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Arvin R Wali, David R Santiago-Dieppa, Jeffrey A Steinberg, Ali Alattar, Vincent J Cheung, Royya Modir, Alexander A Khalessi, J Scott Pannell
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with systemic vascular disease, and it can also affect intracranial vasculature in a small percentage of patients. Very rarely, NF1 may co-present with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Prior reports have documented NF1 with bilateral optic gliomas and a unilateral hypoplastic internal carotid artery; however, we report a case with the aforementioned findings in addition to a right-sided lentiform mass. This case report further suggests a common congenital pathway related to neurofibromin loss of function resulting in both nerve sheath tumors and cerebrovascular anomalies...
August 26, 2016: Curēus
Sirkku Peltonen, Roope A Kallionpää, Juha Peltonen
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) occurs in 1:2000 births. The main diagnostic signs are visible on the skin and this opens several interesting aspects for dermatological point of view. The NF1 syndrome is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene which encodes the tumor suppressor protein neurofibromin. Neurofibromin functions as a Ras-GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), and NF1 mutations lead to over-activation of the Ras signaling pathway. The NF1 gene and neurofibromin have intriguing functions in keratinocytes and melanocytes...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Tatsuo Kakiuchi, Taishi Takahara, Yumiko Kasugai, Kotaro Arita, Noriaki Yoshida, Kennosuke Karube, Miyuki Suguro, Keitaro Matsuo, Hayao Nakanishi, Tohru Kiyono, Shigeo Nakamura, Hirotaka Osada, Yoshitaka Sekido, Masao Seto, Shinobu Tsuzuki
Mesotheliomas are frequently characterized by disruption of Hippo pathway due to deletion and/or mutation in genes, such as neurofibromin 2 (NF2). Hippo disruption attenuates yes-associated protein (YAP) phosphorylation allowing YAP to translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression. The role of disrupted Hippo pathway in maintenance of established mesotheliomas has been extensively investigated using cell lines; however, its involvement in development of human mesothelioma has not been explored much...
August 24, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Matthew D Wood, Gerald F Reis, David E Reuss, Joanna J Phillips
Glioblastomas (GBM) are aggressive brain tumors that inevitably recur despite surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation. The degree to which recurrent GBM retains its initial immunophenotype is incompletely understood. We generated tissue microarrays of paired initial and posttreatment GBM (3 pairs positive and 17 negative for IDH1(R132H)) from the same patients and made comparisons in the IDH1(R132H)-negative group for immunohistochemical and gene expression differences between primary and recurrent tumors...
October 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Fang Su, Zhengguang Zhou, Wen Su, Zishu Wang, Qiong Wu
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign, slow-growing cranial tumor that originates from the hypertrophy of Schwann cells. The majority of sporadic VS are unilateral, and the mechanisms underlying VS tumorigenesis are not fully understood. The human neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene encodes the tumor suppressor protein merlin and the NF2 transcript can be alternatively spliced to form numerous isoforms. The present study investigated human Schwann cells (HSCs) at the mRNA and protein level to understand the function of the alternative splicing (AS) isoform of NF2...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Takahisa Matsuda, Peiyong Zhai, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Yu Zhang, Jae Im Jeong, Shohei Ikeda, Jiyeon Park, Chiao-Po Hsu, Bin Tian, Duojia Pan, Junichi Sadoshima, Dominic P Del Re
RATIONALE: NF2 (neurofibromin 2) is an established tumor suppressor that promotes apoptosis and inhibits growth in a variety of cell types, yet its function in cardiomyocytes remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the role of NF2 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the function of NF2 in isolated cardiomyocytes and mouse myocardium at baseline and in response to oxidative stress...
August 19, 2016: Circulation Research
Dongfeng Pan, Peifeng Liang, Hongyan Xiao
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder associated with neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene mutation, which generates an increased risk of variety of tumor types. The current study reports a case involving NF1, pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). A 56-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and polypnea. Clinical investigation revealed multiple diffuse soft-tissue lesions throughout his body, and pigmented macules on the skin. Imaging analyses revealed thoracic scoliosis, multiple subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and trunk, and a 7...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
Heema Hewitson, Victoria Wood, Neli Kadeva, Glenda Cornwell, Stefano Codognotto, Emma Stephenson, Dusko Ilic
The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739-3742 ΔTTTG). Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment...
March 2016: Stem Cell Research
Heema Hewitson, Victoria Wood, Neli Kadeva, Glenda Cornwell, Stefano Codognotto, Emma Stephenson, Dusko Ilic
The KCL024 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739-3742 ∆TTTG). Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment...
March 2016: Stem Cell Research
Theresia Dunzendorfer-Matt, Ellen L Mercado, Karl Maly, Frank McCormick, Klaus Scheffzek
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Legius syndrome are related diseases with partially overlapping symptoms caused by alterations of the tumor suppressor genes NF1 (encoding the protein neurofibromin) and SPRED1 (encoding sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1, Spred1), respectively. Both proteins are negative regulators of Ras/MAPK signaling with neurofibromin functioning as a Ras-specific GTPase activating protein (GAP) and Spred1 acting on hitherto undefined components of the pathway. Importantly, neurofibromin has been identified as a key protein in the development of cancer, as it is genetically altered in a large number of sporadic human malignancies unrelated to NF1...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Waylan K Bessler, Farlyn Z Hudson, Hanfang Zhang, Valerie Harris, Yusi Wang, Julie A Mund, Brandon Downing, David A Ingram, Jamie Case, David J Fulton, Brian K Stansfield
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) predisposes individuals to early and debilitating cardiovascular disease. Loss of function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, which encodes the protein neurofibromin, leads to accelerated p21(Ras) activity and phosphorylation of multiple downstream kinases, including Erk and Akt. Nf1 heterozygous (Nf1(+/-)) mice develop a robust neointima that mimics human disease. Monocytes/macrophages play a central role in NF1 arterial stenosis as Nf1 mutations in myeloid cells alone are sufficient to reproduce the enhanced neointima observed in Nf1(+/-) mice...
August 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jelte Helfferich, Ronald Nijmeijer, Oebele F Brouwer, Maartje Boon, Annemarie Fock, Eelco W Hoving, Lisethe Meijer, Wilfred F A den Dunnen, Eveline S J M de Bont
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, associated with a variable clinical phenotype including café-au-lait spots, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas and distinctive bony lesions. NF1 is caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene, which codes for neurofibromin, a large protein involved in the MAPK- and the mTOR-pathway through RAS-RAF signalling. NF1 is a known tumour predisposition syndrome, associated with different tumours of the nervous system including low grade gliomas (LGGs) in the paediatric population...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Shi Yang, Dominick Leone, Noah Frydenlund, Mai Hoang, April Deng, Marier Hernandez-Perez, Asok Biswas, Rajendra Singh, Ron Yaar, Meera Mahalingam
Estimates of the frequency of telomerase reverse transcripter (TERT) mutations in desmoplastic melanoma (DM) are limited. DM is categorized into subtypes, pure and mixed, differing in prognosis, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. Given this, our aims were to determine the incidence of TERT promoter mutations in DM subtypes and to evaluate its relationship with established histopathologic prognosticators, BRAF and RETp status, and neurofibromin protein expression. Of the archival annotated samples retrieved, 76 cases of DM (48 pure and 28 mixed) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion...
August 2016: Melanoma Research
Santasree Banerjee, Yi Dai, Shengran Liang, Huishuang Chen, Yanyan Wang, Lihui Tang, Jing Wu, Hui Huang
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dysregulated neurocutaneous disorder, characterized by neurofibromas and café-au-lait spots. NF1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, encoding neurofibromin. Here, we present a clinical molecular study of a three-generation Chinese family with NF1. The proband was a male patient who showed café-au-lait spots and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas over the whole body, but his siblings only had regional lesions. The man's daughter presented with severe headache and vomiting...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Maria-Magdalena Georgescu, Bret C Mobley, Brent A Orr, Ping Shang, Norman L Lehman, Xiaoping Zhu, Thomas J O'Neill, Veena Rajaram, Kimmo J Hatanpaa, Charles F Timmons, Jack M Raisanen
The adaptor protein NHERF1 (Na/H exchanger-3 regulatory factor-1) and its associated ezrin-radixin-moesin-merlin/neurofibromin-2 (ERM-NF2) family proteins are required for epithelial morphogenesis and have been implicated in cancer progression. NHERF1 is expressed in ependymal cells and constitutes a highly sensitive diagnostic marker for ependymoma, where it labels membrane polarity structures. Since NHERF1 and ERM-NF2 proteins show polarized expression in choroid plexus (CP) cells, we tested their diagnostic utility in CP neoplasms...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
S Y Su, X Zhou, X M Pang, C Y Chen, S H Li, J L Liu
Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Aubin Moutal, Erik T Dustrude, Rajesh Khanna
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) is a progressive, autosomal disorder with a large degree of variability and severity of manifestations including neurological, cutaneous, ocular/orbital, orthopedic, and vascular abnormalities. Nearly half of Nf1 patients presents with cognitive impairment, specifically spatial learning deficits. These clinical manifestations suggest a global impairment of both central and peripheral nervous system functions in neurofibromatosis. Nf1 encodes for neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP) that has been implicated in the regulation of long-term potentiation (LTP), Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling, and learning in mice...
May 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Rebecca Lock, Rachel Ingraham, Ophélia Maertens, Abigail L Miller, Nelly Weledji, Eric Legius, Bruce M Konicek, Sau-Chi B Yan, Jeremy R Graff, Karen Cichowski
Neurofibromin 1-mutant (NF1-mutant) cancers are driven by excessive Ras signaling; however, there are currently no effective therapies for these or other Ras-dependent tumors. While combined MEK and mTORC1 suppression causes regression of NF1-deficient malignancies in animal models, the potential toxicity of cotargeting these 2 major signaling pathways in humans may necessitate the identification of more refined, cancer-specific signaling nodes. Here, we have provided evidence that MAPK-interacting kinases (MNKs), which converge on the mTORC1 effector eIF4E, are therapeutic targets in NF1-deficient malignancies...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sayaka Yuzawa, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Hiromi Mohri, Lei Wang, Taichi Kimura, Masumi Tsuda, Mishie Tanino, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Shunsuke Terasaka, Kiyohiro Houkin, Norihiro Sato, Shinya Tanaka
Recent genetic analyses using next-generation sequencers have revealed numerous genetic alterations in various tumors including meningioma, which is the most common primary brain tumor. However, their use as routine laboratory examinations in clinical applications for tumor genotyping is not cost effective. To establish a clinical sequencing system for meningioma and investigate the clinical significance of genotype, we retrospectively performed targeted amplicon sequencing on 103 meningiomas and evaluated the association with clinicopathological features...
July 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Harshabad Singh, Yang Liu, Xiuli Xiao, Ling Lin, Jaegil Kim, Paul Van Hummelen, Chin-Lee Wu, Adam J Bass, Philip J Saylor
Urachal adenocarcinoma is a rare bladder malignancy arising from the urachal remnant. Given its rarity and the lack of knowledge about its genetic characteristics, optimal management of this cancer is not well defined. Practice patterns vary and outcomes remain poor. In order to identify the genomic underpinnings of this malignancy, we performed whole exome sequencing using seven tumor/normal pairs of formalin fixed archival specimens. We identified recurrent evidence of MAP-kinase pathway activation as three patients had neurofibromin 1 (NF1) mutations, with one of these patients also harboring an oncogenic KRAS G13D mutation...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
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