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Plateau pressure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338990/frequency-of-polycythemia-and-other-abnormalities-in-a-tibetan-herdsmen-population-residing-in-the-kham-area-of-sichuan-province-china
#1
Jian-Bo Zhang, Lin Wang, Jie Chen, Zhi-Ying Wang, Mei Cao, Shang-Mian Yie, Hua Yang, Xiao-Qin Yao, Yi Zeng, Yong-Chang Yang, Chun-Bao Xie, Tai-Qiang Zhao
INTRODUCTION: The Kham Tibetans are one of several Tibetan ethnic subgroups living in the Kham area of China. Because studies on the high-altitude adaptation of the Kham people are scant, the main aim of this study is to investigate whether the response to hypoxia, especially polycythemia status, in the Kham Tibetans is different from other Tibetan ethnic subgroups. METHODS: The primary investigation was conducted on 346 native Kham Tibetan adults (268 men and 78 women) from 3 herdsmen villages located in Hongyuan County situated at an altitude of greater than 3600 m...
January 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336201/poor-motor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-anxiety-model-mice-with-phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-type-1-knockout
#2
Taku Fujita, Gentaro Kumagai, Xizhe Liu, Kanichiro Wada, Toshihiro Tanaka, Hitoshi Kudo, Toru Asari, Tatsuhiro Fukutoku, Ayako Sasaki, Yohshiro Nitobe, Yoshikazu Nikaido, Ken-Ichi Furukawa, Masato Hirata, Takashi Kanematsu, Shinya Ueno, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
Mice with a knockout of phospholipase C (PLC)-related inactive protein type 1 (PRIP1-/- mice) display anxiety-like behavior and altered GABAA-receptor pharmacology. Here we examined associations between anxiety and motor-function recovery in PRIP1-/- mice after a spinal-cord injury (SCI) induced by a moderate contusion injury at the 10th thoracic level. Uninjured PRIP1-/- mice spent less distance than wild-type (WT) mice in the center 25% in an open field test (OFT), indicating anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety behavior increased in both WT and PRIP1-/- mice after SCI...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329250/blood-flow-and-continuous-eeg-changes-during-symptomatic-plateau-waves
#3
Natalie Kreitzer, Maggie Huynh, Brandon Foreman
Benign meningiomas uncommonly lead to significant cerebral edema, with only a few cases previously reported in the medical literature. The present study describes the case of a 49-year-old female who had a meningioma resection. She subsequently developed malignant cerebral edema and had episodes that were initially concerning for seizure activity. However, transient blood flow changes concerning for intracranial pressure (ICP) crises, were demonstrated on electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as noninvasive cerebral blood flow monitoring...
January 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323931/esophageal-manometry-and-regional-transpulmonary-pressure-in-lung-injury
#4
Takeshi Yoshida, Marcelo B P Amato, Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Cristhiano A S Lima, Rollin Roldan, Caio C A Morais, Susimeire Gomes, Eduardo L V Costa, Paulo F G Cardoso, Emmanuel Charbonney, Jean-Christophe M Richard, Laurent Brochard, Brian P Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Esophageal manometry is the clinically available method to estimate pleural pressure, thus enabling calculation of the transpulmonary pressure (PL). However, many concerns make uncertain in which lung region esophageal manometry reflects local PL. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of esophageal pressure (Pes) and in which regions esophageal manometry reflects Ppl and PL; to assess whether lung stress in non-dependent regions can be estimated at end-inspiration from PL...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311754/correlation-between-cerebral-hemodynamic-and-perfusion-pressure-changes-in-non-human-primates
#5
A Ruesch, M A Smith, G Wollstein, I A Sigal, S Nelson, J M Kainerstorfer
The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral autoregulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and the oxygen supply might be unstable...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279363/lack-of-benefit-of-heliox-during-mechanical-ventilation-of-subjects-with-severe-air-flow-obstruction
#6
James W Leatherman, Ramiro Saavedra Romero, Robert S Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The value of heliox (helium-oxygen mixture) for patients with severe air-flow obstruction is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heliox could reduce the degree of hyperinflation and hypercapnia in mechanically ventilated patients with severe air-flow obstruction. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective observational study conducted in a medical ICU of an academic medical center. We assessed the impact of heliox (65-70% helium, 30-35% oxygen) on airway pressures and arterial blood gases of 13 subjects undergoing mechanical ventilation for severe asthma (n = 8) or exacerbation of COPD (n = 5)...
December 26, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277725/a-hybrid-approach-to-predict-the-relationship-between-tablet-tensile-strength-and-compaction-pressure-using-analytical-powder-compression
#7
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Alderborn
The objective was to present a hybrid approach to predict the strength-pressure relationship (SPR) of tablets using common compression parameters and a single measurement of tablet tensile strength. Experimental SPR were derived for six pharmaceutical powders with brittle and ductile properties and compared to predicted SPR based on a three-stage approach. The prediction was based on the Kawakita b-1 parameter and the in-die Heckel yield stress, an estimate of maximal tensile strength, and a parameter proportionality factor α...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273712/lack-of-acclimatization-to-chronic-hypoxia-in-humans-in-the-antarctica
#8
Simone Porcelli, Mauro Marzorati, Beth Healey, Laura Terraneo, Alessandra Vezzoli, Silvia Della Bella, Roberto Dicasillati, Michele Samaja
The study was carried out at Concordia Station (Antarctic Plateau). The aim was to investigate the respiratory and haematological responses to hypoxia in healthy subjects living at constant altitude. Thirteen men and women (34.1 ± 3.1 years) were exposed for 10 months to hypobaric hypoxia (oxygen level equivalent to 3800 m asl). These unique conditions enable a greater accuracy of monitoring human responses to chronic hypoxia than can be achieved elsewhere. Blood haemoglobin and erythropoietin concentrations were determined at sea level (Pre), and after 3, 7, 20, 90 and 300 days at altitude...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251669/non-invasive-assessment-of-intra-abdominal-pressure-using-ultrasound-guided-tonometry-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Andreas Bloch, Michael Glas, Andreas Kohler, Ulrich Baumann, Stephan M Jakob
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal hypertension jeopardizes abdominal organ perfusion and venous return. Contemporary recognition of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) plays a crucial role in reducing mortality and morbidity. We evaluated ultrasound guided tonometry in this context hypothesizing that the vertical chamber diameter of this device inversely correlates with intra-abdominal pressure. METHODS: IAP was increased in six 5 mmHg steps to 40 mmHg by instillation of normal saline into the peritoneal cavity of eight anesthetized pigs...
December 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248848/the-coupled-effects-of-crouch-gait-and-patella-alta-on-tibiofemoral-and-patellofemoral-cartilage-loading-in-children
#10
Scott C E Brandon, Darryl G Thelen, Colin R Smith, Tom F Novacheck, Michael H Schwartz, Rachel L Lenhart
BACKGROUND: Elevated tibiofemoral and patellofemoral loading in children who exhibit crouch gait may contribute to skeletal deformities, pain, and cessation of walking ability. Surgical procedures used to treat crouch frequently correct knee extensor insufficiency by advancing the patella. However, there is little quantitative understanding of how the magnitudes of crouch and patellofemoral correction affect cartilage loading in gait. METHODS: We used a computational musculoskeletal model to simulate the gait of twenty typically developing children and fifteen cerebral palsy patients who exhibited mild, moderate, and severe crouch...
December 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246809/adaptive-evolution-of-interferon-regulatory-factors-is-not-correlated-with-body-scale-reduction-or-loss-in-schizothoracine-fish
#11
Delin Qi, Yan Chao, Jian Liang, Qiang Gao, Rongrong Wu, Ian Mather, Yongli Zhao, Qichang Chen
Body scales in teleost fish are the first line of defense in protecting the fish from invading pathogens. However, the relationship between the adaptive evolution of immune-related genes and changes in the body scale-covering of fish has not been previously studied. Schizothoracine fish, characterized by progressive reduction of body scales from the primitive to the highly specialized species, are a good group to investigate this relationship. We obtained 11 IRF genes (IRF1-11) from 14 of schizothoracine fish representing primitive, specialized, and highly specialized species, of which seven IRF genes (IRF2, IRF3, IRF5, IRF6, IRF7, IRF8 and IRF9) contained the complete CDS...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218379/a-prospective-international-observational-prevalence-study-on-prone-positioning-of-ards-patients-the-apronet-ards-prone-position-network-study
#12
C Guérin, P Beuret, J M Constantin, G Bellani, P Garcia-Olivares, O Roca, J H Meertens, P Azevedo Maia, T Becher, J Peterson, A Larsson, M Gurjar, Z Hajjej, F Kovari, A H Assiri, E Mainas, M S Hasan, D R Morocho-Tutillo, L Baboi, J M Chrétien, G François, L Ayzac, L Chen, L Brochard, A Mercat
INTRODUCTION: While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary endpoint), the physiological effects of PP, and the reasons for not using it (secondary endpoints). METHODS: The APRONET study was a prospective international 1-day prevalence study performed four times in April, July, and October 2016 and January 2017...
December 7, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212405/a-description-of-a-new-continuous-physiologic-index-in-tbi-using-the-correlation-between-pulse-amplitude-of-icp-and-cerebral-perfusion-pressure
#13
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, David Menon, Peter Smieleweski, Peter John Hutchinson, Marek Czosnyka
To describe a new continuous index of physiologic measurement in a TBI population, the moving correlation coefficient between intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse amplitude (AMP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which we refer to as RAC. We use patient examples of sustained intracranial hypertension, systemic arterial hypotension and plateau waves, as well as the retrospective analysis of 358 non-decompressive craniectomy (DC) traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with high frequency ICP and ABP data, to explore the relationships of this new index, RAC, with AMP, ICP, CPP, RAP, pressure reactivity index (PRx) and pulse amplitude index (PAx)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212078/the-mechanism-and-representation-of-korean-three-way-phonation-contrast-external-photoglottography-intra-oral-air-pressure-airflow-and-acoustic-data
#14
Hyunsoon Kim, Shinji Maeda, Kiyoshi Honda, Lise Crevier-Buchman
This paper aims to refine our understanding of the speech mechanism and laryngeal features involved in the Korean lenis (/p t k/), aspirated (/ph th kh/), and fortis (/p' t' k'/) plosives. For this purpose we made measurements using a new noninvasive technique called external lighting and sensing photoglottography (ePGG) as well as intra-oral air pressure (Pio) above the glottis, airflow, and acoustic data. From simultaneous recordings of the experimental data, we were ableto quantify the laryngeal-oral coordination of glottal opening and a consonant release, and the covariance of airflow peak and duration of aspiration with glottal opening...
December 5, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211013/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-tolerability-and-food-effect-of-cenerimod-a-selective-s1p%C3%A2-receptor-modulator-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Pierre-Eric Juif, Daniela Baldoni, Maribel Reyes, Darren Wilbraham, Salvatore Febbraro, Andrea Vaclavkova, Matthias Hoch, Jasper Dingemanse
The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, and food effect of cenerimod, a potent sphingosine-1-phosphate subtype 1 receptor modulator, were investigated in three sub-studies. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised studies in healthy male subjects were performed. Cenerimod was administered either as single dose (1, 3, 10 or 25 mg; Study 1) or once daily for 35 days (0.5, 1, 2 or 4 mg; Study 2). A two-period cross-over, open-label study was performed to assess the food effect (1 mg, Study 3)...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210790/management-of-1-lung-ventilation-variation-and-trends-in-clinical-practice-a-report-from-the-multicenter-perioperative-outcomes-group
#16
Douglas A Colquhoun, Bhiken I Naik, Marcel E Durieux, Amy M Shanks, Sachin Kheterpal, S Patrick Bender, Randal S Blank
BACKGROUND: Lung-protective ventilation (LPV) has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes in surgical patients. There are very limited data on the current use of LPV for patients undergoing 1-lung ventilation (1LV) despite evidence that 1LV may be a particularly important setting for its use. In this multicenter study, we report trends in ventilation practice for patients undergoing 1LV. METHODS: The Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database was used to identify patients undergoing 1LV...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199750/high-pressure-glass-formation-of-a-series-of-1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-imide-homologues
#17
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Takahiro Takekiyo, Yoshihiro Koyama, Mayumi Takaku, Misaho Yamamura, Natsumi Kikuchi, Daisuke Wakabayashi, Nobumasa Funamori, Kiyoto Matsuishi, Hiroshi Abe, Nozomu Hamaya
We investigated the stability of the liquid phase of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][TFSI]) homologues with different alkyl chain lengths for 3 ≤ n ≤ 10 at room temperature. We found that all [Cnmim][TFSI] samples (n = 3-10) formed a glassy state when pressure was applied. Intriguingly, the glass transition pressure (pg) slightly increases up to n = 5, reaches a plateau at n ≧ 8, and increases again at n = 10. This is completely different from the high-pressure glass formation of [Cnmim][BF4], where the pg decreases as n increases...
December 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189543/acute-angle-closure-glaucoma-associated-with-aripiprazole-in-the-setting-of-plateau-iris-configuration
#18
Elizabeth Shen, Sarah Farukhi, Mason Schmutz, Sameh Mosaed
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To report a novel case of drug-induced angle-closure from aripiprazole (Abilify), an atypical antipsychotic, and propose a mechanism for this association. METHODS/RESULTS: We report a case of a 45 year-old Caucasian woman who presented in subacute angle closure two months after initiating aripiprazole 5 mg daily for depression. This patient reported no prior ocular history and had been on longstanding duloxetine (Cymbalta) 60 mg daily for over ten years prior to starting aripiprazole...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189269/comparison-of-transcranial-doppler-and-ultrasound-tagged-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-measuring-relative-changes-in-cerebral-blood-flow-in-human-subjects
#19
Michael S Lipnick, Elizabeth A Cahill, John R Feiner, Philip E Bickler
BACKGROUND: Currently, no reliable method exists for continuous, noninvasive measurements of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). We sought to determine how changes measured by ultrasound-tagged near-infrared spectroscopy (UT-NIRS) compare with changes in CBF as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) in healthy volunteers during profound hypocapnia and hypercapnia. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were monitored with a combination of TCD, UT-NIRS (c-FLOW, Ornim Medical), as well as heart rate, blood pressure, end-tidal PCO2 (PEtCO2), end-tidal O2, and inspired O2...
November 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185451/greenhouse-gases-emissions-in-rivers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#20
Bin Qu, Kelly Sue Aho, Chaoliu Li, Shichang Kang, Mika Sillanpää, Fangping Yan, Peter A Raymond
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO2, CH4 and N2O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2), pCH4 and pN2O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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