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Mirwais Wardak, Patricia K Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Tongqing Zhou, Anqi Zheng, Ulrich Baxa, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Ivelin S Georgiev, Rui Kong, Sijy O'Dell, Syed Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Chen-Hsiang Shen, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Robert T Bailer, Syna K Gift, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Reda Rawi, Catherine H Stevenson, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Justin D Taft, Eric Waltari, Yongping Yang, Baoshan Zhang, Sachin S Shivatare, Vidya S Shivatare, Chang-Chun D Lee, Chung-Yi Wu, James C Mullikin, Carole A Bewley, Dennis R Burton, Victoria R Polonis, Lawrence Shapiro, Chi-Huey Wong, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong, Xueling Wu
Virtually the entire surface of the HIV-1-envelope trimer is recognized by neutralizing antibodies, except for a highly glycosylated region at the center of the "silent face" on the gp120 subunit. From an HIV-1-infected donor, #74, we identified antibody VRC-PG05, which neutralized 27% of HIV-1 strains. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment of VRC-PG05 in complex with gp120 revealed an epitope comprised primarily of N-linked glycans from N262, N295, and N448 at the silent face center...
March 7, 2018: Immunity
Adrian V Horodnic, Sorin Mazilu, Liviu Oprea
In order to explain informal payments in public health care services in Romania, this paper evaluates the relationship between extra payments or valuable gifts (apart from official fees) and the level of tolerance to corruption, as well as the socio-economic and spatial patterns across those individuals offering informal payments. To evaluate this, a survey undertaken in 2013 is reported. Using logistic regression analysis, the findings are that patients with a high tolerance to corruption, high socio-economic risk (those divorced, separated, or with other form of marital status, and those not working), and located in rural or less affluent areas are more likely to offer (apart from official fees) extra payments or valuable gifts for health care services...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Andrea Moglia, Luca Morelli, Vincenzo Ferrari, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred Cuschieri
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for a test assessing objectively the innate aptitude for surgery as a craft specialty to complement the current selection process of surgical residents. The aim of this study was to quantify the size of individuals with high, average, and low level of innate psychomotor skills among medical students. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 155 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulator, executed five tasks at a virtual simulator for robot-assisted surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Steven J Holochwost, Vanessa V Volpe, Noa Gueron-Sela, Cathi B Propper, W Roger Mills-Koonce
BACKGROUND: Deficits of inhibitory control in early childhood are linked to externalizing behaviors and attention problems. While environmental factors and physiological processes are associated with its etiology, few studies have examined how these factors jointly predict inhibitory control. This study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) functioned as a mediator or moderator of both cumulative sociodemographic risk and parenting behaviors on inhibitory control during early childhood...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
María Díez-Cirarda, Antonio P Strafella, Jinhee Kim, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
The objective was to assess dynamic functional connectivity (FC) and local/global connectivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and with normal cognition (PD-NC). The sample included 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive assessment followed an extensive neuropsychological battery. For resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analysis, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed and components were located in 7 networks: Subcortical (SC), Auditory (AUD), Somatomotor (SM), visual (VI), cognitive-control (CC), default-mode (DMN), and cerebellar (CB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mayleen Jeniffer L Laico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
J Michelle Brock, Andreas Lange, Kenneth L Leonard
We test the value of unconditional non-monetary gifts as a way to improve health worker performance in a low income country health setting. We randomly assigned health workers to different gift treatments within a program that visited health workers, measured performance and encouraged them to provide high quality care for their patients. We show that unconditional non-monetary gifts improve performance by 20 percent over a six-week period, compared to the control group. We compare the impact of the unconditional gift to one in which a gift is offered conditional on meeting a performance target and show that only the unconditional gift results in a statistically significant improvement...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Catherine A Grodensky, Carol E Golin, Allison P Pack, Audrey Pettifor, Michele Demers, Cecelia Massa, Gift Kamanga, Kevin McKenna, Amy Corneli
OBJECTIVE: Individuals diagnosed with acute HIV infection (AHI) are highly infectious and require immediate HIV prevention efforts to minimize their likelihood of transmitting HIV to others. We sought to explore the relevance of Motivational Interviewing (MI), an evidence-based counseling method, for Malawians with AHI. METHODS: We designed a MI-based intervention called "Uphungu Wanga" to support risk reduction efforts immediately after AHI diagnosis...
February 7, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Diarmid A Finnegan
In November 1843 John Cassidy, curator in the Belfast Museum received, perhaps rather dolefully, a collection of bird skins. The Museum was barely managing to cope with the constant flow of donations from the 'four quarters of the globe'. But the gift of bird skins could not be ignored. Sent by Captain Francis Crozier, recently returned from the British Antarctic Expedition, the bequest contained 150 species of Southern Ocean birds, including the remains of two immature 'great penguins'. Taking the one surviving specimen as a focal point, this paper compares and contrasts the ways in which Aptenodytes forsteri, or the emperor penguin, was differently scripted on board ship and in the museum...
March 1, 2018: Endeavour
Karimen León-Flández, Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada, María Ángeles Moya-Geromini, María José Bosqued-Estefanía, Lázaro López-Jurado, Javier Damián
OBJECTIVES: To analyse marketing techniques used in television advertisements of food and drinks (AFDs) directed to children, and their nutritional quality. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of television AFDs directed to children in Spain over 7 days in 2012. Primary appeal, persuasive and nutritional marketing techniques, and links to Internet were registered. The foods were classified according to their nutritional quality using an international codification system and the UK nutrient profile model...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Jessica Mao, Weiming Tang, Chuncheng Liu, Ngai Sze Wong, Songyuan Tang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sarah Abdi, Avanti Wadugodapitiya, Sandra Bedaf, Carolin Elizabeth George, Gift Norman, Mark Hawley, Luc de Witte
BACKGROUND: Urban slums are characterised by unique challenging living conditions, which increase their inhabitants' vulnerability to specific health conditions. The identification and prioritization of the key health issues occurring in these settings is essential for the development of programmes that aim to enhance the health of local slum communities effectively. As such, the present study sought to identify and prioritise the key health issues occurring in urban slums, with a focus on the perceptions of health professionals and community workers, in the rapidly growing city of Bangalore, India...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Bill McKelvey, Jeff Maxwell
A gifted scientist and a natural leader, Ian Cunningham was one of Scotland's pre-eminent biological scientists; he also directed and chaired a number of key research and educational organisations.
March 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
Rebecca L Franckle, Douglas E Levy, Lorena Macias-Navarro, Eric B Rimm, Anne N Thorndike
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages...
March 1, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Limin Fan, Kamira Barry, Leilei Shi, Chao Song, Shunlong Meng, Liping Qiu, Gengdong Hu, Yao Zheng, Fajun Li, Jiazhang Chen, Pao Xu
Archaea, like the bacterial communities are gradually being realized as key players in the biogeochemical progress of water ecosystems. In this study, tilapia aquaculture ponds were used for an in-depth understanding of archaeal community compositions in water and surface sediment. Some of the main functions, as well as the communities' response patterns, to time variations, pond differences and some physio-chemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed the dominant phylum in both the water and surface sediment, as Euryarchaeota, while, the most abundant classes were: Halobacteria and Methanomicrobia respectively...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Amit Arora, Narendar Manohar, Dina Bedros, Anh Phong David Hua, Steven Yu Hsiang You, Victoria Blight, Shilpi Ajwani, John Eastwood, Sameer Bhole
Background: Dental decay in early childhood can be prevented by a model based on shared care utilising members of primary care team such as Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs) in health promotion and early intervention. The aims of this study were to identify the facilitators and barriers faced by CFHNs in recruiting research participants from disadvantaged backgrounds to a birth cohort study in South Western Sydney, Australia. Methods: Child and Family Health Nurses recruited mothers-infants dyads ( n  = 1036) at the first post-natal home visit as part of Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids Study, an ongoing birth cohort study in South Western Sydney...
2018: BMC Nursing
Theresa Nutt
The purpose of this article is to explore health coaching as an effective intervention in times of health crisis for patients, families, and health-care staff. The pause that a health crisis creates in the activities of normal life allows for deeper questions about a person's life to emerge. Health coaching provides a safe space for clients to engage with these life questions while facilitating a connection with their sense of personal empowerment and innate inner wisdom. The result is a more meaningful and resilient life despite the outcome of the health crisis...
February 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
Ovi Chris Rouly
This article describes simulation research based on the Hamiltonian theory of gene-based altruism. It investigates the origin of semipermanent breeding bonds during hominin evolution. The research framework is based on a biologically detailed, ecologically situated, multi-agent microsimulation of emergent sociality. The research question tested is whether semipermanent breeding bonds (an emergent homoplastic social construct) might emerge among primate-like agents as the consequence of a mutation capable of supporting involuntary prosocial behavior...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
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