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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087253/what-is-an-ideal-antibiotic-discovery-challenges-and-path-forward
#1
REVIEW
Sheo B Singh, Katherine Young, Lynn L Silver
An ideal antibiotic is an antibacterial agent that kills or inhibits the growth of all harmful bacteria in a host, regardless of site of infection without affecting beneficial gut microbes (gut flora) or causing undue toxicity to the host. Sadly, no such antibiotics exist. What exists are many effective Gram-positive antibacterial agents as well as broad-spectrum agents that provide treatment of certain Gram-negative bacteria but not holistic treatment of all bacteria. However effectiveness of all antibacterial agents is being rapidly eroded due to resistance...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087201/reduction-in-adolescent-depression-after-contact-with-mental-health-services-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-the-uk
#2
Sharon A S Neufeld, Valerie J Dunn, Peter B Jones, Tim J Croudace, Ian M Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the association between service contact and subsequent mental health in adolescents is scarce, and previous findings are mixed. We aimed to longitudinally assess the extent to which depressive symptoms in adolescents change after contact with mental health services. METHODS: As part of a longitudinal cohort study, between April 28, 2005, and March 17, 2010, we recruited 1238 14-year-old adolescents and their primary caregivers from 18 secondary schools in Cambridgeshire, UK...
January 10, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080089/what-you-like-is-what-you-try-to-get-attitudes-toward-emotions-and-situation-selection
#3
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080088/the-effect-of-reactive-emotions-expressed-in-response-to-another-s-anger-on-inferences-of-social-power
#4
Shlomo Hareli, Shlomo David
Social perception of emotions is influenced by the context in which it occurs. One such context is a social interaction involving an exchange of emotions. The way parties to the interaction are perceived is shaped by the combination of emotions exchanged. This idea was examined by assessing the extent to which expressions of anger toward a target-which, in isolation, are perceived as signals of high social power-are influenced by the target's emotional reaction to it (i.e., reactive emotions). Three studies show that the angry person was perceived as having a higher level of social power when this anger was responded by fear or sadness than when it was responded by neutrality or anger...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079157/feeling-touched-emotional-modulation-of-somatosensory-potentials-to-interpersonal-touch
#5
N Ravaja, V Harjunen, I Ahmed, G Jacucci, M M Spapé
Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher's emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee's somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078476/children-with-social-anxiety-and-other-anxiety-disorders-show-similar-deficits-in-habitual-emotional-regulation-evidence-for-a-transdiagnostic-phenomenon
#6
Verena Keil, Julia Asbrand, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz
Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) are an important factor in maintaining social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults. As SAD and ER problems typically develop during childhood and adolescence, and are maintained dynamically within the parent-child dyad, research on families can help to reveal the role ER plays in the early development of SAD. The current study assessed self-reported habitual ER in dyads of children with SAD (n = 31), children with mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 41) and healthy control children (HC; n = 36), and their parents...
January 11, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076642/activity-rest-rhythm-of-depressed-adolescents-undergoing-therapy-case-studies
#7
Maria Eugênia Mesquita, Maria Eliza Finazzi, Bruno Gonçalves, Lee Fu-I, Leandro L Duarte, José Ricardo Lopes, José Alberto Del-Porto, Luiz Menna-Barreto
Introduction: Disorders of circadian rhythms have been reported in studies of both depressed children and of depressed adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a relationship between the 24-hour spectral power (24h SP) of the activity/rest rhythm and the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Methods: Six 14 to 17-year-old adolescents were recruited for the study. They were all suffering from major depressive disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria, as identified by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073867/the-maimed-martian-credible-intervals-and-bias-against-benefit
#8
David Kault
A sad little story about a maimed Martian astronaut is used to illustrate a method of improving confidence interval (CI) calculations. CIs in medical statistics are currently calculated from the data available in a clinical trial or meta-analysis considered in isolation from all other information available on earth. Likewise, the Martian in the story uses only information available to it, in isolation from further information from earth. However, there is further objective knowledge available to people on earth to improve the Martian's estimate...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071664/comparison-of-the-glycopattern-alterations-of-mitochondrial-proteins-in-cerebral-cortex-between-rat-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-cerebral-ischemia-model
#9
Houyou Yu, Changwei Yang, Shi Chen, Yang Huang, Chuanming Liu, Jian Liu, Wen Yin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic brain injury are two major neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction commonly occurs in AD and ischemic brain injury. Currently, little attention has been paid to the glycans on mitochondrial glycoproteins, which may play vital roles during the process of mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to illustrate and compare the glycopattern alterations of mitochondrial glycoproteins extracted from the cerebral cortex of the rat models of these two diseases using High-throughput lectin microarrays...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071144/do-emotions-spark-interest-in-alternative-tobacco-products
#10
Lucy Popova, Jiyeon So, Angeline Sangalang, Torsten B Neilands, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Exposure to advertisements for tobacco products and tobacco warning labels evokes emotions. This study evaluated the association of discrete positive and negative emotions with interest in alternative tobacco products. METHOD: In 2013, 1,226 U.S. adult nonsmokers and current smokers viewed advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with various warning labels and then indicated their emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, sadness, guilt, disgust, discouragement, hope, and contentment...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069156/effectiveness-of-a-relaxation-intervention-progressive-muscle-relaxation-and-guided-imagery-techniques-to-reduce-anxiety-and-improve-mood-of-parents-of-hospitalized-children-with-malignancies-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-republic-of-cyprus-and-greece
#11
Theologia Tsitsi, Andreas Charalambous, Evridiki Papastavrou, Vasilios Raftopoulos
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) and Guided Imagery (GI),in reducing anxiety levels among parents of children diagnosed with any type of malignancy receiving active treatment at a Paediatric Oncology Unit in Republic of Cyprus and in Greece. METHOD: A randomized non-blinded control trial was conducted between April 2012 to October 2013, at two public paediatric hospitals. Fifty four eligible parents of children hospitalized with a malignancy were randomly assigned to the intervention (PMR and GI) (n = 29) and a control group (n = 25)...
February 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069147/a-content-analysis-of-emotional-concerns-expressed-at-the-time-of-receiving-a-cancer-diagnosis-an-observational-study-of-consultations-with-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-and-their-family-members
#12
Live Korsvold, Anneli Viktoria Mellblom, Arnstein Finset, Ellen Ruud, Hanne Cathrine Lie
PURPOSE: Little is known about the emotional concerns expressed by adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients in consultations when a diagnosis of cancer is delivered. Here, we investigated the content of such concerns and how health care providers respond to them. METHOD: We audio-recorded nine consultations with AYA cancer patients (ages: 12-25 years) at the time of diagnosis. We have previously identified and coded 135 emotional concerns and the responses to these in the nine consultations using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) framework...
February 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068464/clinical-outcomes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder-comorbidity
#13
Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Karen Jansen, Cristian Patrick Zeni, João Quevedo, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
OBJECTIVE: To assess the global functioning and clinical outcomes of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity and healthy controls. METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. Participants were children and adolescents aged between 6 and 17 years, and data were collected between 2003 and 2015. Psychiatric diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV criteria using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068393/facial-emotion-recognition-and-expression-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-emotional-mirror-mechanism
#14
Lucia Ricciardi, Federica Visco-Comandini, Roberto Erro, Francesca Morgante, Matteo Bologna, Alfonso Fasano, Diego Ricciardi, Mark J Edwards, James Kilner
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have impairment of facial expressivity (hypomimia) and difficulties in interpreting the emotional facial expressions produced by others, especially for aversive emotions. We aimed to evaluate the ability to produce facial emotional expressions and to recognize facial emotional expressions produced by others in a group of PD patients and a group of healthy participants in order to explore the relationship between these two abilities and any differences between the two groups of participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064111/modification-of-the-medical-exclusion-criterion-in-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-comorbid-obesity-as-an-example
#15
Kristy L Dalrymple, Emily Walsh, Lia Rosenstein, Iwona Chelminski, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The DSM 5 modified the medical exclusion criterion from DSM-IV, which now allows for a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) to be given if the fears are related only to the medical condition (e.g., obesity) yet cause significant impairment or distress. METHODS: To examine this modification, the current study compared bariatric surgery candidates with DSM-IV SAD (n=135), modified SAD (clinically significant social fears related to obesity only; n=40), and no history of Axis I disorders (n=616) on variables related to pre-surgical problematic eating behaviors, body image dissatisfaction, functional impairment, and other characteristics related to bariatric surgery...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060332/production-crystallization-and-structure-determination-of-c-difficile-ppep-1-via-microseeding-and-zinc-sad
#16
Christian Pichlo, Angelika A Montada, Magdalena Schacherl, Ulrich Baumann
New therapies are needed to treat Clostridium difficile infections that are a major threat to human health. The C. difficile metalloprotease PPEP-1 is a target for future development of inhibitors to decrease the virulence of the pathogen. To perform biophysical and structural characterization as well as inhibitor screening, large amounts of pure and active protein will be needed. We have developed a protocol for efficient production and purification of PPEP-1 by the use of E. coli as the expression host yielding sufficient amounts and purity of protein for crystallization and structure determination...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#17
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052778/co-morbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-depression-a-bayesian-network-approach
#18
R J McNally, P Mair, B L Mugno, B C Riemann
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often co-morbid with depression. Using the methods of network analysis, we computed two networks that disclose the potentially causal relationships among symptoms of these two disorders in 408 adult patients with primary OCD and co-morbid depression symptoms. METHOD: We examined the relationship between the symptoms constituting these syndromes by computing a (regularized) partial correlation network via the graphical LASSO procedure, and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) via a Bayesian hill-climbing algorithm...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052452/oxytocin-response-to-youth-mother-interactions-in-clinically-anxious-youth-is-associated-with-separation-anxiety-and-dyadic-behavior
#19
Eli R Lebowitz, Wendy K Silverman, Alyssa M Martino, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common in youth and cause significant distress and impairment to the individual and family. Oxytocin (OT), a nine amino acid peptide, is implicated in anxiety regulation and modulation of close interpersonal and attachment behavior. Anxiety disorders have been linked to low levels of salivary OT in youth. Research has also linked oxytocinergic functioning to social support, warm contact, and bonding, and indicated that contact with attachment figures stimulates OT response...
January 3, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050912/conflicts-of-conscience-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Natalie J Ford, Wendy Austin
BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge of the experiences of conflicts of conscience found in nursing literature. OBJECTIVES: To explore the individual experiences of a conflict of conscience for neonatal nurses in Alberta. RESEARCH DESIGN: Interpretive description was selected to help situate the findings in a meaningful clinical context. Participants and research context: Five interviews with neonatal nurses working in Neonatal Intensive Care Units throughout Alberta...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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