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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232567/mapping-network-connectivity-among-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-in-people-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Alexandre Heeren, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depressive symptoms often covary. Yet, uncertainty still abounds vis-à-vis the individual symptom-to-symptom associations between these two disorders. Inspired by the network approach to psychopathology that conceptualizes comorbidity as a natural consequence arising from bridge symptoms that can transmit activation from one disorder to the other, we applied network analytic methods to characterize the associations among core symptoms of SAD-i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227845/does-d-cycloserine-facilitate-the-effects-of-homework-compliance-on-social-anxiety-symptom-reduction
#2
Andres D Roque, David Rosenfield, Jasper A J Smits, Naomi Simon, Michael W Otto, Luana Marques, Mark H Pollack, Stefan G Hofmann, Alicia E Meuret
BACKGROUND: Prior studies examining the effect of d-cycloserine (DCS) on homework compliance and outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCS facilitates the effects of homework compliance on symptom reduction in a large-scale study for social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: 169 participants with generalized SAD received DCS or pill placebo during 12-session exposure-based group CBT...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227837/even-in-early-childhood-offspring-alcohol-expectancies-correspond-to-parental-drinking
#3
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sandra Kuntsche
BACKGROUND: Research has found that children as young as preschoolers have an idea about the valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (arousal vs. sedation) of emotional change when adults drink alcohol. The development of alcohol expectancies at such a young age may be due to observed parental alcohol use. METHODS: Three measures of alcohol use (frequency, quantity and binge drinking) assessed among 115 fathers and 149 mothers were correlated with four alcohol expectancy factors (crossing valence and activation) of their offspring, aged three to six (70 boys and 82 girls)...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226794/mental-health-of-immigrants-and-refugees-seeking-legal-services-on-the-us-mexico-border
#4
Yok-Fong Paat, Rachel Green
The debates on the mental health benefits associated with immigration are mixed. On the one hand, immigrants are provided with more opportunities not available in their home countries. On the other hand, they are far away from home and may have been exposed to traumatic experiences on their journeys to the receiving country. Even after settling down in the receiving country, most continue to face legal battles associated with their immigration status, as shown in this study. This study examined the risk and protective factors associated with the mental health conditions in a sample of 39 immigrants and refugees seeking legal services on the US-Mexico border...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226256/general-and-proximal-associations-between-unpaid-eldercare-time-constraints-and-subjective-well-being
#5
Jack Lam, Joan Garcia
Using 2012/13 American Time Use Survey, we find as compared to non-caregivers, caregivers report less time on personal care, social activities and sports and more time on housework. They also report higher stress and lower happiness when engaged in daily activities. Further, using diary information which captures activities during a 24-hour window, we compare caregivers on days they provide care and caregivers on days they do not provide care. Caregivers report more time on housework and less on paid work, and higher levels of sadness when engaged in daily activities...
March 2017: International Journal of Care and Caring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225467/altered-emotional-recognition-and-expression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Yazhou Jin, Zhiqi Mao, Zhipei Ling, Xin Xu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit deficits in emotional recognition and expression abilities, including emotional faces and voices. The aim of this study was to explore emotional processing in pre-deep brain stimulation (pre-DBS) PD patients using two sensory modalities (visual and auditory). Methods: Fifteen PD patients who needed DBS surgery and 15 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were recruited as participants. All participants were assessed by the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database 50 Faces Recognition test...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225332/effects-of-acute-systemic-inflammation-on-the-interplay-between-sad-mood-and-affective-cognition
#7
REVIEW
Sven Benson, Alexandra Brinkhoff, Larissa Lueg, Till Roderigo, Andreas Kribben, Benjamin Wilde, Oliver Witzke, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski, Sigrid Elsenbruch
Experimental endotoxemia is a translational model to study inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression. Disturbed affective cognition constitutes a core aspect in depression, but has never been studied in the context of inflammation. We combined experimental endotoxemia with an established experimental mood induction procedure to assess the interaction between acute inflammation and sad mood and their effects on affective cognition. In this randomized cross-over study, N = 15 healthy males received endotoxin (0...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224181/social-cognition-and-aggression-in-methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#8
Anne Uhlmann, Jonathan C Ipser, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire...
December 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221651/-the-myth-of-virgin-cleansing-latest-news-on-an-archaic-magico-religious-practice
#10
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, L Brun, V Hoang-Oppermann, S Deo, Y Mostefai-Dulac, M-F Mamzer, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. DISCUSSION: These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217115/-psychosomatic-symptoms-as-an-expression-of-the-deterioration-of-the-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adolescents
#11
Rosa M Fuentes Chacón, M José Simón Saiz, Margarita Garrido Abejar, M Dolores Serrano Parra, M Elisa Larrañaga Rubio, Santiago Yubero Jiménez
AIM: To analyze, in a population of adolescents in school, the relationship between psychosomatic symptoms and the perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), differentiating by gender and age group. DESIGN: Transversal study. LOCATION: Five Secondary Schools. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred and forty four adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 in secondary school. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: HRQoL using KIDSCREEN-52 and psychosomatic symptoms with the psychosomatic problems scale (PSP)...
December 4, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216633/greater-experience-of-negative-non-target-emotions-by-patients-with-neurodegenerative-diseases-is-related-to-lower-emotional-well-being-in-caregivers
#12
Kuan-Hua Chen, Jenna L Wells, Marcela C Otero, Sandy J Lwi, Claudia M Haase, Robert W Levenson
BACKGROUND: Behavioral symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases can be particularly challenging for caregivers. Previously, we reported that patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) experienced emotions that were atypical or incongruent with a given situation (i.e., non-target emotions). AIM: We tested the hypothesis that greater experience of non-target emotions by patients is associated with lower caregiver emotional well-being...
December 8, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214151/association-between-depression-and-factors-affecting-career-choice-among-jordanian-nursing-students
#13
Said Yousef, Mariam Athamneh, Emad Masuadi, Haitham Ahmad, Tom Loney, Hamdy F Moselhy, Fatma Al-Maskari, Iffat ElBarazi
Background: Although stress reaction is high among nursing staff and nursing students in the Middle East and its effect on life is known, there are scant studies reporting on these clinical and social features. In addition, there are no studies reporting on factors that influence career choice among this group. Aim: This study aimed to investigate factors that influence career choice among nursing students and their possible association with depressive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214129/using-multiple-exemplar-training-to-teach-empathy-skills-to-children-with-autism
#14
Maithri Sivaraman
The purpose of the study was to use multiple exemplar training to teach empathetic responding to two children with autism. Three emotions-happiness, frustration and sadness/pain-were chosen for this purpose. Treatment consisted of verbal prompting and reinforcement of empathetic responses. Four experimenter-defined categories with discriminative stimuli were used for each emotion. The multiple exemplar component of the model consisted of teaching responses in the presence of several discriminative stimuli drawn from the predefined categories for each emotion delivered by two persons across two environments...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212644/creating-healthy-work-environments-for-second-victims-of-adverse-events
#15
Linda M Tamburri
Adverse events may cause a patient serious harm or death; the patient becomes the first victim of these events. The health care providers who become traumatized by the events are the second victims. These second victims experience feelings such as guilt, shame, sadness, and grief, which can lead to profound personal and professional consequences. An organizational culture of blame and a lack of support can intensify the provider's suffering. Second victims, as they move through predictable stages of recovery, can be positively influenced by a supportive organizational culture and the compassionate actions of peers, managers, advanced practice nurses, educators, and senior leaders...
2017: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212563/clinically-relevant-and-simple-immune-system-measure-is-related-to-symptom-burden-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Louisa Sylvia, Thilo Deckersbach, Michael Joshua Ostacher, Melvin McInnis, Dan Iosifescu, Charles Bowden, Susan McElroy, Joseph Calabrese, Michael Thase, Richard Charles Shelton, Mauricio Tohen, James Kocsis, Edward Friedman, Terence Ketter, Andrew Alan Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: Immunological theories, particularly the sickness syndrome theory, may explain psychopathology in mood disorders. However, no clinical trials have investigated the association between overall immune system markers with a wide range of specific symptoms including potential gender differences. METHODS: We included two similar clinical trials, the lithium treatment moderate-dose use study and clinical and health outcomes initiatives in comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder study, enrolling 765 participants with bipolar disorder...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209256/low-mood-leads-to-increased-empathic-distress-at-seeing-others-pain
#17
Yuan Cao, Genevieve Dingle, Gary C K Chan, Ross Cunnington
Previous studies have shown changes in empathy in patients with depression, including an elevated level of trait personal distress. This study examined if low mood causes changes in self-reported empathic distress when seeing others in pain. To test this, we conducted an initial (n = 26) and close replication study (n = 46) in which sad mood was induced in healthy participants (overall mean age M = 21, SD = 5, range = 18-41 years). Participants viewed and rated video stimuli inferring pain experienced by other people...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199878/do-we-expect-women-to-look-happier-than-they-are-a-test-of-gender-dependent-perceptual-correction
#18
John Eric Steephen, Samyak Raj Mehta, Raju Surampudi Bapi
Feminine facial features enhance the expressive cues associated with happiness but not sadness. This makes a woman look happier than a man even when their smiles have the same intensity. So, to correctly infer the actual happiness of a woman, one would have to subtract the effect of these facial features. We hypothesised that our perceptual system would apply this subtraction for women, but not for men. This implies that this female-specific subtraction would cause one to infer a man to be happier than a woman if both are matched for facial appearance and expression intensity...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198528/an-integrative-review-of-the-enjoyment-of-sadness-associated-with-music
#19
REVIEW
Tuomas Eerola, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Henna-Riikka Peltola, Vesa Putkinen, Katharina Schäfer
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology...
November 23, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198232/adolescents-daily-perception-of-internalizing-emotional-states-by-means-of-smartphone-based-ecological-momentary-assessment
#20
Teresa Kirchner, Ernesto Magallón-Neri, Manuel S Ortiz, Irina Planellas, María Forns, Caterina Calderón
This study uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with smartphone devices to examine community adolescents' perceptions regarding both the intensity of and variability in their daily sadness/depression, anxiety, and somatic problems over the period of one week. Participants were 90 high-school students (M age = 14.61, SD = 1.64; range 12-18). The sample was divided according to gender (61.1% girls), migratory status (68.5% Spanish nationals and 31.5% Latin American immigrants), and level of psychological symptoms (17% risk group)...
December 4, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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