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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453446/environmental-genetic-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-cocaine-addiction
#1
REVIEW
R Christopher Pierce, Bruno Fant, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Elizabeth A Heller, Wade H Berrettini, Mathieu E Wimmer
Decades of research on cocaine has produced volumes of data that have answered many important questions about the nature of this highly addictive drug. Sadly, none of this information has translated into the development of effective therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction. This review endeavors to assess the current state of cocaine research in an attempt to identify novel pathways for therapeutic development. For example, risk of cocaine addiction is highly heritable but genome-wide analyses comparing cocaine-dependent individuals to controls have not resulted in promising targets for drug development...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452333/male-requires-a-higher-median-target-effect-site-concentration-of-propofol-for-i-gel-placement-when-combined-with-dexmedetomidine
#2
Ming-Ming Han, Fu-Shan Xue, Fang Kang, Xiang Huang, Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: The supraglottic airway device (SAD) can be used for airway management of spontaneous breathing patients, and propofol is commonly applied for the SAD placement. This study was designed to assess the effect of gender on median target effect-site concentration (Ce 50 ) of propofol for I-gel placement when combined with dexmedetomidine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 19 males and 18 females, aged 18 to 59 and undergoing elective surgery, were enrolled. After intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine 1...
February 13, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452149/facial-gender-but-not-emotion-distinguishes-neural-responses-of-10-to-13-year-old-children-with-social-anxiety-disorder-from-healthy-and-clinical-controls
#3
Verena Keil, Andero Uusberg, Jens Blechert, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to angry, happy and neutral faces in childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHOD: Behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and electrocortical measures (P100, N170, EPN, LPP) were assessed during a facial emotion identification task in children (age 10-13) with SAD (n = 32), clinical controls with mixed anxiety disorders (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 33). RESULTS: Overall, there were no group differences in behavioral or neural responses to emotional faces...
February 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451967/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Joseph K Carpenter, Leigh A Andrews, Sara M Witcraft, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0...
February 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451590/by-the-book-adhd-prevalence-in-medical-students-varies-with-analogous-methods-of-addressing-dsm-items
#5
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451584/exposure-to-violence-associations-with-psychiatric-disorders-in-brazilian-youth
#6
Thiago M Fidalgo, Zila M Sanchez, Sheila C Caetano, Solange Andreoni, Adriana Sanudo, Qixuan Chen, Sílvia S Martins
OBJECTIVE: The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES) levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451009/risk-factors-influencing-severity-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-sample-of-preparatory-school-students-in-cairo
#7
Hisham Ramy, Mona El Sheikh, Marwa Sultan, Rasha Bassim, Maissa Eid, Ramy Ali, Marwa El Missiry
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Severity of symptoms is associated with more behavioral problems, poor academic performance, and persistence of symptoms into adulthood. METHODS: To examine the clinical and social correlates that may be identified as risk factors associated with ADHD severity in a sample of adolescent ADHD school students. A total of 925 students were recruited from two public and two private schools from eastern Cairo...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448182/enhanced-alumina-recovery-from-secondary-aluminum-dross-for-high-purity-nanostructured-%C3%AE-alumina-powder-production-kinetic-study
#8
Mostafa Mahinroosta, Ali Allahverdi
The numerous ecological problems caused by the accumulation of secondary aluminum dross (SAD) as a hazardous waste generated in aluminum castings have necessitated a need for a sustainable recycling solution. This study proposes a novel and green leaching-based process for recovery of nano-alumina as a highly valuable material from SAD. The leaching phase was performed at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. To obtain optimum conditions for the recovery process, the dissolution kinetics and mechanism of SAD in hydrochloric acid were initially studied under a given liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 ml/g, various reaction temperatures and times...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447561/effects-of-induced-sad-mood-on-facial-emotion-perception-in-young-and-older-adults
#9
Louisa Lawrie, Margaret C Jackson, Louise H Phillips
Older adults perceive less intense negative emotion in facial expressions compared to younger counterparts. Prior research has also demonstrated that mood alters facial emotion perception. Nevertheless, there is little evidence which evaluates the interactive effects of age and mood on emotion perception. This study investigated the effects of sad mood on younger and older adults' perception of emotional and neutral faces. Participants rated the intensity of stimuli while listening to sad music and in silence...
February 15, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442945/synthesis-and-characterization-of-controlled-size-cdse-quantum-dots-by-colloidal-method
#10
Ganesh R Bhand, Manorama G Lakhe, Ashwini B Rohom, Priyanka U Londhe, Sulabha K Kulkarni, Nandu B Chaure
Monodispersed and highly luminescence cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared in a single pot by colloidal reaction method. The QDs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to study the structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties. The growth temperature played an important role to control the particle size...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442703/microstructure-in-plane-magnetic-properties-and-surface-energy-of-co-60-fe-20-v-20-thin-films
#11
Wen-Jen Liu, Yuan-Tsung Chen, Wei-Hsiang Chan, Sung-Hsiang Fu, Te-Ho Wu
Co60Fe20V20 thin films with thicknesses ranging from 3 to 13 nm were sputtered onto a Si(100) substrate at room temperature (RT). Captured selected-area diffraction patterns (SADs) and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR X-TEM) images revealed that the microstructures of the Co60Fe20V20 thin films were amorphous. The hysteresis loop of the thinner Co60Fe20V20 thin films displayed the in-plane magnetic anisotropy, possibly as a result of atmo-spheric exposure. A comparison of saturation magnetization (Ms) and thicknesses indicated a concave-down phenomenon due to magnetic coupling...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442250/can-dogs-use-vocal-intonation-as-a-social-referencing-cue-in-an-object-choice-task
#12
Erin N Colbert-White, Alexa Tullis, David R Andresen, Kiona M Parker, Kaylana E Patterson
Evidence from the literature indicates that dogs' choices can be influenced by human-delivered social cues, such as pointing, and pointing combined with facial expression, intonation (i.e., rising and falling voice pitch), and/or words. The present study used an object choice task to investigate whether intonation conveys unique information in the absence of other salient cues. We removed facial expression cues and speech information by delivering cues with the experimenter's back to the dog and by using nonword vocalizations...
February 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439868/in-depth-genome-analyses-of-viruses-from-vaccine-derived-rabies-cases-and-corresponding-live-attenuated-oral-rabies-vaccines
#13
Florian Pfaff, Thomas Müller, Conrad M Freuling, Christine Fehlner-Gardiner, Susan Nadin-Davis, Emmanuelle Robardet, Florence Cliquet, Vlad Vuta, Peter Hostnik, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Dirk Höper
Live-attenuated rabies virus strains such as those derived from the field isolate Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) have been used extensively and very effectively as oral rabies vaccines for the control of fox rabies in both Europe and Canada. Although these vaccines are safe, some cases of vaccine-derived rabies have been detected during rabies surveillance accompanying these campaigns. In recent analysis it was shown that some commercial SAD vaccines consist of diverse viral populations, rather than clonal genotypes...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439356/frontal-cortex-epigenetic-dysregulation-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Laura Mahady, Muhammad Nadeem, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kewei Chen, Sylvia E Perez, Elliott J Mufson
Although the frontal cortex plays an important role in cognitive function and undergoes neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the factors driving these cellular alterations remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that alterations in epigenetic regulation play a pivotal role in this process in AD. We evaluated frontal cortex histone deacetylase (HDAC) and sirtuin (SIRT) levels in tissue obtained from subjects with a premortem diagnosis of no-cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild to moderate AD (mAD), and severe AD (sAD) using quantitative western blotting...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438213/new-no-donor-ncx-1443-therapeutic-effects-on-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-sad-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Shariq Abid, Kanny Kebe, Amal Houssaïni, Françoise Tomberli, Elisabeth Marcos, Emilie Bizard, Marielle Breau, Aurelien Parpaleix, Claire-Marie Tissot, Bernard Maitre, Larissa Lipskaia, Genevieve Derumeaux, Elena Bastia, Armand Mekontso-Dessap, Serge Adnot
Nitric oxide (NO) donors may be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating sickle cell disease (SCD), as endogenous NO is inactivated by hemoglobin released by intravascular hemolysis. Here, we investigated the effects of the new NO donor NCX1443 on PH in transgenic SAD mice, which exhibit mild SCD without severe hemolytic anemia. In SAD and wild-type (WT) mice, the pulmonary pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar and was abolished by 100 mg/kg NCX1443. The level of PH was also similar in SAD and WT mice exposed to chronic hypoxia (9% O2) alone or with SU5416, and was similarly reduced by daily NCX1443 gavage...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436058/effects-of-a-standard-american-diet-and-an-anti-inflammatory-diet-in-male-and-female-mice
#16
S K Totsch, R Y Meir, T L Quinn, S A Lopez, B A Gower, R E Sorge
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. The current study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e., prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e., following an injury). BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430794/liebowitz-social-anxiety-scale-lsas-optimal-cut-points-for-remission-and-response-in-a-german-sample
#17
M von Glischinski, U Willutzki, U Stangier, W Hiller, J Hoyer, E Leibing, F Leichsenring, G Hirschfeld
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is the most frequently used instrument to assess social anxiety disorder (SAD) in clinical research and practice. Both a self-reported (LSAS-SR) and a clinician-administered (LSAS-CA) version are available. The aim of the present study was to define optimal cut-off (OC) scores for remission and response to treatment for the LSAS in a German sample. Data of N = 311 patients with SAD were used who had completed psychotherapeutic treatment within a multicentre randomized controlled trial...
February 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429569/function-of-child-anger-and-sadness-in-response-to-a-blocked-goal
#18
Lin Tan, Cynthia L Smith
Drawing from the functional theory of emotion, anger is proposed to serve adaptive functions such as motivating children to persist in overcoming difficulties to achieve their goals, whereas sadness helps children to shift attention away from goals that they determine cannot be attained. Despite the theorized importance of anger to persistence, it does not always relate to persistence in expected ways empirically; the role that sadness might play in how anger relates to persistence is often not considered even though children often experience both anger and sadness when goals are blocked...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429463/-abnormal-processing-characteristics-to-basic-emotional-faces-in-the-early-phase-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Qiong-Xi Lin, Gui-Hua Wu, Ling Zhang, Zeng-Jian Wang, Ning Pan, Cai-Juan Xu, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#20
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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