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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352771/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-due-to-inappropriate-medication-use
#1
G Chaby, L Valeyrie-Allanore, T A Duong, B Lebrun-Vignes, B Milpied, B Sassolas, F Tetart, P Wolkenstein, O Chosidow, L Fardet
BACKGROUD: The proportion of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that could be avoided if medication use was consistent with good medical practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of SCARs related to inappropriate medication use. METHODS: Retrospective study of all validated SCARs collected in a French registry between 2003 and 2016. For each case, all plausible drugs suspected to induce SCARs (i.e., not just the drug regarded as "the most probable") were considered regarding three causes of preventability: (1) prescription for an inappropriate indication, (2) unintentional rechallenge despite a previous allergy to the drug, or (3) self-medication with prescription medicines...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352770/concentration-dependent-effect-of-bleaching-agents-on-the-immunolabeling-of-interleukin-6-interleukin-17-and-cd5-positive-cells-in-the-dental-pulp
#2
F Benetti, J E Gomes-Filho, L L Ferreira, G Sivieri-Araújo, E Ervolino, A L F Briso, L T A Cintra
AIM: To evaluate lymphocyte-like cell activation (CD5-positive cells) and the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 in the pulp after dental bleaching with two concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). METHODOLOGY: The right and left maxillary molars from 40 rats were treated randomly with bleaching gel with 20% H2 O2 (BLUE group, 1 application of 50 min), 35% H2 O2 (MAXX group, 3 applications of 15 min), or placebo gel (Control). After 2 and 30 days, the rats were killed (n=10), and the jaws were processed for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis of the pulp tissue...
January 20, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352769/resolvin-e1-resolvin-d1-and-resolvin-d2-inhibit-constriction-of-rat-thoracic-aorta-and-human-pulmonary-artery-induced-by-the-thromboxane-mimetic-u46619
#3
Melanie Jannaway, Christopher Torrens, Jane A Warner, Anthony P Sampson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Omega-6 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators such as prostanoids, thromboxane and leukotrienes have well-established roles in regulating both inflammation and smooth muscle contractility. Resolvins are derived from omega-3 fatty acids and have important roles in promoting the resolution of inflammation, but their activity on smooth muscle contractility is unknown. We investigated whether resolvin E1 (RvE1), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin D2 (RvD2) can modulate contractions of isolated segments of rat thoracic aorta (RTA) or human pulmonary artery (HPA) induced by the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine or the stable thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352760/endothelial-function-estimated-by-digital-reactive-hyperemia-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-risk-factors-or-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Jeehoon Kang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Jae-Bin Seo, Jin-Yong Lee, Min-Kyong Moon, Woo-Young Chung
Due to the complex profile of atherosclerotic risk factors, an integrated analysis of a specific individual is difficult. Endothelial function reflects a composite of various risk factors, and may be used as an optimal tool to estimate the overall atherosclerotic risk. In this study, we investigated the value of digital Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) in an actual population with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors or coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 417 patients from the Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center RHI registry were enrolled in this study...
January 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352757/refractory-heartburn-a-challenging-problem-in-clinical-practice
#5
REVIEW
Gerson Domingues, Joaquim Prado P Moraes-Filho, Ronnie Fass
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition which develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Heartburn and regurgitation are the typical symptoms of GERD. The treatment of GERD encompasses lifestyle modifications, pharmacological, endoscopic, and surgical therapy. The majority of the patients respond to 4-8 weeks of proton-pump inhibitors therapy, but 20-42% will demonstrate partial or complete lack of response to treatment. While these patients have been considered as having refractory heartburn, a subset of them does not have GERD or have not been adequately treated...
January 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352756/influence-of-defect-locations-and-nitrogen-doping-configurations-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-armchair-graphene-nanoribbons
#6
Ahmet Emin Senturk, Ahmet Sinan Oktem, Alp Er S Konukman
The effect of defect locations on the mechanical properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) and the various configurations of nitrogen (N) doping on the mechanical properties of AGNRs were examined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The variation of the Young's modulus (YM) and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of pyridinic-N, graphitic-N, and pyrrolic-N by increasing the concentration of N doping was investigated. The results of MD simulations show that the defect location has a significant effect on the UTS and failure strain (FS) of AGNRs in both vertical and horizontal directions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352755/a-mos1-transposase-in-vivo-assay-to-screen-new-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors
#7
Mariana Cancian, Elgion L S Loreto
The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir...
January 19, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#8
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352753/factors-predicting-length-of-stay-following-bariatric-surgery-retrospective-review-of-a-single-uk-tertiary-centre-experience
#9
Fahad Mahmood, Alistair J Sharples, Adriana Rotundo, Nagammapudur Balaji, Vittal S R Rao
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are the most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Improvement in techniques and perioperative management of patients have resulted in shorter hospital stay and reduced overall costs. Many post-operative protocols aspire to post-operative day 1 discharge with studies showing reduction in length of stay without increasing complications. In this study, we investigate the factors predictive of early discharge at our high-volume bariatric centre...
January 19, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352750/histomorphological-analysis-of-the-variability-of-the-human-skeleton-forensic-implications
#10
Marco Cummaudo, Annalisa Cappella, Miranda Biraghi, Caterina Raffone, Nicholas Màrquez-Grant, Cristina Cattaneo
One of the fundamental questions in forensic medicine and anthropology is whether or not a bone or bone fragment is human. Surprisingly at times for the extreme degradation of the bone (charred, old), DNA cannot be successfully performed and one must turn to other methods. Histological analysis at times can be proposed. However, the variability of a single human skeleton has never been tested. Forty-nine thin sections of long, flat, irregular and short bones were obtained from a well-preserved medieval adult human skeleton...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352748/use-of-e-learning-in-clinical-clerkships-effects-on-acquisition-of-dermatological-knowledge-and-learning-processes
#11
Frederike Fransen, Herm Martens, Ivo Nagtzaam, Sylvia Heeneman
Objectives: To obtain a deeper understanding of how the e-learning program, Education in Dermatology (ED), affects the acquisition of dermatological knowledge and the underlying learning processes of medical students in their clinical phase. Methods: The study used a mixed method design with a convergent parallel collection of data. Medical students (n=62) from Maastricht University (The Netherlands) were randomized to either a conventional teaching group (control group n=30) or conventional teaching plus the e-learning program (application on smartphone) group (e-learning group n=32)...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352747/clathrin-and-ap1-are-required-for-apical-sorting-of-gpi-aps-in-biosynthetic-and-recycling-routes-in-mdck-cells
#12
Guillaume Alain Castillon, Patricia Burriat-Couleru, Daniel Abegg, Nina Criado Santos, Reika Watanabe
Recently studies in animal models demonstrate potential roles for clathrin and AP1 in apical protein sorting in epithelial tissue. However, the precise functions of these proteins in apical protein transport remain unclear. Here, we reveal mis-targeting of endogenous GPI-APs and soluble secretory proteins in MDCK cells upon clathrin heavy chain or AP1 subunit knockdown (KD). Using a novel directional endocytosis and recycling assay, we found that these KD cells are not only affected for apical sorting of GPI-APs in biosynthetic pathway but also for their apical recycling and basal to apical transcytosis routes...
January 20, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352746/the-common-bean-cok-4-and-the-arabidopsis-fer-kinase-domain-share-similar-function-in-plant-growth-and-defense
#13
Rafhael Felipin Azevedo, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Maeli Melotto
Receptor-like kinases are membrane proteins that can be shared by diverse signaling pathways. Among them, the Arabidopsis thaliana FERONIA (FER) plays a role in the balance between distinct signals to control growth and defense. We have found that COK-4, a putative kinase encoded in the common bean anthracnose resistance locus Co-4 that is transcriptionally regulated during immune response, is highly similar to the kinase domain of FER. To assess whether COK-4 is a functional ortholog of FER, we expressed COK-4 in the wild type Col-0 and the fer-5 mutant of Arabidopsis and evaluated FER-associated traits...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352745/negative-supercoiling-of-dna-by-gyrase-is-inhibited-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-during-adaptation-to-acid-stress
#14
Aoife M Colgan, Heather J Quinn, Stefani C Kary, Lesley A Mitchenall, Anthony Maxwell, Andrew Ds Cameron, Charles J Dorman
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4 to 5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates with upregulation of Salmonella genes involved in adaptation to the macrophage environment. Bacterial ATP levels did not increase during adaptation to acid pH unless the bacterium was deficient in MgtC, a cytoplasmic-membrane-located inhibitor of proton-driven F1 F0 ATP synthase activity. Inhibiting ATP binding by DNA gyrase and topo IV with novobiocin enhanced the effect of low pH on DNA relaxation...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352742/cambogin-suppresses-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-enhancing-treg-cell-stability-and-function
#15
Yue Lu, Na-Mi Kim, Yi-Wen Jiang, Hong Zhang, Dan Zheng, Fu-Xiang Zhu, Rui Liang, Bin Li, Hong-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract, and the dysfunction of immune regulation plays a critical role in IBD. Reflecting the limited use of current drugs and therapies for IBD treatment, it is necessary to explore novel drugs or therapies for this disease. We investigated the effect of cambogin in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and whether cambogin attenuates inflammation via Treg-cell-mediated immune modulation...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352739/determination-of-protein-oligomeric-structure-from-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#16
REVIEW
David A Korasick, John J Tanner
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is useful for determining the oligomeric states and quaternary structures of proteins in solution. The average molecular mass in solution can be calculated directly from a single SAXS curve collected on an arbitrary scale from a sample of unknown protein concentration, without the need for beamline calibration or protein standards. The quaternary structure in solution can be deduced by comparing the experimental SAXS curve to theoretical curves calculated from proposed models of the oligomer...
January 20, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352735/s-nitrosated-poly-propylene-sulfide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-nitric-oxide-delivery-to-lymphatic-tissues
#17
Alex Schudel, Lauren F Sestito, Susan N Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352732/long-term-effects-of-crizotinib-in-alk-positive-tumors-excluding-nsclc-a-phase-1b-open-label-study
#18
Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Sergey Orlov, Li Zhang, Fadi Braiteh, Huiqiang Huang, Taito Esaki, Keizo Horibe, Jin-Seok Ahn, Joseph T Beck, William Jeffrey Edenfield, Yuankai Shi, Matthew Taylor, Kenji Tamura, Brian A Van Tine, Shang-Ju Wu, Jolanda Paolini, Paulina Selaru, Tae Min Kim
Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), MET, and ROS1, is approved for treatment of patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, ALK rearrangements are also implicated in other malignancies, including anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs). In this ongoing, multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase 1b study (PROFILE 1013; NCT01121588), patients with ALK-positive advanced malignancies other than NSCLC were to receive a starting dose of crizotinib 250 mg twice daily...
January 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352725/longitudinal-evaluation-of-a-training-program-to-promote-routine-antenatal-enquiry-for-domestic-violence-by-midwives
#19
Kathleen Baird, Debra K Creedy, Amornrat S Saito, Jennifer Eustace
BACKGROUND: Routine enquiry about domestic violence during pregnancy is accepted best practice. Training is essential to improve knowledge and practice. Few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of training impact over time. AIM: To evaluate the longitudinal impact of a domestic violence training and support program to promote midwives' routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence using a mixed methods design. METHOD: Data sources included (1) surveys of midwives at 6 months post-training, (2) interviews with key stakeholders at 12 months, (3) chart audit data of screening, risk, and disclosure rates (for 16 months)...
January 15, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352723/which-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-t-cell-counts-benefit-most-from-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-the-start-trial
#20
Jean-Michel Molina, Birgit Grund, Fred Gordin, Ian Williams, Mauro Schechter, Marcello Losso, Matthew Law, Ernest Ekong, Noluthando Mwelase, Athanasios Skoutelis, Martin J Wiselka, Linos Vandekerckhove, Thomas Benfield, David Munroe, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in asymptomatic adults with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL, as recommended, might not always be possible in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify subgroups of individuals who would benefit most from immediate treatment. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic, HIV-positive adults previously untreated with ART. Participants with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL were randomly assigned to receive immediate ART or to defer ART until CD4 counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 15, 2018: Lancet HIV
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