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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667715/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Maya Asher, Idan M Aderka
OBJECTIVE:  Despite the ample literature on gender differences in anxiety and mood disorders, gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have received little empirical attention. The aim of the present study is to examine gender differences in 12-months prevalence, patterns of comorbidity, clinical presentation, subjective distress and functional impairment, age of onset, and treatment seeking, and discuss their clinical implications. METHOD: We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R; n = 652, 63...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666976/do-youth-with-separation-anxiety-disorder-differ-in-anxiety-sensitivity-from-youth-with-other-anxiety-disorders
#2
Dagmar Kr Hannesdottir, Sandra Bjorg Sigurjonsdottir, Urdur Njardvik, Thomas H Ollendick
Studies on the relationship between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in childhood and panic disorder (PD) in adolescence and adulthood have yielded results which suggest a common underlying vulnerability for both disorders. In this study, we examined whether one such possible vulnerability-anxiety sensitivity-differed for youth diagnosed with SAD versus other anxiety disorders. Anxiety sensitivity was assessed using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in 315 clinic-referred youth (ages 6-17, 113 girls)...
April 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665120/determinants-and-predictive-value-of-clinician-assessment-of-short-term-suicide-risk
#3
Shira Barzilay, Zimri S Yaseen, Mariah Hawes, Irina Kopeykina, Firouz Ardalan, Paul Rosenfield, James Murrough, Igor Galynker
We examine the interrelations among clinicians' judgment of patients' suicide risk, clinicians' emotional responses, and standard risk factors in the short-term prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Psychiatric outpatients (n = 153) with a lifetime history of suicide ideation/attempt and their treating clinicians (n = 67) were evaluated at intake. Clinicians completed a standard suicide risk instrument (modified SAD PERSONS scale), a 10-point Likert scale assessment of judgment of patient suicide risk (Clinician Prediction Scale), and a measure of their emotional responses to the patient (Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form)...
April 17, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662035/structure-and-magnetism-of-mn%C3%A2-ge%C3%A2-nanoparticles
#4
Onur Tosun, Mohammed Salehi-Fashami, Balamurugan Balasubramanian, Ralph Skomski, David J Sellmyer, George C Hadjipanayis
In this work, we investigated the magnetic and structural properties of isolated Mn₅Ge₃ nanoparticles prepared by the cluster-beam deposition technique. Particles with sizes between 7.2 and 12.6 nm were produced by varying the argon pressure and power in the cluster gun. X-ray diffraction (XRD)and selected area diffraction (SAD) measurements show that the nanoparticles crystallize in the hexagonal Mn₅Si₃-type crystal structure, which is also the structure of bulk Mn₅Ge₃. The temperature dependence of the magnetization shows that the as-made particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature and have slightly different Curie temperatures...
April 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661170/-people-look-and-ask-lots-of-questions-caregivers-perceptions-of-healthcare-provision-and-support-for-children-born-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#6
Phumzile Hlongwa, Laetitia C Rispel
BACKGROUND: Clefting of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) is amongst the five most common birth defects reported in South Africa. The emotional impact on parents at the birth of their new-born with CL/P could affect parent-child relationships. In light of insufficient scholarly attention parental experiences and perceptions, this study reports on caregivers' perceptions of health service provision and support for children born with cleft lip and palate in South Africa. METHODS: The study setting consisted of 11 academic hospital centres situated in six of South Africa's nine provinces...
April 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660897/effects-of-group-exercise-on-functional-abilities-differences-between-physically-active-and-physically-inactive-women
#7
Nebojsa Cokorilo, Milena Mikalacki, Goran Satara, Milan Cvetkovic, Dragan Marinkovic, Jelena Zvekic-Svorcan, Borislav Obradovic
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. METHODS: A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660774/intrapersonal-emotion-regulation-processes-influence-what-children-remember-about-their-emotional-experiences
#8
Parisa Parsafar, Elizabeth L Davis
Little work has tested how emotion regulation (ER) processes influence children's memory for negative experiences. We investigated how two intrapersonal ER processes (affect-biased attention and changes in negative feelings) predicted children's (N = 184, 93 girls, ages 3-11) memory. Recall of a sad or scary film was tested after a delay. The way discrete emotional information was remembered varied with ER and children's age. Older children with greater affect-biased attention or less reduction of fear demonstrated privileged memory for central information from the scary film...
April 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660102/psychopathic-traits-influence-amygdala-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-during-facial-emotion-processing
#9
Michael P Ewbank, Luca Passamonti, Cindy C Hagan, Ian M Goodyer, Andrew J Calder, Graeme Fairchild
There is accumulating evidence that youths with antisocial behavior or psychopathic traits show deficits in facial emotion recognition, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these impairments. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated brain activity during facial emotion processing in youths with Conduct Disorder (CD) and adults with psychopathy, but few of these studies tested for group differences in effective connectivity - i.e., changes in connectivity during emotion processing...
April 12, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659120/patterns-of-depressive-symptom-remission-during-the-treatment-of-seasonal-affective-disorder-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-or-light-therapy
#10
Jonah Meyerhoff, Michael A Young, Kelly J Rohan
BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms related to remission in winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), we explored the course of individual depressive symptom offset across two distinct treatment modalities that show comparable outcomes at treatment endpoint: cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) and light therapy (LT). METHOD: One hundred seventy-seven adults with SAD in a depressive episode were randomized to 6-weeks of CBT-SAD (n = 88) or LT (n = 89)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659102/initial-severity-and-antidepressant-efficacy-for-anxiety-disorders-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#11
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressant benefits are smaller for mild than severe depression. Because antidepressants are also used for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the influence of severity for these disorders. METHODS: We used individual patient data of eight trials (3,430 participants) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); four trials (1,195 participants) for social anxiety disorder (SAD); four trials (1,132 participants) for OCD; three trials (1,071 participants) for PTSD; and 10 trials (2,151 participants) for panic disorder (PD)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658752/age-related-changes-in-older-adults-anger-and-sadness-the-role-of-perceived-control
#12
Carsten Wrosch, Meaghan A Barlow, Ute Kunzmann
This longitudinal study examined the experience of sadness and anger in a sample of older adults. Based on the discrete emotion theory of affective aging, it was expected that sadness, but not anger, would increase in older adulthood over time. In addition, we hypothesized that inter- and intraindividual differences in low perceptions of control would be more strongly associated with sadness than anger. The 10-year study followed 187 community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 72.25, SDage = 5.81). At each of six waves, participants' levels of sadness, anger, perceived control, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658741/interparental-hostility-and-children-s-externalizing-symptoms-attention-to-anger-as-a-mediator
#13
Patrick T Davies, Jesse L Coe, Rochelle F Hentges, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael T Ripple
This study examined children's attention biases to negative emotional stimuli as mediators of associations between interparental hostility and children's externalizing symptoms. Participants included 243 children (Mage = 4.60 years) and their parents and teachers across three annual measurement occasions. Cross-lagged latent change analyses revealed that the association between interparental hostility and children's externalizing symptoms was mediated by children's attention to angry, but not sad or fearful, adult faces...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658116/differentiating-the-effects-of-anger-and-sadness-a-perspective-of-spontaneous-trait-inference
#14
Wenfeng Shi, Feng Yang, Jing Xia, Meifang Wang
In the present research, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of anger and sadness on spontaneous trait inferences (STIs). Using a probe recognition paradigm, Experiment 1 revealed that angry participants made more errors in response to probes following trait-implying behaviours than sad participants did. Using a false recognition paradigm, Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that angry participants made more errors in response to systematic pair trials than sad participants did. The three experiments provided convergent evidence that angry individuals were more inclined to form STIs than sad individuals were...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656511/neuropathic-pain-a-patient-centred-approach-to-measuring-outcomes
#15
Steve Hwang, Floortje van Nooten, Ted Wells, Aisling Ryan, Bruce Crawford, Christopher Evans, Marci English
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a complex, chronic pain state initiated by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system and presents as a variety of symptoms across multiple disease states. OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-centred conceptual model of symptoms and impacts in subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) that can inform the measurement strategy in clinical trials. METHOD: Thirty subjects with DPN or PHN participated in in-person interviews which were performed until saturation was achieved...
April 15, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656264/prospective-predictors-of-first-onset-depressive-disorders-in-adolescent-females-with-anxiety-disorders
#16
Estee M Hausman, Roman Kotov, Greg Perlman, Greg Hajcak, Ellen M Kessel, Daniel N Klein
BACKGROUND: Anxious youth are at increased risk for later depressive disorders, but not all anxious youth develop depression. Sequential comorbidity models emphasize shared risk factors and anxiety sequelae, but some anxious youth who later develop depression may have risk factors that are relatively specific to depression, in addition to a liability to anxiety. We examined several variables that appear relatively specific to risk for depression-the personality traits of low positive affectivity and high sadness, and an electrophysiological measure of blunted response to reward - in predicting first-onset depressive disorders and depressive symptoms in clinically anxious adolescent girls...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656258/towards-a-uniform-specification-of-light-therapy-devices-for-the-treatment-of-affective-disorders-and-use-for-non-image-forming-effects-radiant-flux
#17
M P J Aarts, A L P Rosemann
BACKGROUND: For treating affective disorders like SAD, light therapy is used although the underlying mechanism explaining this success remains unclear. To accelerate the research on defining the light characteristics responsible for inducing a specific effect a uniform manner for specifying the irradiance at the eye should be defined. This allows a genuine comparison between light-affect studies. An important factor impacting the irradiance at the eye are the radiant characteristics of the used light therapy device...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651697/sagittal-abdominal-diameter-and-framingham-risk-score-in-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#18
Hua Xiao, Yu Bao, Ming-Yue Liu, Jun-Hua Yang, Yan-Ting Li, Yi-An Wang, Ying Wang, Yue Yan, Zhu Zhu, Mei Ni, Xiao-Yan Huang, Xin-Kui Tian, Tao Wang, Xing-Wei Zhe
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is very common now and is associated with high overall and cardiovascular mortality. Numerous studies have reported that abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the link between sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and Framingham risk score in non-dialysis CKD patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 307 prevalent non-dialysis CKD patients (175 males, aged 50.7 ± 17...
April 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651018/affective-and-cognitive-rather-than-somatic-symptoms-of-depression-predict-3-year-mortality-in-patients-on-chronic-hemodialysis
#19
Hui-Teng Cheng, Miao-Chun Ho, Kuan-Yu Hung
Depression is more common in many medical conditions than among the general population and is associated with an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to determine whether somatic symptoms of depression were more predictive of mortality than affective and cognitive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which the survival outcomes of 151 subjects were followed for more than 3 years. Depression was assessed with the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ). Subjects with TDQ scores 19-54 (correlated with clinically significant depressive symptoms) and those with scores 15-18 had higher 3-year mortality rates than the two groups with lower scores (40...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649404/development-of-valid-and-reliable-measures-of-patient-and-family-experiences-of-hospice-care-for-public-reporting
#20
Rebecca Anhang Price, Brian Stucky, Layla Parast, Marc N Elliott, Ann Haas, Melissa Bradley, Joan M Teno
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, dying patients and their families have a choice of hospice providers. Care quality varies considerably across providers; informing consumers of these differences may help to improve their selection of hospices. OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate standardized survey measures of hospice care experiences for the purpose of comparing and publicly reporting hospice performance. DESIGN: We assessed item performance and constructed composite measures by factor analysis, evaluating item-scale correlations and estimating reliability...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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