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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057707/mixed-matters-fluency-impacts-trust-ratings-when-faces-range-on-valence-but-not-on-motivational-implications
#1
Michal Olszanowski, Olga Katarzyna Kaminska, Piotr Winkielman
Facial features that resemble emotional expressions influence key social evaluations, including trust. Here, we present four experiments testing how the impact of such expressive features is qualified by their processing difficulty. We show that faces with mixed expressive features are relatively devalued, and faces with pure expressive features are relatively valued. This is especially true when participants first engage in a categorisation task that makes processing of mixed expressions difficult and pure expressions easy...
October 23, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056963/fusion-of-facial-expressions-and-eeg-for-multimodal-emotion-recognition
#2
Yongrui Huang, Jianhao Yang, Pengkai Liao, Jiahui Pan
This paper proposes two multimodal fusion methods between brain and peripheral signals for emotion recognition. The input signals are electroencephalogram and facial expression. The stimuli are based on a subset of movie clips that correspond to four specific areas of valance-arousal emotional space (happiness, neutral, sadness, and fear). For facial expression detection, four basic emotion states (happiness, neutral, sadness, and fear) are detected by a neural network classifier. For EEG detection, four basic emotion states and three emotion intensity levels (strong, ordinary, and weak) are detected by two support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, respectively...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055680/oxytocin-increases-attention-to-the-eyes-and-selectively-enhances-self-reported-affective-empathy-for-fear
#3
Kelly Hubble, Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Aled Rees, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H M van Goozen
Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055257/efficacy-of-adjunctive-brexpiprazole-on-the-core-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-two-pooled-clinical-studies
#4
J Craig Nelson, Emmanuelle Weiller, Peter Zhang, Catherine Weiss, Mary Hobart
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not adequately respond to antidepressant treatment (ADT) may benefit from adjunctive atypical antipsychotics; however, certain agents target specific symptoms of depression and not the full syndrome. The aim of this analysis was to examine the effects of brexpiprazole, adjunct to ADT, on the core symptoms of MDD, defined using Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) items. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, double-blind studies of adjunctive brexpiprazole in patients with MDD and inadequate response to ADTs (n = 1056)...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055240/automatic-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-social-anhedonia
#5
Vivien Günther, Juliane Zimmer, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow
Anhedonia is an important feature of major depression and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated neural alterations in high anhedonia, isolated from other psychopathological variables, by including only participants without clinical diagnoses. The present study examined healthy individuals scoring high (N = 18) vs. low (N = 19) in social anhedonia, who were carefully selected from a sample of N = 282 participants. To examine differences in automatic brain responses to social-affective stimuli between high vs...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051523/emotion-regulating-attentional-control-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study
#6
Bin Hu, Juan Rao, Xiaowei Li, Tong Cao, Jianxiu Li, Dennis Majoe, Jürg Gutknecht
Major depressive disorders (MDD) exhibit cognitive dysfunction with respect to attention. The deficiencies in cognitive control of emotional information are associated with MDD as compared to healthy controls (HC). However, the brain mechanism underlying emotion that influences the attentional control in MDD necessitates further research. The present study explores the emotion-regulated cognitive competence in MDD at a dynamic attentional stage. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 35 clinical MDD outpatients and matched HCs by applying a modified affective priming dot-probe paradigm, which consisted of various emotional facial expression pairs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049933/systemic-autoimmune-diseases-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Ling-Yi Wang, Jen-Huai Chiang, Shih-Fen Chen, Yu-Chih Shen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggested autoimmunity plays a role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate the association between systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) and the subsequent development of BD, and examine the potential risk factors for developing BD. METHODS: Patients with SADs were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program (NHIP). A comparison cohort was created by matching patients without SADs with age. The SADs cohort consisted of 65,498 while the comparison cohort consisted of 261,992 patients...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048304/trustworthiness-of-a-smile-as-a-function-of-changes-in-the-eye-expression
#8
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Patricia Álvarez-Plaza, Laura Carqué, Manuel G Calvo
BACKGROUND: Trusting other people is necessary for satisfactory and successful social interaction. A person’s perceived trustworthiness is related to perceived facial happiness. We investigated how trustworthy someone with a smiling face looks depending on changes in eye expression. METHOD: Video-clips of dynamic expressions were presented, with different combinations of the mouth (smiling vs. neutral) and the eyes (happy, neutral, surprised, sad, fearful, disgusted, or angry)...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046999/attentional-orienting-to-emotional-faces-moderates-the-association-between-callous-unemotional-traits-and-peer-nominated-aggression-in-young-adolescent-school-children
#9
Enrica Ciucci, Eva Kimonis, Paul J Frick, Stefania Righi, Andrea Baroncelli, Giovanna Tambasco, Carolina Facci
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with aggressive behavior but preliminary research suggests this relationship is modified by patterns of emotional processing. This study examined whether attentional orienting to emotional faces moderated the association between CU traits and peer-nominated aggression in 251 middle school students (53% females, mean age = 13.24 years, SD = 0.73). Attentional orienting was assessed using an emotional faces (i.e., angry, fearful, happy, sad, and neutral) variant of the dot-probe task...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046667/nanopore-long-read-guided-complete-genome-assembly-of-hydrogenophaga-intermedia-and-genomic-insights-into-4-aminobenzenesulfonate-p-aminobenzoic-acid-and-hydrogen-metabolism-in-the-genus-hydrogenophaga
#10
Han M Gan, Yin P Lee, Christopher M Austin
We improved upon the previously reported draft genome of Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain PBC, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate-degrading bacterium, by supplementing the assembly with Nanopore long reads which enabled the reconstruction of the genome as a single contig. From the complete genome, major genes responsible for the catabolism of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate in strain PBC are clustered in two distinct genomic regions. Although the catabolic genes for 4-sulfocatechol, the deaminated product of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate, are only found in H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046270/-mydepressionlookslike-examining-public-discourse-about-depression-on-twitter
#11
E Megan Lachmar, Andrea K Wittenborn, Katherine W Bogen, Heather L McCauley
BACKGROUND: Social media provides a context for billions of users to connect, express sentiments, and provide in-the-moment status updates. Because Twitter users tend to tweet emotional updates from daily life, the platform provides unique insights into experiences of mental health problems. Depression is not only one of the most prevalent health conditions but also carries a social stigma. Yet, opening up about one's depression and seeking social support may provide relief from symptoms...
October 18, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046267/identifying-sentiment-of-hookah-related-posts-on-twitter
#12
Jon-Patrick Allem, Jagannathan Ramanujam, Kristina Lerman, Kar-Hai Chu, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity of hookah (or waterpipe) use in the United States and elsewhere has consequences for public health because it has similar health risks to that of combustible cigarettes. While hookah use rapidly increases in popularity, social media data (Twitter, Instagram) can be used to capture and describe the social and environmental contexts in which individuals use, perceive, discuss, and are marketed this tobacco product. These data may allow people to organically report on their sentiment toward tobacco products like hookah unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias, and at low costs...
October 18, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045812/facial-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Edwards, Elizabeth Stewart, Romina Palermo, Suncica Lah
Facial emotion perception is a fundamental social competency relying on a specialised, yet distributed, neural network. This review aimed to determine whether patients with epilepsy have facial emotion perception accuracy impairments overall, or for a subset of emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, fear, and surprise), and the relationship to epilepsy type, demographic/treatment variables, and brain organisation. Database searches used PRISMA guidelines with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirty included studies assessed patients with temporal lobe (TLE; n=709), frontocentral (FCE; n=22), and genetic generalised (GGE; n=48) epilepsy...
October 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037749/psychopathological-features-in-noonan-syndrome
#14
Francesca Perrino, Serena Licchelli, Giulia Serra, Giorgia Piccini, Cristina Caciolo, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Flavia Cirillo, Chiara Leoni, Maria Cristina Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Marco Tartaglia, Paolo Alfieri, Stefano Vicari
INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal and haematological/lymphatic defects, distinctive facies, cryptorchidism, and a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. Recurrent features also include variable cognitive deficits and behavioural problems. Recent research has been focused on the assessment of prevalence, age of onset and characterization of psychiatric features in this disorder. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes in a cohort of individuals with clinical and molecular diagnosis of NS...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037506/neural-signatures-of-dynamic-emotion-constructs-in-the-human-brain
#15
Tijl Grootswagers, Briana L Kennedy, Steven B Most, Thomas A Carlson
How is emotion represented in the brain: is it categorical or along dimensions? In the present study, we applied multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the brain's temporally unfolding representations of different emotion constructs. First, participants rated 525 images on the dimensions of valence and arousal and by intensity of discrete emotion categories (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, and sadness). Thirteen new participants then viewed subsets of these images within an MEG scanner...
October 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037101/the-potential-of-solanezumab-and-gantenerumab-to-prevent-alzheimer-s-disease-in-people-with-inherited-mutations-that-cause-its-early-onset
#16
Francesco Panza, Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Bruno P Imbimbo, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Rosanna Tortelli, Rosa Capozzo, Paola Bisceglia, Andrea Dimitri, Roberta Stallone, Vittorio Dibello, Nicola Quaranta, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
The recent failure of several clinical trials on anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) drugs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggested earlier intervention in the disease course. Secondary prevention trials have been started in autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) individuals without cognitive dysfunction and in cognitively healthy subjects at risk of developing sporadic AD (SAD). Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss prevention trials in ADAD and SAD, with a focus on the anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies solanezumab and gantenerumab presently in Phase III clinical development...
October 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034259/problem-adaptation-therapy-for-pain-path-pain-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-older-adults-with-chronic-pain-and-negative-emotions-in-primary-care
#17
Dimitris N Kiosses, Lisa D Ravdin, Amy Stern, Ruth Bolier, Cara Kenien, M Carrington Reid
Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients...
2017: Geriatrics (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033635/evaluation-of-5-httlpr-gene-polymorphism-and-resilience-components-on-the-development-of-psychopathology-in-adolescent-sexual-abuse-cases
#18
Gresa Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Ayşe Rodopman Arman, İlter Güney, Pınar Gültepe
INTRODUCTION: More than one-fourth adolescents are exposed to unexpected frightening experiences and traumas until adulthood. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism regarding resilience factors in the symptom variability of individuals exposed to sexual abuse. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-17 years, who were admitted to the Marmara University Child Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic Forensic division with sexual abuse experience history, were informed about the research, and volunteers were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033532/seeing-is-believing-using-video-feedback-in-cognitive-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Emma Warnock-Parkes, Jennifer Wild, Richard Stott, Nick Grey, Anke Ehlers, David M Clark
Distorted negative self-images and impressions appear to play a key role in maintaining Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). In previous research, McManus et al. (2009) found that video feedback can help people undergoing cognitive therapy for SAD (CT-SAD) to develop a more realistic impression of how they appear to others, and this was associated with significant improvement in their social anxiety. In this paper we first present new data from 47 patients that confirms the value of video feedback. Ninety-eighty percent of the patients indicated that they came across more favorably than they had predicted after viewing a video of their social interactions...
May 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033138/do-you-believe-it-verbal-suggestions-influence-the-clinical-and-neural-effects-of-escitalopram-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-trial
#20
Vanda Faria, Malin Gingnell, Johanna M Hoppe, Olof Hjorth, Iman Alaie, Andreas Frick, Sara Hultberg, Kurt Wahlstedt, Jonas Engman, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Margareta Reis, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety, but their efficacy relative to placebo has been questioned. We aimed to test how manipulation of verbally induced expectancies, central for placebo, influences SSRI treatment outcome and brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: We did a randomized clinical trial, within an academic medical center (Uppsala, Sweden), of individuals fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, recruited through media advertising...
September 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
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