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Plasticity related proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#1
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638118/conformational-plasticity-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-the-myotilin-tandem-ig-domains
#2
Vid Puž, Miha Pavšič, Brigita Lenarčič, Kristina Djinović-Carugo
Myotilin is a component of the sarcomere where it plays an important role in organisation and maintenance of Z-disk integrity. This involves direct binding to F-actin and filamin C, a function mediated by its Ig domain pair. While the structures of these two individual domains are known, information about their relative orientation and flexibility remains limited. We set on to characterise the Ig domain pair of myotilin with emphasis on its molecular structure, dynamics and phylogeny. First, sequence conservation analysis of myotilin shed light on the molecular basis of myotilinopathies and revealed several motifs in Ig domains found also in I-band proteins...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637679/characterization-of-ectonucleotidase-expression-in-the-rat-carotid-body-regulation-by-chronic-hypoxia
#3
Shaima Salman, Cathy Vollmer, Grant B McClelland, Colin A Nurse
The carotid body (CB) chemoreflex maintains blood PO2 and PCO2/H(+) homeostasis and displays sensory plasticity during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors plays a pivotal role in shaping the afferent discharge at the sensory synapse containing catecholaminergic chemoreceptor (type I) cells, glial-like type II cells, and sensory (petrosal) nerve endings. However, little is known about the family of ectonucleotidases that control synaptic nucleotide levels. Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), we first compared expression levels of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases1,2,3,5,6) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'Nt/CD73) mRNAs in juvenile rat CB versus brain, petrosal ganglia, sympathetic (superior cervical) ganglia, and a sympathoadrenal chromaffin (MAH) cell line...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637666/nr4a-orphan-nuclear-receptor-family-members-nr4a2-and-nr4a3-regulate-neutrophil-number-and-survival
#4
Lynne R Prince, Svenja Dannewitz Prosseda, Kathryn Higgins, Jennifer Carlring, Elizabeth C Prestwich, Nikolay V Ogryzko, Atiqur Rahman, Alexander Basran, Francesco Falciani, Philip Taylor, Stephen A Renshaw, Moira K B Whyte, Ian Sabroe
Neutrophil lifespan is plastic and highly responsive to factors that regulate cellular survival. Defects in neutrophil number and survival are common to both hematologic disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. At sites of inflammation, neutrophils respond to multiple signals that activate protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which positively regulates neutrophil survival. The aim of this study was to define transcriptional responses to PKA activation and to delineate the roles of these factors in neutrophil function and survival...
June 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636951/structure-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-with-a-potent-chemokine-antagonist-reveals-mechanisms-of-chemokine-recognition-and-molecular-mimicry-by-hiv
#5
Yi Zheng, Gye Won Han, Ruben Abagyan, Beili Wu, Raymond C Stevens, Vadim Cherezov, Irina Kufareva, Tracy M Handel
CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#6
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633291/p2x7-receptors-drive-spine-synapse-plasticity-in-the-learned-helplessness-model-of-depression
#7
L Otrokocsi, Á Kittel, B Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments, however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#8
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628257/contrasting-gene-expression-programs-correspond-with-predator-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-within-and-across-generations-in-daphnia
#9
Nicole R Hales, Drew R Schield, Audra L Andrew, Daren C Card, Matthew R Walsh, Todd A Castoe
Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., 'within-generation phenotypic plasticity') as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., 'transgenerational plasticity'). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and trans-generational plasticity at the molecular level is unclear...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627448/opiate-exposure-state-controls-dopamine-d3-receptor-and-cdk5-calcineurin-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-during-reward-and-withdrawal-aversion-memory-formation
#10
Laura G Rosen, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is highly expressed in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a neural region critical for processing opiate-related reward and withdrawal aversion-related memories. Functionally, D3R transmission is linked to downstream Cdk5 and calcineurin signaling, both of which regulate D3R activity states and play critical roles in memory-related synaptic plasticity. Previous evidence links D3R transmission to opiate-related memory processing, however little is known regarding how chronic opiate exposure may alter D3R-dependent memory mechanisms...
June 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626017/amyloid-beta-peptide-is-needed-for-cgmp-induced-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#11
Agostino Palmeri, Roberta Ricciarelli, Walter Gulisano, Daniela Rivera, Claudia Rebosio, Elisa Calcagno, Maria Rosaria Tropea, Silvia Conti, Utpal Das, Subhojit Roy, Maria A Pronzato, Ottavio Arancio, Ernesto Fedele, Daniela Puzzo
High levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624416/influence-of-a-small-amount-of-glycerol-on-the-trehalose-bioprotective-action-analyzed-in-situ-during-freeze-drying-of-lyzozyme-formulations-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#12
Tatiana Starciuc, Yannick Guinet, Laurent Paccou, Alain Hedoux
Micro-Raman spectroscopy gives the original opportunity to monitor simultaneously the operating process and the protein structure from in-situ investigations along the three stages of the freeze-drying (FD) process. This opportunity was used for determining how a small amount of glycerol enhances the bioprotective efficiency of trehalose during freeze-drying of lysozyme formulations. Three lysozyme formulations were analyzed: lysozyme dissolved in D2O (wt% 1:9), in Trehalose-D2O mixture (wt% 1:1:8) and in the Trehalose-Glycerol-D2O mixture (wt% 1:1:0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623238/a-normal-genetic-variation-modulates-synaptic-mmp-9-protein-levels-and-the-severity-of-schizophrenia-symptoms
#13
Katarzyna Lepeta, Katarzyna J Purzycka, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Marina Mitjans, Martin Begemann, Behnam Vafadari, Krystian Bijata, Ryszard W Adamiak, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Magdalena Dziembowska, Leszek Kaczmarek
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as a molecule that contributes to pathological synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia, but explanation of the underlying mechanisms has been missing. In the present study, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in > 1,000 schizophrenia patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection and found an association between the MMP-9 rs20544 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) and the severity of a chronic delusional syndrome...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620464/recent-insights-on-principles-of-synaptic-protein-degradation
#14
REVIEW
Laurie D Cohen, Noam E Ziv
Maintaining synaptic integrity and function depends on the continuous removal and degradation of aged or damaged proteins. Synaptic protein degradation has received considerable attention in the context of synaptic plasticity and growing interest in relation to neurodegenerative and other disorders. Conversely, less attention has been given to constitutive, ongoing synaptic protein degradation and the roles canonical degradation pathways play in these processes. Here we briefly review recent progress on this topic and new experimental approaches which have expedited such progress and highlight several emerging principles...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619638/development-and-characterization-of-cuttlefish-sepia-officinalis-skin-gelatin-protein-isolate-blend-films
#15
Hela Kchaou, Mourad Jridi, Ola Abdelhedi, Benbettaïeb Nasreddine, Thomas Karbowiak, Moncef Nasri, Frédéric Debeaufort
In the present study, cuttlefish skin gelatin (CSG) and protein isolate (CSPI) blend films were prepared and their physicochemical and antioxidant properties were characterized. CSG (4%, w/v) was blended with CSPI (3%, w/v) at different ratios and 15% of glycerol (w/w, plasticizer/polymer dry matter). Results showed that increasing of CSPI content induced lower lightness but higher redness, yellowness and color difference values compared to CSG film. In addition, CSPI film had the lowest tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB) values...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615345/variation-in-leaf-respiration-rates-at-night-correlate-with-carbohydrate-and-amino-acid-supply
#16
Brendan M O'Leary, Chun Pong Lee, Owen K Atkin, Riyan Cheng, Tim B Brown, A Harvey Millar
Plant respiration can theoretically be fuelled by and dependent upon an array of central metabolism components; however, which ones are responsible for the quantitative variation found in respiratory rates is unknown. Here, large scale screens revealed twofold variation in night-time leaf respiration rate (RN) among mature leaves from an Arabidopsis natural accession collection grown under common favourable conditions. RN variation was mostly maintained in the absence of genetic variation, which emphasized the low heritability of RN and its plasticity towards relatively small environmental differences within the sampling regime...
June 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611388/aberrant-plasticity-of-peripheral-sensory-axons-in-a-painful-neuropathy
#17
Takashi Hirai, Yatendra Mulpuri, Yanbing Cheng, Zheng Xia, Wei Li, Supanigar Ruangsri, Igor Spigelman, Ichiro Nishimura
Neuronal cells express considerable plasticity responding to environmental cues, in part, through subcellular mRNA regulation. Here we report on the extensive changes in distribution of mRNAs in the cell body and axon compartments of peripheral sensory neurons and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) landscapes after unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE) injury in rats. Neuronal cells dissociated from SNE-injured and contralateral L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia were cultured in a compartmentalized system. Axonal and cell body RNA samples were separately subjected to high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607167/the-role-of-creb-srf-and-mef2-in-activity-dependent-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-visual-cortex
#18
Nisha S Pulimood, Rodrigues Wandilson Dos Santos, Devon A Atkinson, Sandra M Mooney, Alexandre E Medina
The transcription factors CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding factor), SRF (Serum Response Factor) and MEF2 (Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2) play critical roles in the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. However, the role of the activation of these transcription factors in the different components of plasticity in vivo is not well known. In this study, we tested the role of CREB, SRF and MEF2 in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), a paradigm of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex. These three proteins bind to the Synaptic Activity Response Element (SARE), an enhancer sequence found upstream of many plasticity-related genes (Kawashima et al...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591565/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-fall-armyworm-saliva
#19
Flor E Acevedo, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Michelle Peiffer, Dawn S Luthe, Gary W Felton
Lepidopteran larvae secrete saliva on plant tissues during feeding. Components in the saliva may aid in food digestion, whereas other components are recognized by plants as cues to elicit defense responses. Despite the ecological and economical importance of these plant-feeding insects, knowledge of their saliva composition is limited to a few species. In this study, we identified the salivary proteins of larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda; determined qualitative and quantitative differences in the salivary proteome of the two host races-corn and rice strains-of this insect; and identified changes in total protein concentration and relative protein abundance in the saliva of FAW larvae associated with different host plants...
June 4, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576774/aff-1-fusogen-can-rejuvenate-the-regenerative-potential-of-adult-dendritic-trees-via-self-fusion
#20
Veronika Kravtsov, Meital Oren-Suissa, Benjamin Podbilewicz
The aging brain undergoes structural changes, affecting brain homeostasis, neuronal function and consequently cognition. The complex architecture of dendritic arbors poses a challenge to understanding age-dependent morphological alterations, behavioral plasticity and remodeling following brain injury. Here, we use the PVD polymodal neurons of C. elegans as a model to study how aging affects neuronal plasticity. Using confocal live imaging of C. elegans PVD neurons, we demonstrate age-related progressive morphological alterations of intricate dendritic arbors...
June 2, 2017: Development
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