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Shift work disorder

Bogdan I Voinescu
PURPOSE: A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. METHODS: A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Yanhua Ouyang, Likun Zhao, Zhuqing Zhang
Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) or proteins (IDPs), which play crucial biological functions in essential biological processes of life, do not have well-defined secondary or tertiary structures when isolated in solution. The highly dynamic properties and conformational heterogeneity of IDPs make them challenging to study with traditional experimental techniques. As a powerful complementary tool for experiments, all-atom molecular dynamics simulation can obtain detailed conformational information on IDPs, but the limitation of force field accuracy is a challenge for reproducing IDP conformers...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Michelle L Ratay, Stephen C Balmert, Ethan J Bassin, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is an ocular surface disease characterized by T-cell-mediated inflammation. Current therapeutics, such as immunosuppressive agents, act to suppress the clinical signs and inflammation. However, long-term usage of these treatments can cause severe side effects. In this study, we present an alternative therapeutic approach that utilizes a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to regulate transcription of a variety of immunomodulatory genes. Specifically, HDACi have emerged as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, which can modulate the functions of a subset of suppressive T lymphocytes known as regulatory T cells (Tregs), enhancing FoxP3 acetylation and subsequently guarding the transcription factor from proteasomal degradation...
March 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Audrey J Gaskins, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Jorge E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of sexual intercourse frequency (SIF) among couples trying to conceive despite the well-established link between SIF and fecundity. AIM: To evaluate men's and women's demographic, occupational, and lifestyle predictors of SIF among couples. METHODS: 469 Couples without a history of infertility participating in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (2005-2009) were followed up for ≤1 year while trying to conceive...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Judette M Louis, Matthew A Koch, Uma M Reddy, Robert M Silver, Corette B Parker, Francesca L Facco, Susan Redline, Chia-Ling Nhan-Chang, Judith H Chung, Grace W Pien, Robert C Basner, William A Grobman, Deborah A Wing, Hyagriv N Simhan, David M Haas, Brian M Mercer, Samuel Parry, Daniel Mobley, Benjamin Carper, George R Saade, Frank P Schubert, Phyllis C Zee
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in pregnancy, but there are limited data on predictors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop predictive models of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Nulliparous women completed validated questionnaires to assess for symptoms related to snoring, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The questionnaires included questions regarding the timing of sleep and sleep duration, work schedules (eg, shift work, night work), sleep positions, and previously diagnosed sleep disorders...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hui-Feng Zhang, Lan Shuai, Jin-Song Zhang, Yu-Feng Wang, Teng-Fei Lu, Xin Tan, Jing-Xue Pan, Li-Xiao Shen
Background: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. Methods: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
D Allan Butterfield
Oxidative stress, an overproduction of free radicals or a diminution of free radical scavenging ability relative to those of cognitively aged-matched controls, is widely recognized as a critical component of the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This recognition arose in significant part from the work in the author's laboratory, complemented by research from others' laboratories. The Butterfield laboratory discovered the oxidative stress associated with oligomeric amyloid-β peptide manifested primarily as elevated oxidative modification of proteins and peroxidation of lipids...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elizabeth Lin, Janet Durbin, Denise Guerriere, Tiziana Volpe, Avra Selick, Julia Kennedy, Wendy J Ungar, Donna S Lero
As mental health (MH) care has shifted from institutional settings to the community, families and friends are responsible for providing the majority of the care at home. The substantial literature on the adverse effects experienced by caregivers has focused mainly on psychological morbidity. Less attention has been paid to how caregivers for persons with MH disorders interact with larger social systems and the impacts of factors such as financial strain, lost time from leisure activities, and the availability of health and social services...
March 1, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Debora Rosa, Stefano Terzoni, Rosalba Lembo, Anne Destrebecq
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among nurses, as well as the organizational impact of work-related stress as a consequence of MS among nurses in Italy. To study the organizational models, turnover rates, and job satisfaction among nurses, in a sample of Italian healthcare facilities. BACKGROUND: MS is considered an important metabolic disorder in the modern world, responsible for diseases with economic effects on hospitals. Shift work (SW) seems to be a risk factor for MS, while the Mediterranean diet appears to be protective...
February 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Kristina Karstad, Anette F B Jørgensen, Birgit A Greiner, Alex Burdorf, Karen Søgaard, Reiner Rugulies, Andreas Holtermann
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. PARTICIPANTS: At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Yukari Mizukami, Ryota Hayashi, Daisuke Tsuruta, Yutaka Shimomura, Koji Sugawara
Autosomal recessive woolly hair is a relatively rare hereditary hair disorder characterized by sparse, short, curly hair. This condition is known to be caused by mutations in the LIPH gene, LPAR6 gene or KRT25 gene. In the Japanese population, most patients with autosomal recessive woolly hair carry one of two founder mutations in the LIPH gene, c.736T>A (p.Cys246Ser) or c.742C>A (p.His248Asn). However, occasionally, individuals with this condition carry compound heterozygous mutations, typically one founder mutation and another mutation...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
J Lee, K Ma, M Moulik, V Yechoor
Diabetes results from a loss of β-cell function. With the number of people with diabetes reaching epidemic proportions globally, understanding mechanisms that are contributing to this increasing prevalence is critical. One such factor has been circadian disruption, with shift-work, light pollution, jet-lag, increased screen time, all acting as potential contributory factors. Though circadian disruption has been epidemiologically associated with diabetes and other metabolic disorders for many decades, it is only recently that there has been a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Giovanni Dothel, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Emanuel Raschi, Giovanni Barbara, Fabrizio De Ponti
Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common disorder characterized by a complex pathophysiology hampering optimal targeted drug development. Recent advances in our understanding of key underlying mechanisms prompted novel therapeutics including novel pharmacological approaches. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest advancements in the pipeline of IBS-D drugs focusing on new pharmacological targets, efficacy and safety of medicinal products considering the recent harmonization of regulatory requirements by the FDA and the EMA...
February 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Sarah L Karalunas, Elizabeth Hawkey, Hanna Gustafsson, Meghan Miller, Marybeth Langhorst, Michaela Cordova, Damien Fair, Joel T Nigg
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly comorbid, share genetic liability, and often exhibit overlapping cognitive impairments. Clarification of shared and distinct cognitive effects while considering comorbid symptoms across disorders has been lacking. In the current study, children ages 7-15 years assigned to three diagnostic groups:ADHD (n = 509), ASD (n = 97), and controls (n = 301) completed measures spanning the cognitive domains of attention/arousal, working memory, set-shifting, inhibition, and response variability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Siri Waage, Ståle Pallesen, Bente Elisabeth Moen, Bjørn Bjorvatn
Insomnia and excessive sleepiness are among the most commonly reported sleep problems related to shift work. Sleep-related movement disorders have, however, received far less attention in relation to such work schedules. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between different shift work schedules and the prevalence of Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) in a large sample of Norwegian nurses. Our hypothesis was that shift working nurses would report higher prevalence of RLS/WED compared to day workers...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shawn Sternisha, Peilu Liu, Alan G Marshall, Brian G Miller
Human glucokinase (GCK) acts as the body's primary glucose sensor and plays a critical role in glucose homeostatic maintenance. Gain-of-function mutations in gck produce hyperactive enzyme variants that cause congenital hyperinsulinism. Prior biochemical and biophysical studies suggest that activated disease variants can be segregated into two mechanistically distinct classes, termed α-type and β-type. Steady-state viscosity variation studies indicate that the kcat values of wild-type GCK and an α-type variant are partially diffusion-limited, whereas the kcat value of a β-type variant is viscosity-independent...
February 9, 2018: Biochemistry
Samantha Brooks, R Amlôt, G J Rubin, N Greenberg
As disasters become increasingly prevalent, and reported on, a wealth of literature on post-disaster mental health has been published. Most published evidence focuses on symptoms of mental health problems (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety) and psychosocial factors increasing the risk of such symptoms. However, a recent shift in the literature has moved to exploring resilience and the absence of adverse lasting mental health effects following a disaster. This paper undertakes a qualitative review of the literature to explore factors affecting psychological resilience, as well as the potential positive impact of experiencing a disaster (post-traumatic growth) by examining the literature on employees in disaster-exposed organisations...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Konstantinos Tsaras, Ioanna V Papathanasiou, Viktor Vus, Antigoni Panagiotopoulou, Maria Alexandra Katsou, Martha Kelesi, Evangelos C Fradelos
Introduction: The nursing profession is characterized as one of the most stressful and emotional dementing professions. It is widely agreed that many nurses are experiencing anxiety and depression as a results of their profession. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among mental health nurses working in public psychiatric hospitals, in order to identify independent predictors of mental health disorders risk...
February 2018: Medical Archives
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