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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149519/early-executive-dysfunction-in-asd-simple-versus-complex-skills
#1
Nancy Garon, Isabel M Smith, Susan E Bryson
Despite the strong evidence of executive function (EF) impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), findings in the preschool period have been inconsistent. Whereas some research has supported an early deficit, many studies have not found early differences in EF. The present study assessed simple and complex components of three EF abilities: working memory, inhibition, and shifting, using a novel battery, the Preschool EF Battery (PEFB; Garon, Smith & Bryson, Child Neuropsychology, 20, 713-736, 2014). Previous research has indicated that the PEFB is sensitive to age differences in typically developing (TD) children aged 18-60 months...
November 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146117/implications-of-disturbances-in-circadian-rhythms-for-cardiovascular-health-a-new-frontier-in-free-radical-biology
#2
REVIEW
Neelam Khaper, Craig D C Bailey, Nilesh R Ghugre, Cristine Reitz, Zikra Awosanmi, Ryan Waines, Tami A Martino
Cell autonomous circadian "clock" mechanisms are present in virtually every organ, and generate daily rhythms that are important for normal physiology. This is especially relevant to the cardiovascular system, for example the circadian mechanism orchestrates rhythms in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac contractility, metabolism, gene and protein abundance over the 24-hour day and night cycles. Conversely, disturbing circadian rhythms (e.g. via shift work, sleep disorders) increases cardiovascular disease risk, and exacerbates cardiac remodelling and worsens outcome...
November 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141950/maternal-circadian-rhythms-and-the-programming-of-adult-health-and-disease
#4
Tamara Jayne Varcoe, Kathryn L Gatford, David J Kennaway
The in utero environment is inherently rhythmic, with the fetus subjected to circadian changes in temperature, substrates and various maternal hormones. Meanwhile, the fetus is developing an endogenous circadian timing system, preparing for life in an external environment where light, food availability and other environmental factors change predictably and repeatedly every 24 hours. In humans, there are many situations that can disrupt circadian rhythms, including shift work, international travel, insomnias and circadian rhythm disorders (e...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136219/mobidb-3-0-more-annotations-for-intrinsic-disorder-conformational-diversity-and-interactions-in-proteins
#5
Damiano Piovesan, Francesco Tabaro, Lisanna Paladin, Marco Necci, Ivan Micetic, Carlo Camilloni, Norman Davey, Zsuzsanna Dosztányi, Bálint Mészáros, Alexander M Monzon, Gustavo Parisi, Eva Schad, Pietro Sormanni, Peter Tompa, Michele Vendruscolo, Wim F Vranken, Silvio C E Tosatto
The MobiDB (URL: mobidb.bio.unipd.it) database of protein disorder and mobility annotations has been significantly updated and upgraded since its last major renewal in 2014. Several curated datasets for intrinsic disorder and folding upon binding have been integrated from specialized databases. The indirect evidence has also been expanded to better capture information available in the PDB, such as high temperature residues in X-ray structures and overall conformational diversity. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift data provides an additional experimental information layer on conformational dynamics...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121999/improving-adherence-in-mental-health-service-users-with-severe-mental-illness-in-south-africa-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-treatment-partner-and-text-message-intervention-vs-treatment-as-usual
#6
Goodman Sibeko, Henk Temmingh, Sumaya Mall, Peter Williams-Ashman, Graham Thornicroft, Ezra S Susser, Crick Lund, Dan J Stein, Peter D Milligan
OBJECTIVES: Medication non-adherence is a significant problem in treatment of severe mental disorders and is associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased demand on services. Task-shifting interventions incorporating mobile health may improve adherence in mental health service users in low- and middle-income countries. Seventy-seven participants were recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Cape Town, with 42 randomized to receive the intervention and 35 to treatment as usual. Intervention pairs underwent treatment-partner contracting and psychoeducation, and received monthly text message reminders of clinic appointments...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115823/an-overview-of-the-clinical-uses-pharmacology-and-safety-of-modafinil
#7
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, André Barciela Veras, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Henning Budde, Sérgio Machado
Modafinil (MOD) is a drug used for the management of excessive daytime sleepiness observed in several sleep disturbances such as shift work sleep disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome and narcolepsy. Additionally, a wide scope of medical uses of MOD have been described such as fatigue in subjects with depression as well as patients under chemotherapy. Moreover, there also appear to be a cognitive enhancer drug. In contrast, recent reports have indicated the risk of developing addiction to MOD...
November 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111575/can-bilingualism-mitigate-set-shifting-difficulties-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Ana Maria Gonzalez-Barrero, Aparna S Nadig
This study investigated the effects of bilingualism on set-shifting and working memory in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Bilinguals with ASD were predicted to display a specific bilingual advantage in set-shifting, but not working memory, relative to monolinguals with ASD. Forty 6- to 9-year-old children participated (20 ASD, 20 typically-developing). Set-shifting was measured using a computerized dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, and by parent report of executive functioning in daily life...
November 7, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107982/competitive-tuning-competition-s-role-in-setting-the-frequency-dependence-of-ca2-dependent-proteins
#9
Daniel R Romano, Matthew C Pharris, Neal M Patel, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
A number of neurological disorders arise from perturbations in biochemical signaling and protein complex formation within neurons. Normally, proteins form networks that when activated produce persistent changes in a synapse's molecular composition. In hippocampal neurons, calcium ion (Ca2+) flux through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors activates Ca2+/calmodulin signal transduction networks that either increase or decrease the strength of the neuronal synapse, phenomena known as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), respectively...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106438/the-neurocognitive-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-of-meta-analyses
#10
Michelle A Pievsky, Robert E McGrath
Objective: Numerous meta-analyses have summarized studies comparing the neurocognitive performance of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to that of healthy controls. Method: The present study is a systematic review and quantitative summary of those meta-analyses that aimed to determine the extent to which individuals with ADHD differ cognitively from typically developing controls. Results: Of 253 standardized mean differences (SMDs) drawn from 34 meta-analyses, 244 (96%) were positive, indicating better neurocognitive performance in the control group than the ADHD group...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094403/longitudinal-changes-in-lic-and-other-parameters-in-patients-receiving-different-chelation-regimens-data-from-licnet
#11
Angela Vitrano, Massimiliano Sacco, Rosamaria Rosso, Alessandra Quota, Daniela Fiorino, Esther Oliva, Calogera Gerardi, Gaetano Roccamo, Vincenzo Spadola, Aldo Filosa, Lorenzo Tesé, Giuseppina Calvaruso, Lorella Pitrolo, Laura Mistretta, Filippo Cassarà, Rosario Di Maggio, Aurelio Maggio
OBJECTIVES: The liver remains the primary site of iron storage, with liver iron concentration (LIC) being a strong surrogate of total body iron. MRI-R2 can accurately measure LIC. The LICNET (Liver Iron Cutino Net-work) was established to diagnostics of liver iron overload by MRI-R2 subjects with hemochromatosis in haematological disorders. The aims of the study were to look at variation of LIC measurements during time across different chelation regimens. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 130 patients attending 9 Italian centres participating in the LICNET...
November 1, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082906/sleep-quality-among-nurses-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-north-west-nigeria
#12
Ibrahim Aliyu, Zainab F Ibrahim, Lawal O Teslim, Helen Okhiwu, Igoche David Peter, Godpower Chinedu Michael
BACKGROUND: Sleep is a necessity; it is nourishing, refreshing and healing. The nursing profession is associated with busy and difficult work schedules, especially the running of shifts which has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a dearth of local data on sleep disorders, especially among nurses. In this study, we evaluated the quality of sleep and the tendency of daytime sleepiness among nurses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study was cross-sectional in nature involving 100 nurses working with Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State; the study was carried out between October 2016 and February 2017...
July 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080241/next-generation-sequencing-in-pediatric-hepatology-and-liver-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Emanuele Nicastro, Lorenzo D'Antiga
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the analysis of human genetic variations, offering a highly cost-effective way to diagnose monogenic diseases (MDs). Since nearly half of children with chronic liver disorders have a genetic cause and approximately 20% of pediatric liver transplants are performed in children with MDs, NGS offers the opportunity to significantly improve the diagnostic yield in this field. Among the NGS strategies, the use of targeted gene panels has proven useful to rapidly and reliably confirm a clinical suspicion, whereas the whole exome sequencing (WES) with variants filtering has been adopted to assist the diagnostic work up in unclear clinical scenarios...
October 28, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075206/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-insular-subregions-and-disrupted-correlation-with-working-memory-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Qihua Zhao, Hui Li, Xiaoyan Yu, Fang Huang, Yanfei Wang, Lu Liu, Qingjiu Cao, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Zang, Li Sun, Yufeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Executive function (EF) deficits are major impairments in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown that the insula is involved in cognitive and EFs. However, the insula is highly heterogeneous in function, and few studies have focused on functional networks which related to specific insular subregions in adults with ADHD. We explored the functional networks of the insular subregions [anterior insula (AI), mid-insula (MI), and posterior insula (PI)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#15
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057908/silencing-nfix-rescues-muscular-dystrophy-by-delaying-muscle-regeneration
#16
Giuliana Rossi, Chiara Bonfanti, Stefania Antonini, Mattia Bastoni, Stefania Monteverde, Anna Innocenzi, Marielle Saclier, Valentina Taglietti, Graziella Messina
Muscular dystrophies are severe disorders due to mutations in structural genes, and are characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, compromised patient mobility, and respiratory functions. Although previous works suggested enhancing regeneration and muscle mass as therapeutic strategies, these led to no long-term benefits in humans. Mice lacking the transcription factor Nfix have delayed regeneration and a shift toward an oxidative fiber type. Here, we show that ablating or silencing the transcription factor Nfix ameliorates pathology in several forms of muscular dystrophy...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057204/shift-work-disrupted-circadian-rhythms-and-sleep-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#17
Stephen M James, Kimberly A Honn, Shobhan Gaddameedhi, Hans P A Van Dongen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our 24/7 society is dependent on shift work, despite mounting evidence for negative health outcomes from sleep displacement due to shift work. This paper reviews short- and long-term health consequences of sleep displacement and circadian misalignment due to shift work. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on four broad health domains: metabolic health; risk of cancer; cardiovascular health; and mental health. Circadian misalignment affects these domains by inducing sleep deficiency, sympathovagal and hormonal imbalance, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, and dysregulated cell cycles...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048905/disentangling-bright-and-dark-interactions-in-ordered-assemblies-of-organic-semiconductors
#18
Peijian Wang, Michael D Barnes
We report on spatially correlated wavelength-resolved photoluminescence and Kelvin probe force microscopy to probe ground state charge-transfer coupling and its correlation with pi-stacking order in nanoscale assemblies of a small molecule n-type organic semiconductor, tetraazaterrylene (TAT). We find a distinct upshift in surface potential contrast (SPC) corresponding to a decrease in work function in TAT in the transition from disordered spun-cast films to ordered crystalline nanowire assemblies, accompanied by a nanowire size dependence in the SPC shift suggesting that the shift depends on both ground state charge transfer interaction and a size (volume)-dependent intrinsic doping associated with the nitrogen substitutions...
October 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046509/full-shift-assessment-of-back-and-head-postures-in-overhead-crane-operators-with-and-without-symptoms
#19
Maryam Nourollahi Darabad, Adel Mazloumi, Gabraeil Nasl Saraji, Davood Afshari, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged sitting with a flexed back and neck is recognized as being associated with an increased risk of neck and back pain disorders among overhead crane operators. The aim of this study was to compare back and head postures over a full shift of work between operators who experience back and neck pain, and healthy operators. METHODS: In a first phase, the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was assessed using the Nordic questionnaire among 120 crane operators...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043087/sleepiness-while-driving-and-shiftwork-patterns-among-korean-bus-drivers
#20
Seyoung Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, Junsu Byun, Taewon Jang
BACKGROUND: Sleepiness while driving has been regarded as a major cause of death due to traffic accidents. We compared the degree of sleepiness across five different working time periods (first, morning, post-lunch, afternoon, and last) among Korean bus drivers with different shift types (Daily two shift/Alternating day shift). METHOD: We interviewed 332 bus drivers with two shift types (Daily two shift, 128; Alternating day shift, 204). The questionnaire included demographic information (age, alcohol consumption and history of disease), a sleep disorder diagnosed by a doctor, job duration, the number of workdays in the past month, average working hours per workday and week, sleepiness while driving (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and sleeping time for both workdays and off-days...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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