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Plasticity related proteins

Jacque P K Ip, Ikue Nagakura, Jeremy Petravicz, Keji Li, Erik A C Wiemer, Mriganka Sur
Microdeletion of a region in chromosome 16p11.2 increases susceptibility to autism. Although this region contains exons of 29 genes, disrupting only a small segment of the region, which spans 5 genes, is sufficient to cause autistic traits. One candidate gene in this critical segment is MVP , which encodes for the major vault protein (MVP) that has been implicated in regulation of cellular transport mechanisms. MVP expression levels in MVP +/- mice closely phenocopy those of 16p11.2 mutant mice, suggesting that MVP +/- mice may serve as a model of MVP function in 16p11...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Masanori Nomoto, Kaoru Inokuchi
Behavioral tagging is the transformation of a short-term memory induced by a weak experience into a long-term memory through temporal association with a novel experience. This phenomenon was discovered to recapitulate synaptic tagging and capture at the behavioral level. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular machinery associated with synaptic tagging and capture and behavioral tagging theories. However, the tag setting and recruitment of plasticity-related proteins that occur within the spatiotemporally constrained cell ensemble at the network level (cellular tagging) in the brain where multimodal sensory information is input are just beginning to be understood...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Francis D Gratte, Sara Pasic, John K Olynyk, George C T Yeoh, David Tosh, Deirdre R Coombe, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
The rising prevalence of chronic liver disease, coupled with a permanent shortage of organs for liver transplantation, has sparked enormous interest in alternative treatment strategies. Previous protocols to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) via pancreas-to-liver transdifferentiation have utilised fetal bovine serum, introducing unknown variables and severely limiting study reproducibility. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a protocol for transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells to HLCs in a chemically defined, serum-free culture medium...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Smith, Sandra Winter, David Lappin, Andrea Sherriff, Ian McIvor, Pamela Philp, Nigel Suttner, Sulisti Holmes, Alan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Currently UK vCJD cases total 178, with an estimated maximum 1:2,000 carriage rate based on archived appendix and tonsil tissue, implying infection maybe rare but carriage relatively common. Previous workers have identified that maintenance of surgical instruments in a humid atmosphere after use and prior to cleaning assists cleaning efficacy. Relatively recently the Department of Health/Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens UK have recommended a surgical instrument cleanliness threshold post cleaning of <5μg protein per instrument side...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Adriano Evandir Marchello, Alexsandro Claudino Dos Santos, Ana Teresa Lombardi, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Graziela Cristina Montanhim
Mixotrophy is a metabolic strategy in which an organism is autotrophic and heterotrophic simultaneously. Considering that the aquatic environment provides several organic sources of carbon, it is probably common for microalgae to perform mixotrophy and not only photoautotrophy, but little is known about microalgae mixotrophy. The present work aimed at investigating the growth, photosynthetic activity, morphology, and biochemical composition of the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana in mixotrophic and photo-mixotrophic conditions, comparing it with photoautotrophy...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Paula G Slater, Sebastian E Gutierrez-Maldonado, Katia Gysling, Carlos F Lagos
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is a key mediator of the stress response and addictive behavior. The CRF system includes four peptides: The CRF system includes four peptides: CRF, urocortins I-III, CRF binding protein (CRF-BP) that binds CRF with high affinity, and two class B G-protein coupled receptors CRF1 R and CRF2 R. CRF-BP is a secreted protein without significant sequence homology to CRF receptors or to any other known class of protein. Recently, it has been described a potentiation role of CRF-BP over CRF signaling through CRF2 R in addictive-related neuronal plasticity and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Aslı Turan, Sibel Soycan Önenç
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effects of cumin essential oil on the silage fermentation, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa silages. Methods: Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom (5 th cutting) stage in October and wilted for about 3 hours. The research was carried out at three groups which were the control group where no additive control was done (CON), cumin essential oil (CMN3) with 300 mg/kg and CMN5 with 500 mg/kg cumin essential oil addition...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Fenghua Chen, Jibrin Danladi, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Heidi K Müller, Gregers Wegener, Connie Sanchez, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Preclinical studies have indicated that antidepressant effect of vortioxetine involves increased synaptic plasticity and promotion of spine maturation. Mitochondria dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological basis of major depressive disorder. Taking into consideration that vortioxetine increases spine number and dendritic branching in hippocampus CA1 faster than fluoxetine, we hypothesize that new spines induced by vortioxetine can rapidly form functional synapses by mitochondrial support, accompanied by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-signaling...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Alireza Mohammadi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian, Ehsan Rashidi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a dominant neurotrophic factor in the brain which plays a crucial role in differentiation, regeneration and plasticity mechanisms. Binding of the BDNF to its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor leads to phosphorylation of TrkB, thus activating the three important downstream intracellular signaling cascades within the neural cells including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), phospholipase C-γ (PLCγ), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal related kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways...
March 2, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Stéphanie Moortgat, Damien Lederer, Marie Deprez, Marga Buzatu, Philippe Clapuyt, Sébastien Boulanger, Valérie Benoit, Sandrine Mary, Agnès Guichet, Alban Ziegler, Estelle Colin, Dominique Bonneau, Isabelle Maystadt
Mutations in the oligophrenin 1 gene (OPHN1) have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly, suggesting it could be a recognizable syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Affected individuals share additional clinical features including speech delay, seizures, strabismus, behavioral difficulties, and slight facial dysmorphism. OPHN1 is located in Xq12 and encodes a Rho-GTPase-activating protein involved in the regulation of the G-protein cycle...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Yang Yang, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu, Yu-Ling Wu, Zhi-Yang Zhang, Shao-Chen Qu
Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
A Borreca, V Latina, V Corsetti, S Middei, S Piccinin, F Della Valle, R Bussani, M Ammassari-Teule, R Nisticò, P Calissano, G Amadoro
The NH2 tau 26-44 aa (i.e., NH2 htau) is the minimal biologically active moiety of longer 20-22-kDa NH2 -truncated form of human tau-a neurotoxic fragment mapping between 26 and 230 amino acids of full-length protein (htau40)-which is detectable in presynaptic terminals and peripheral CSF from patients suffering from AD and other non-AD neurodegenerative diseases. Nevertheless, whether its exogenous administration in healthy nontransgenic mice is able to elicit a neuropathological phenotype resembling human tauopathies has not been yet investigated...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
John Marshall, Xiao-Zhong Zhou, Gang Chen, Su-Qing Yang, Ya Li, Yin Wang, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Qin Jiang, Lutz Birnbaumer, Cong Cao
Stress-related alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurotrophin that plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Here, we show that in a chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression the Gαi1 and Gαi3 subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins are down-regulated in the hippocampus, a key limbic structure associated with major depressive disorder. We provide evidence that Gαi1 and Gαi3 (Gαi1/3) are required for the activation of TrkB downstream signaling pathways...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Md Mohibbullah, Jae-Suk Choi, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Khalilur Rahman, Il Soo Moon, Yong-Ki Hong
Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Marta Portero-Tresserra, Margarita Martí-Nicolovius, Mireia Tarrés-Gatius, Ana Candalija, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch, Anna Vale-Martínez
RATIONALE: Aging is characterized by a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the hippocampus, which might be one of the factors involved in the age-dependent cognitive decline. D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDAR glycine recognition site, could improve memory deficits associated to neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive deficits observed in normal aging. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The aim of the present study was to explore whether DCS would reverse age-dependent memory deficits and decreases in NMDA receptor subunits (GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B) and the presynaptic protein synaptophysin in Wistar rats...
February 28, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Lucas Matt, Lyndsey M Kirk, George Chenaux, David J Speca, Kyle R Puhger, Michael C Pride, Mohammad Qneibi, Tomer Haham, Kristopher E Plambeck, Yael Stern-Bach, Jill L Silverman, Jacqueline N Crawley, Johannes W Hell, Elva Díaz
Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR) content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1) encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1) modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO) mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
G P Manjunath, Praveena L Ramanujam, Sanjeev Galande
Protein scaffolds as essential backbones for organization of supramolecular signalling complexes are a recurrent theme in several model systems. Scaffold proteins preferentially employ linear peptide binding motifs for recruiting their interaction partners. PDZ domains are one of the more commonly encountered peptide binding domains in several proteins including those involved in scaffolding functions. This domain is known for its promiscuity both in terms of ligand selection, mode of interaction with its ligands as well as its association with other protein interaction domains...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
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