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Florian Arendt
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds globally. Unfortunately, the suicide-related content on Instagram, a popular social media platform for youth, has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. METHOD: The present study provides a content analysis of posts tagged as #selbstmord, a German suicide-related hashtag. These posts were created between July 5 and July 11, 2017. RESULTS: Approximately half of all posts included words or visuals related to suicide...
June 21, 2018: Crisis
Muhammad Arslan Kamal Hashmi, Beate I Escher, Martin Krauss, Ivana Teodorovic, Werner Brack
The release of a multitude of pollutants from untreated municipal wastewater (UMWW) to surface waters may have adverse effects on aquatic wildlife including endocrine disruption. For effect-directed analysis (EDA), a Danube river water sample downstream of emission of UMWW in Novi Sad, Serbia was extracted on-site and after processing in the lab was subjected to reporter gene assays which revealed pronounced estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR) and oxidative stress response (OSR). The sample was fractionated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) collecting thirty fractions at two-minute intervals...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Haang Jeung, Stephan Walther, Christoph W Korn, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Although emotional reactivity to social rejection has been examined in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in several studies, the effects of other aspects of social feedback, such as evaluation of one's opinions that concern self-esteem, have not been addressed yet. The objective of this study was to examine emotional responses of BPD patients after exchanging personal opinions in a new, ecologically valid virtual peer interaction paradigm ("chatroom paradigm"). In this paradigm, 21 BPD patients and 21 healthy controls received peer feedback on their own statements and rated the intensity of their own emotional responses (happiness, sadness, anger, and shame) and the self or other affirmation in response to agreement, disagreement, and neutral statements...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Christina N Caiozzo, Kristen Yule, John Grych
Children who witness violence are at risk for developing a range of developmental problems, including deficits in understanding and regulating. The ability to adaptively manage emotions is associated with children's mental health and their social and academic competence; however, little is known about how parents of at-risk youth can foster the healthy development of emotion regulation. The current study aimed to identify specific parenting practices associated with adaptive emotion regulation in at-risk preschoolers...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Fatima M Felisberti
This study investigated whether adults' ability to attribute emotions to brief facial expressions (microexpressions) is associated with family-related environmental factors (FrFs) such as one's number of siblings (Experiment 1), attachment style (Experiment 2), or perceived parental authority style (Experiment 3). Participants' accuracy and reaction time (RT) to the recognition of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness to facial microexpressions (exposure: 100 ms) were measured with a six-alternative forced choice computerised method (6AFC)...
July 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Krisztian Kasos, Szabolcs Zimonyi, Eniko Kasos, Avraham Lifshitz, Katalin Varga, Anna Szekely
Traditionally, electrodermal research measurements were taken from the non-dominant hand. This was considered a valid measurement of arousal for the whole body. Some, however argue for a complex and asynchronous electrodermal system in terms of lateral and dermatome differences in emotional responding. The present study measured skin conductance responses to emotionally laden musical stimuli from the left and right index and middle fingers, as well as the left and right plantar surface of right handed participants (N = 39)...
June 20, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Corinna Pehrs, Jamil Zaki, Liila Taruffi, Lars Kuchinke, Stefan Koelsch
People are better able to empathize with others when they are given information concerning the context driving that person's experiences. This suggests that people draw on prior memories when empathizing, but the mechanisms underlying this connection remain largely unexplored. The present study investigates how variations in episodic information shape the emotional response towards a movie character. Episodic information is either absent or provided by a written context preceding empathic film clips. It was shown that sad context information increases empathic concern for a movie character...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhang-Ning Zhao, Xiao-Lin Li, Jin-Zhi Liu, Zhi-Ming Jiang, Ai-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Young ischemic stroke patients are common while classification and analysis based upon imaging characteristics are rarely reported. We intend to compare the clinical and MRI characteristics of cerebral stroke induced by intracranial atherosclerosis between young patients with branch occlusive disease (BOD) and those with non-branch occlusive disease (non-BOD) or small artery disease (SAD). METHODS: A total of 151 subjects with acute infarction within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included and patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis or cardioembolism were excluded...
June 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
Laura Panagi, Lydia Poole, Ruth A Hackett, Andrew Steptoe
Background: Positive psychological characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with better health and longevity, and one plausible physiological mechanism involves lower markers of inflammation. Positive affect is related to lower basal inflammatory markers and smaller inflammatory responses to acute stress, but this association in people with T2D remains to be examined. Purpose: To examine the relationship between happiness and inflammatory markers at baseline and in response to acute stress in people with T2D...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Marcello Siniscalchi, Serenella d'Ingeo, Angelo Quaranta
Recent scientific literature shows that emotional cues conveyed by human vocalizations and odours are processed in an asymmetrical way by the canine brain. In the present study, during feeding behaviour, dogs were suddenly presented with 2-D stimuli depicting human faces expressing the Ekman's six basic emotion (e.g. anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, and neutral), simultaneously into the left and right visual hemifields. A bias to turn the head towards the left (right hemisphere) rather than the right side was observed with human faces expressing anger, fear, and happiness emotions, but an opposite bias (left hemisphere) was observed with human faces expressing surprise...
June 19, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Andreas Frick, Jonas Engman, Kurt Wahlstedt, Malin Gingnell, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
We aimed to identify biomarkers to guide the decision to add selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Forty-eight patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and collection of clinical and demographic variables before treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy, combined on a double-blind basis with either escitalopram or placebo for 9 weeks. Pre-treatment neural reactivity to aversive faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but not clinical/demographic variables, moderated clinical outcomes...
2018: BJPsych Open
J T Lennon, M E Muscarella, S A Placella, B K Lehmkuhl
Extracellular or "relic" DNA is one of the largest pools of nucleic acids in the biosphere. Relic DNA can influence a number of important ecological and evolutionary processes, but it may also affect estimates of microbial abundance and diversity, which has implications for understanding environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. We developed models capturing the fundamental processes that regulate the size and composition of the relic DNA pools to identify scenarios leading to biased estimates of biodiversity...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Giuseppe La Torre, Sergio Guastamacchia, Alfio Barbagallo, Alice Mannocci
OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among health care workers is higher in comparison with general population and the prevalence of women who smoke is higher than among men. In the prevention strategies the multimedia campaign may be a positive impact on the fight against tobacco. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the last Italian campaign against smoking (Il fumo fammale) in the health care women workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Latium and Sicily (Italy) in 2015, through an interview on memories and impressions about the spots and after a new vision of the spot and eventually other comments...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Sandra Schmidt Bunkers
The author in this article explores the humanbecoming dignity tenet of shame. Shame is examined through an extensive literature review, through storytelling, and through surveying humanbecoming inquiries of sadness, feeling fear, feeling overwhelmed, and feeling disrespected.
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Noreen Goldman, Dana A Glei, Maxine Weinstein
Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity of studies examining changes in psychological health, especially well-being, since the 1990s. We contribute evidence using two cross-sectional waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study to assess changes in measures of psychological distress and well-being...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Louise Connell, Dermot Lynott, Briony Banks
Conceptual representations are perceptually grounded, but when investigating which perceptual modalities are involved, researchers have typically restricted their consideration to vision, touch, hearing, taste and smell. However, there is another major modality of perceptual information that is distinct from these traditional five senses; that is, interoception, or sensations inside the body. In this paper, we use megastudy data (modality-specific ratings of perceptual strength for over 32 000 words) to explore how interoceptive information contributes to the perceptual grounding of abstract and concrete concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Marlene V Strege, Deanna Swain, Lauren Bochicchio, Andrew Valdespino, John A Richey
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing residual depressive symptoms and preventing future depressive episodes (Kuyken et al., 2016). One potential treatment effect of MBCT may be improvement of positive affect (PA), due to improved awareness of daily positive events (Geschwind et al., 2011). Considering social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by diminished PA (Brown et al., 1998; Kashdan, 2007), we sought to determine whether MBCT would reduce social anxiety symptoms, and whether this reduction would be associated with improvement of PA deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sau Yee Chow, Yan Ru Tan, Theodore Gar Ling Wong, Vui Kian Ho, Abey Matthew Matthews, Hui Hua Li, Patrick Wong
Background and Aims: Fibre-optic intubation (FOI) through supraglottic airway devices (SADs) is useful in the management of the difficult airway. We compared two methods of FOI through seven SADs in a randomised crossover manikin study to assess each device's performance and discuss implications on SAD selection. Methods: Thirty anaesthetsiologists, 15 seniors and 15 juniors, each performed low skill FOI (LSFOI) with seven SADs using both 'direct' and 'indirect' methods...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ana R Sepúlveda, Santos Solano, Miriam Blanco, Tatiana Lacruz, Montserrat Graell
The aim was to examine the prevalence of childhood mental disorders in overweight/obese pediatric sample and also to explore the relationship between these pathologies and loss of control eating (LOC). Another aim was to assess the association between psychopathology and severity of obesity. A total of 170 children from different Health Centers were evaluated (84 girls and 86 boys; aged 8 to 12 years). Childhood psychological problems were assessed through a standardized diagnostic interview schedule (K-SADS-R) and by questionnaires (STAIC for anxiety, CDI for depression and ChEAT for disordered eating)...
June 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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