, Zeev N Kain
Several federal agencies have recently noted that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented "opioid epidemic," with an increasing number of opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Providers currently face 3 population-level, public health challenges in providing optimal perioperative pain care: (1) the continued lack of overall improvement in the excessive incidence of inadequately treated postoperative pain, (2) minimizing or preventing postoperative opioid-related side effects, and (3) addressing current opioid prescribing patterns, and the accompanying problematic surge in prescription opioid diversion, misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose...
July 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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