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Circadian disorder

Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Jodi R Paul, Hira A Munir, Thomas van Groen, Karen L Gamble
Disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly reported in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurons in the primary circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), exhibit daily rhythms in spontaneous neuronal activity which are important for maintaining circadian behavioral rhythms. Disruption of SCN neuronal activity has been reported in animal models of other neurodegenerative disorders; however, the effect of AD on SCN neurophysiology remains unknown. In this study we examined circadian behavioral and electrophysiological changes in a mouse model of AD, using male mice from the Tg-SwDI line which expresses human amyloid precursor protein with the familial Swedish (K670N/M671L), Dutch (E693Q), Iowa (D694N) mutations...
March 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Farid Talih, Nour Y Gebara, Farah S Andary, Stefania Mondello, Firas Kobeissy, Raffaele Ferri
Circadian rhythm disturbances are common in bipolar affective disorder (BD). Delayed sleep-wake phase syndrome (DSWPD) is the most prevalent circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWDs) and is frequently observed in BD. It is unclear whether DSWPD in BD is an independent process or is a consequence of BD. In this hypothetical review, we discuss the overlap between BD and DSWPD and potential common biomarkers for DSWPD and BD. The review will include a discussion of the genetics of DSWPD and BD. Biomarkers elucidating the pathophysiological processes occurring in these two disorders may offer insight into the etiology and prognosis of both conditions...
February 13, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Michael M Farag, Nevine S Abd El Malak, Soad A Yehia
The aim of this study was to develop a novel buccal bi-layered chronopatch capable of eliciting pulsatile release pattern of drugs treating diseases with circadian rhythm related manifestation. Zaleplon (ZLP) was used as a model drug intended to induce sleep and to treat middle of night insomnia. The chronopatch was prepared adopting double casting technique. The first layer was composed of a controlled release patch containing ZLP-Precirol melt granules intended to release ZLP in a sustained manner to maintain sleep and to prevent early morning awakening...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Fuyuki Sato, Akira Kohsaka, Ujjal K Bhawal, Yasuteru Muragaki
The daily rhythm of mammalian energy metabolism is subject to the circadian clock system, which is made up of the molecular clock machinery residing in nearly all cells throughout the body. The clock genes have been revealed not only to form the molecular clock but also to function as a mediator that regulates both circadian and metabolic functions. While the circadian signals generated by clock genes produce metabolic rhythms, clock gene function is tightly coupled to fundamental metabolic processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Rosa Estrada-Reyes, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Jesús Argueta, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Daniel Quero-Chávez, Ricardo Cruz-Garduño, Montserrat G Cercós, Citlali Trueta, Julián Oikawa-Sala, Margarita L Dubocovich, Gloria Benítez-King
Mood disorders are a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by changes in the emotional state. In particular, major depressive disorder is expected to have a worldwide prevalence of 20% in 2020, representing a huge socioeconomic burden. Currently used antidepressant drugs have poor efficacy with only 30% of the patients getting in remission after the first-line of treatment. Importantly, mood disorder patients present uncoupling of circadian rhythms. In this regard, melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) an indolamine synthesized by the pineal gland during the night, contributes to synchronize body rhythms with the environmental light/dark cycle...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Saif Mashaqi, Jill Hennessy, Matthew Eaton, Joel Erickson
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by specific facial, skeletal, and behavioral features associated with variable degrees of intellectual disabilities. Sleep disturbances have been reported in patients with CdLS including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, intrinsic sleep disorders, and circadian rhythm disorders. The prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders, in particular, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), was conducted using validated questionnaires. We report the first case of CdLS that confirmed a moderate to severe degree of OSA using overnight polysomnography, which is the gold standard diagnostic test for OSA...
December 28, 2017: Curēus
Jacob Itzhacki, Bart H W Te Lindert, Wisse P van der Meijden, Morten L Kringelbach, Jorge Mendoza, Eus J W Van Someren
Several studies demonstrated effects of light on affect via projections from the retina of the eye to the circadian clock or via projections to areas involved in mood and reward. Few field studies investigated how naturally fluctuating light levels affect positive and negative mood in everyday life, but none addressed two key components of the reward system: wanting and liking. To elucidate diurnal profiles and immediate effects of dynamically changing light intensity in everyday life, subjective wanting and liking were assessed using experience sampling, while continuously monitoring environmental illuminance...
March 5, 2018: Emotion
Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Guoyuan Qi, Rui Guo, Haoyu Tian, Lixia Li, Hua Liu, Yashi Mi, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: Circadian clock plays a principal role in orchestrating our daily physiology and metabolism, and their perturbation can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and insulin resistance. Nobiletin (NOB) has been demonstrated to possess antitumor and neuroprotective activities. The objective of the current study is to determine potential effects of NOB on modulating the core clock gene Bmal1 regarding ameliorating glucolipid metabolic disorders. RESULTS: Our results revealed that NOB partially reverse the relatively shallow daily oscillations of circadian clock genes and reset phase-shifting circadian rhythms in primary hepatocytes under metabolic disorders conditions...
February 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, René Zeiss, Albrecht Fröhlich
OBJECTIVE:  Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs...
March 2, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
The quality of postmortem research depends strongly on a thorough clinical investigation and documentation of the patient's disorder and therapies. In addition, a systematic and professional neuropathologic investigation of both cases and controls is absolutely crucial. In the experience of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), about 20% of clinical neurologic diagnoses, despite being made in first-rate clinics, have to be revised or require an extra diagnosis after a complete and thorough review by the NBB. The neuropathology examination may reveal for instance that the "controls" already have preclinical neurodegenerative alterations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kathleen Sullivan, Harry Pantazopoulos, Elizabeth Liebson, T-U W Woo, Ross J Baldessarini, John Hedreen, Sabina Berretta
Postmortem studies on the human brain reside at the core of investigations on neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Ground-breaking advances continue to be made on the pathologic basis of many of these disorders, at molecular, cellular, and neural connectivity levels. In parallel, there is increasing emphasis on improving methods to extract relevant demographic and clinical information about brain donors and, importantly, translate it into measures that can reliably and effectively be incorporated in the design and data analysis of postmortem human investigations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Filomena Altieri, Elisa Maria Turco, Ersilia Vinci, Barbara Torres, Daniela Ferrari, Antonella De Jaco, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Giuseppe Lamorte, Annamaria Nardone, Matteo Della Monica, Laura Bernardini, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Jessica Rosati
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by developmental delay, behavioural problems and circadian rhythm dysregulation. About 90% of SMS cases are due to a 17p11.2 deletion containing retinoic acid induced1 (RAI1) gene, 10% are due to heterozygous mutations affecting RAI1 coding region. Little is known about RAI1 role.
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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