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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110511/first-examination-of-varying-health-outcomes-of-the-chronically-homeless-according-to-housing-first-configuration
#2
Elizabeth Whittaker, Timothy Dobbins, Wendy Swift, Paul Flatau, Lucinda Burns
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether two Housing First configurations (scattered site [SS] versus congregated site [CS]) are associated with different health-related outcomes. METHODS: This ecological study employed a longitudinal, quantitative design to compare the outcomes from 63 individuals (SS: n=37; CS: n=26) in Sydney, Australia, over 12 months. RESULTS: Both configurations showed similar improvements in quality of life and psychological distress...
January 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110506/antibiotic-discovery-throughout-the-small-world-initiative-a-molecular-strategy-to-identify-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-involved-in-antagonistic-activity
#3
Elizabeth Davis, Tyler Sloan, Krista Aurelius, Angela Barbour, Elijah Bodey, Brigette Clark, Celeste Dennis, Rachel Drown, Megan Fleming, Allison Humbert, Elizabeth Glasgo, Trent Kerns, Kelly Lingro, MacKenzie McMillin, Aaron Meyer, Breanna Pope, April Stalevicz, Brittney Steffen, Austin Steindl, Carolyn Williams, Carmen Wimberley, Robert Zenas, Kristen Butela, Hans Wildschutte
The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production...
January 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110470/thermal-control-weather-and-aging
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra Schneider, Regina Rückerl, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest developments in the field of weather and health with a focus on the elderly. The current state of knowledge is summarized and open questions and emerging fields of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: It is expected that climate change will lead to higher global average surface temperatures and more extreme climatic conditions. Previous studies have shown that non-optimal temperatures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in elderly people...
January 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110461/the-emerging-role-of-liquid-biopsies-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-identification-of-resistance-mutations
#5
REVIEW
Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
Therapeutic advances in the treatment of lung cancer are in part due to a more complete understanding of its genomic portrait. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes, which are instable and prone to changes under selective pressure, is becoming increasingly needed. Although tumor biopsies remain the reference standard for the diagnosis and genotyping of lung cancer, they are invasive and not always feasible. The "liquid biopsies" have the potential to overcome many of these hurdles, allowing a rapid and accurate identification of de novo and resistant genetic alterations and a real-time monitoring of treatment responses...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110359/spatial-dependence-and-determinants-of-dairy-farmers-adoption-of-best-management-practices-for-water-protection-in-new-zealand
#6
Wei Yang, Basil Sharp
This paper analyses spatial dependence and determinants of the New Zealand dairy farmers' adoption of best management practices to protect water quality. A Bayesian spatial durbin probit model is used to survey data collected from farmers in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The results show that farmers located near each other exhibit similar choice behaviour, indicating the importance of farmer interactions in adoption decisions. The results also address that information acquisition is the most important determinant of farmers' adoption of best management practices...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110358/pollution-assessment-of-the-biob%C3%A3-o-river-chile-prioritization-of-substances-of-concern-under-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#7
Álvaro Alonso, Ricardo Figueroa, Pilar Castro-Díez
The water demand for human activities is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Under these circumstances, preserving aquatic ecosystems should be a priority which requires the development of quality criteria. In this study we perform a preliminary prioritization of the risky substances based on reported ecotoxicological studies and guidelines for the Biobío watershed (Central Chile). Our specific aims are (1) reviewing the scientific information on the aquatic pollution of this watershed, (2) determining the presence and concentration of potential toxic substances in water, sediment and effluents, (3) searching for quality criteria developed by other countries for the selected substances and (4) prioritizing the most risky substances by means of deterministic ecotoxicological risk assessment...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110335/personalised-medicine-for-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Liam G Heaney, Lorcan P A McGarvey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent conditions, and despite recent advances and multiple available therapies and interventions, there remains a significant unmet clinical need. In recent years, it has become clear that there is both significant heterogeneity within each of these conditions and additionally significant overlap in many of the clinical and inflammatory features. In parallel, useful clinical and immunological biomarkers which inform about prognosis and response to therapy have emerged in both asthma and COPD...
January 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110322/classification-of-facial-wrinkles-among-chinese-women
#9
Zhang Jiechen, Hou Wei, Feng Suying, Chen Xiangsheng, Wang Hongwei
It is generally recognized that Caucasians and Asians have different skin aging features. The aim of this study was to develop a facial wrinkle grading scale for Chinese women. Standard photographs were taken of 242 Chinese women. Six sets of 0 to 9 wrinkle scales with reference photographs and descriptions were selected, including grading scales for resting and hyperkinetic crow's feet, frontalis lines, glabellar frown lines, and nasolabial folds. To identify the scale by objective quantitative measurement, skin surface measurements from the Visioscan(®) VC98 were used...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110286/exploring-the-role-of-pain-as-an-early-predictor-of-category-2-pressure-ulcers-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Isabelle L Smith, Sarah Brown, Elizabeth McGinnis, Michelle Briggs, Susanne Coleman, Carol Dealey, Delia Muir, E Andrea Nelson, Rebecca Stevenson, Nikki Stubbs, Lyn Wilson, Julia M Brown, Jane Nixon
OBJECTIVE: To explore pressure area related pain as a predictor of category ≥2 pressure ulcer (PU) development. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: UK hospital and community settings. PARTICIPANTS INCLUSION: Consenting acutely ill patients aged ≥18 years, defined as high risk (Braden bedfast/chairfast AND completely immobile/very limited mobility; pressure area related pain or; category 1 PU)...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110260/road-traffic-injuries-among-children-and-adolescents-in-singapore-who-is-at-greatest-risk
#11
Shu-Ling Chong, Arif Tyebally, Su Yah Chew, Yang Chern Lim, Xun Yi Feng, Sock Teng Chin, Lois K Lee
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric road traffic injuries remain a significant cause of death and disability in many countries in Asia, despite the implementation of road traffic safety laws. We aim to describe the injuries, the use of restraints among road users, and risk factors associated with severe injuries for children in Singapore. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of road traffic injuries presenting to the only two pediatric tertiary care hospitals in Singapore, from January 2012 to April 2016...
January 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110218/hydrogen-peroxide-as-a-central-redox-signaling-molecule-in-physiological-oxidative-stress-oxidative-eustress
#12
REVIEW
Helmut Sies
Hydrogen peroxide emerged as major redox metabolite operative in redox sensing, signaling and redox regulation. Generation, transport and capture of H2O2 in biological settings as well as their biological consequences can now be addressed. The present overview focuses on recent progress on metabolic sources and sinks of H2O2 and on the role of H2O2 in redox signaling under physiological conditions (1-10nM), denoted as oxidative eustress. Higher concentrations lead to adaptive stress responses via master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB...
January 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110195/geometric-protein-localization-cues-in-bacterial-cells
#13
REVIEW
Taylor B Updegrove, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
Bacterial cells are highly organized at a molecular level. Understanding how specific proteins localize to their proper subcellular address has been a major challenge in bacterial cell biology. One mechanism, which appears to be increasingly more common, is the use of 'geometric cues' for protein localization. In this model, certain shape-sensing proteins recognize, and preferentially embed into, either negatively or positively curved (concave or convex, respectively) membranes. Here, we review examples of bacterial proteins that reportedly localize by sensing geometric cues and highlight emerging mechanistic understandings of how proteins may recognize subtle differences in membrane curvature...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#14
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110066/bioactive-nutrients-time-for-tolerable-upper-intake-levels-to-address-safety
#15
Allison Yates, John W Erdman, Andrew Shao, Laurie Dolan, James C Griffiths
There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers...
January 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110047/are-cuo-nanoparticles-effects-on-hemocytes-of-the-marine-scallop-chlamys-farreri-caused-by-particles-and-or-corresponding-released-ions
#16
Xuemei Sun, Bijuan Chen, Bin Xia, Qian Han, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) have become emerging pollutants and attracted extensive concern about their potential effects on the marine environment. However, the contribution of particles and their corresponding released ions to the overall toxicity of CuO NPs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the toxicological effects of CuO NPs and their corresponding released ions on the hemocytes of Chlamys farreri. Both copper species induced membrane damage, and increased lysosome contents in hemocytes...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110046/response-of-spirodela-polyrhiza-to-cerium-subcellular-distribution-growth-and-biochemical-changes
#17
Qinsong Xu, Yuji Jiang, Weiyue Chu, Chunlei Su, Dan Hu, Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang
Rare earth elements are new and emerging contaminants in freshwater systems. Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) is a common aquatic plant widely used in phytotoxicity tests for xenobiotic substances. In this study, the cerium (Ce) accumulation potential, the distribution of Ce in bio-molecules, and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in greater duckweed fronds when they were exposed to Ce (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60μM). There was a concentration dependent increase in Ce accumulation, which reached a maximum of 67mgg(-1) of dry weight (DW) at 60μM Ce after 14 d...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110021/the-application-of-crispr-technology-to-high-content-screening-in-primary-neurons
#18
Ben L Callif, Brian Maunze, Nick L Krueger, Matthew T Simpson, Murray G Blackmore
Axon growth is coordinated by multiple interacting proteins that remain incompletely characterized. High content screening (HCS), in which manipulation of candidate genes is combined with rapid image analysis of phenotypic effects, has emerged as a powerful technique to identify key regulators of axon outgrowth. Here we explore the utility of a genome editing approach referred to as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) for knockout screening in primary neurons. In the CRISPR approach a DNA-cleaving Cas enzyme is guided to genomic target sequences by user-created guide RNA (sgRNA), where it initiates a double-stranded break that ultimately results in frameshift mutation and loss of protein production...
January 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110020/tumor-evolution-linear-branching-neutral-or-punctuated
#19
Alexander Davis, Ruli Gao, Nicholas Navin
Intratumor heterogeneity has been widely reported in human cancers, but our knowledge of how this genetic diversity emerges over time remains limited. A central challenge in studying tumor evolution is the difficulty in collecting longitudinal samples from cancer patients. Consequently, most studies have inferred tumor evolution from single time-point samples, providing very indirect information. These data have led to several competing models of tumor evolution: linear, branching, neutral and punctuated. Each model makes different assumptions regarding the timing of mutations and selection of clones, and therefore has different implications for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of cancer patients...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110015/rapid-assessment-of-estrogenic-compounds-by-cxcl-test-illustrated-by-the-screening-of-the-uv-filter-derivative-benzophenones
#20
Denis Habauzit, Catherine Martin, Gwenneg Kerdivel, Farzad Pakdel
CXCL-test is a method that uses the estrogen-dependent secretion of the natural endogenous chemokine CXCL12 to evaluate the estrogenic activity of molecules. CXCL12 chemokine is involved in the estrogen dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells. Its measure is an indicator of cell proliferation and is used as an alternative test to classical proliferation test. Here we aimed to optimize this test, first to increase the number of tested molecules in a single assay and then to decrease the number of intermediate steps...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
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