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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528537/intraoperative-mechanical-ventilation-state-of-the-art
#1
Lorenzo Ball, Federico Costantino, Giulia Orefice, Karthikka Chandrapatham, Paolo Pelosi
Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass...
May 19, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515455/comparative-genomic-analysis-reveals-the-environmental-impacts-on-two-arcticibacter-strains-including-sixteen-sphingobacteriaceae-species
#2
Liang Shen, Yongqin Liu, Baiqing Xu, Ninglian Wang, Huabiao Zhao, Xiaobo Liu, Fei Liu
How the genomic diversity of species is driven by geographical isolation and environmental factors are not well understood for cold environments. Here, the environmental stress responses of two phylogenetically close Arcticibacter strains, A. eurypsychrophilus MJ9-5 and A. svalbardensis MN12-7, isolated from a Tibetan Plateau glacier and Svalbard soil, were analyzed. The comparative genomic analysis was performed with sixteen other related Sphingobacteriaceae species. Analyses of the relationships between growth temperature and genome composition, cold and heat shock genes showed that genomic adaption characteristics were more obvious when the strains were grouped by their upper limit in growth temperature, rather than by their minimal or optimal growth temperatures for Sphingobacteriaceae species...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503309/are-there-two-forms-of-isometric-muscle-action-results-of-the-experimental-study-support-a-distinction-between-a-holding-and-a-pushing-isometric-muscle-function
#3
Laura V Schaefer, Frank N Bittmann
BACKGROUND: In isometric muscle function, there are subjectively two different modes of performance: one can either hold isometrically - thus resist an impacting force - or push isometrically - therefore work against a stable resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not two different isometric muscle actions - the holding vs. pushing one (HIMA vs PIMA) - can be distinguished by objective parameters. METHODS: Ten subjects performed two different measuring modes at 80% of MVC realized by a special pneumatic system...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501324/using-a-new-plateau-hyperbaric-chamber-to-alleviate-high-altitude-hypoxia-rabbit-and-human-studies
#4
Liang Sun, Meng-Jiang Ding, Tian-Cai Cai, Hao-Jun Fan, Hong-Mei Gao, Jian-Peng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To validate the effects of the new plateau hyperbaric chamber on alleviating high altitude hypoxia on Mount Kun Lun. METHODS: A prospective, controlled study of rabbits and adult volunteers was conducted at altitudes of 355, 2880 and 4532m. We obtained arterial blood samples from rabbits and volunteers before and after hyperbaric treatment. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) of adult volunteers were monitored during hyperbaric treatment...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500796/high-density-genotyping-of-the-a-e-watkins-collection-of-hexaploid-landraces-identifies-a-large-molecular-diversity-compared-to-elite-bread-wheat
#5
Mark O Winfield, Alexandra M Allen, Paul A Wilkinson, Amanda J Burridge, Gary L A Barker, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Luzie U Wingen, Simon Griffiths, Keith J Edwards
The importance of wheat as a food crop makes it a major target for agricultural improvements. As one of the most widely grown cereal grains, together with maize and rice, wheat is the leading provider of calories in the global diet, constituting 29% of global cereal production in 2015. In the last few decades, however, yields have plateaued, suggesting that the green revolution, at least for wheat, might have run its course and that new sources of genetic variation are urgently required. The overall aim of our work is to identify novel variation that may then be used to enable the breeding process...
May 13, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499040/evolving-gene-banks-improving-diverse-populations-of-crop-and-exotic-germplasm-with-optimal-contribution-selection
#6
W A Cowling, L Li, K H M Siddique, M Henryon, P Berg, R G Banks, B P Kinghorn
We simulated pre-breeding in evolving gene banks - populations of exotic and crop types undergoing optimal contribution selection for long-term genetic gain and management of population genetic diversity. The founder population was based on crosses between elite crop varieties and exotic lines of field pea (Pisum sativum) from the primary genepool, and was subjected to 30 cycles of recurrent selection for an economic index composed of four traits with low heritability: black spot resistance, flowering time and stem strength (measured on single plants), and grain yield (measured on whole plots)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479952/meeting-usdhhs-physical-activity-guidelines-and-health-outcomes
#7
E Earlynn Lauer, Allen W Jackson, Scott B Martin, James R Morrow
Current public health physical activity (PA) guidelines suggest ≥500 METmin/week of PA, with additional benefits beyond 1000 METmin/week (i.e., a dose response). Revised U.S. PA guidelines are scheduled for 2018. The purpose was to relate health markers (blood pressure, percent fat, BMI, blood glucose, cholesterol, and cardiorespiratory fitness) to verify the dose response for PA guidelines revision. 505 non-smoking participants self-reported PA behaviors and completed medical screening. MANCOVA controlling for age and gender determined the relation between health markers and PA...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479051/asymmetry-in-gait-pattern-following-bicondylar-tibial-plateau-fractures-a-prospective-one-year-cohort-study
#8
Rasmus Elsoe, Peter Larsen
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating outcomes following tibial plateau fractures, the literature lacks studies including the objective assessment of gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate asymmetry in gait patterns at 12 months after frame removal following ring fixation of a tibial plateau fracture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns 12 months after frame removal measured with a pressure-sensitive mat...
April 27, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477076/response-of-women-using-oral-contraception-to-exercise-in-the-heat
#9
Clare Minahan, Marina Melnikoff, Karlee Quinn, Brianna Larsen
PURPOSE: To compare the response of long-term oral contraceptive users (WomenOC; n = 8) to naturally menstruating women (WomenNM; n = 8) at rest and during exercise in temperate (TEMP; 22 °C) and hot (HEAT; 35 °C) conditions. METHODS: Participants performed a three-stage cycling trial in each condition at 90, 135, and 180% of lactate threshold 1 (total = 52.5 min). Heart rate (HR) and core temperature (T c) were recorded continuously, whereas blood pressure (BP), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate [La(-)], and skin blood flow (BFsk) were recorded every 7...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473615/ten-days-of-repeated-local-forearm-heating-does-not-affect-cutaneous-vascular-function
#10
Michael A Francisco, Vienna E Brunt, Krista Nicole Jensen, Santiago Lorenzo, Christopher Todd Minson
The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating was capable of inducing peripheral adaptations to the cutaneous vasculature, and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine if repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. METHODS: Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of one-hour forearm exposures to 42°C water, or 32°C (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin (N=14 young, recreationally-active subjects)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459336/an-official-american-thoracic-society-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-society-of-critical-care-medicine-clinical-practice-guideline-mechanical-ventilation-in-adult-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#11
Eddy Fan, Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Ewan C Goligher, Carol L Hodgson, Laveena Munshi, Allan J Walkey, Neill K J Adhikari, Marcelo B P Amato, Richard Branson, Roy G Brower, Niall D Ferguson, Ognjen Gajic, Luciano Gattinoni, Dean Hess, Jordi Mancebo, Maureen O Meade, Daniel F McAuley, Antonio Pesenti, V Marco Ranieri, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Eileen Rubin, Maureen Seckel, Arthur S Slutsky, Daniel Talmor, B Taylor Thompson, Hannah Wunsch, Elizabeth Uleryk, Jan Brozek, Laurent J Brochard
BACKGROUND: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the use of mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel conducted systematic reviews and metaanalyses of the relevant research and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations. RESULTS: For all patients with ARDS, the recommendation is strong for mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volumes (4-8 ml/kg predicted body weight) and lower inspiratory pressures (plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O) (moderate confidence in effect estimates)...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452822/a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial-on-the-effects-of-a-valveless-trocar-on-respiratory-mechanics-during-robotic-radical-cystectomy-a-pilot-study
#12
Marco Covotta, Claudia Claroni, Giulia Torregiani, Alessia Naccarato, Susanna Tribuzi, Antonio Zinilli, Ester Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning for robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) are essential for optimizing visualization of the operative field, although they worsen hemodynamic and respiratory function. Our hypothesis is that the use of a valveless trocar (VT) may improve respiratory mechanics. METHODS: In this prospective, 2-arm parallel trial, patients ASA II to III undergoing RARC were randomly assigned into 2 groups: in the VT group, the capnoperitoneum was maintained with a VT; in the control group, the capnoperitoneum was maintained with a standard trocar (ST group)...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440643/field-calibration-of-xad-based-passive-air-sampler-on-the-tibetan-plateau-wind-influence-and-configuration-improvement
#13
Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Xiande Liu, Frank Wania
The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) has proven useful for collecting atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote regions. Whereas laboratory studies have shown that, due to the open bottom of its housing, the passive sampling rate (PSR) of the XAD-PAS is susceptible to wind and other processes causing air turbulence, the sampler has not been calibrated in the field at sites experiencing high winds. In this study, the PSRs of the XAD-PAS were calibrated at three sites on the Tibetan Plateau, covering a wide range in temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (v)...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415297/toroidal-droplet-instabilities-in-the-presence-of-charge
#14
Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Alberto Fernández-Nieves
Neutral toroidal droplets can break via the surface-tension-driven Rayleigh-Plateau instability. They can additionally exhibit a shrinking instability, which is also driven by surface tension, whereby the handle progressively disappears. We find that charging a toroidal droplet can qualitatively change the behavior and cause the droplet to expand. We successfully model the transition from shrinking to expanding, considering the pressure balance across the interface of the torus. However, despite the change in behavior, charged toroidal droplets end up breaking into spherical droplets...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403594/the-effect-of-surgical-technique-on-hemodynamics-arterial-oxygenation-and-pulmonary-mechanics-in-radical-prostatectomy-operations
#15
Yucel Yuce, Kutlu Hakan Erkal, Cemal Goktas, Bilal Eryildirim, Kemal Sarica
OBJECTIVE: The effects of surgical technique on respiratory mechanics, arterial oxygenation and hemodynamics in radical prostatectomy operation were investigated. METHODS: The study was planned on ASA II-III, 40-65 years old, fourty patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups: perineal and suprapubic (Group P, n = 20; Group S, n = 20). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PEtCO2), Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), plato pressure (Pplato), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) values were evaluated at 10 minutes after induction...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403406/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-two-commonly-used-two-handed-mask-ventilation-techniques-on-unconscious-apnoeic-obese-adults
#16
M Fei, J L Blair, M J Rice, D A Edwards, Y Liang, M A Pilla, M S Shotwell, Y Jiang
Background.: Mask ventilation and tracheal intubation are basic techniques for airway management and mutually inclusive rescue measures to restore ventilation. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mask ventilation between two commonly used techniques of two-handed mask ventilation in obese unconscious apnoeic adults. Methods.: Eighty-one obese adults received mask ventilation after induction using C-E clamp and modified V-E clamp techniques in a randomized crossover manner...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372575/implementing-a-bedside-assessment-of-respiratory-mechanics-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Lu Chen, Guang-Qiang Chen, Kevin Shore, Orest Shklar, Concetta Martins, Brian Devenyi, Paul Lindsay, Heather McPhail, Ashley Lanys, Ibrahim Soliman, Mazin Tuma, Michael Kim, Kerri Porretta, Pamela Greco, Hilary Every, Chris Hayes, Andrew Baker, Jan O Friedrich, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential interest for clinical management, measurements of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are seldom performed in routine practice. We introduced a systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in our clinical practice. After the first year of clinical use, we retrospectively assessed whether these measurements had any influence on clinical management and physiological parameters associated with clinical outcomes by comparing their value before and after performing the test...
April 4, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372128/relations-among-subglottal-pressure-breathing-and-acoustic-parameters-of-sentence-level-prominence-in-german
#18
Caterina Petrone, Susanne Fuchs, Laura L Koenig
This study investigates whether acoustic correlates of prominence are related to actions of the respiratory system resulting in local changes of subglottal pressure (Psub). Simultaneous recordings were made of acoustics; intraoral pressure (Pio), as an estimate of Psub; and thoracic and abdominal volume changes. Ten German speakers read sentences containing a verb ending with /t/ followed by a noun starting with /t/. These /t#t/ sequences were typically realized as one /t:/ with a long intraoral pressure plateau...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356182/the-efficacy-of-low-level-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-for-the-treatment-of-snoring
#19
Michelle A Guzman, Francis P Sgambati, Huy Pho, Rafael S Arias, Erin M Hawks, Erica M Wolfe, Tamás Ötvös, Russell Rosenberg, Riad Dakheel, Hartmut Schneider, Jason P Kirkness, Philip L Smith, Alan R Schwartz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of low-level continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on snoring in habitual snorers without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: A multicenter prospective in-laboratory reversal crossover intervention trial was conducted between September 2013 and August 2014. Habitual snorers were included if they snored (inspiratory sound pressure level ≥ 40 dBA) for ≥ 30% all sleep breaths on a baseline sleep study (Night 1), and if significant OSA and daytime somnolence were absent...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355752/-incidence-and-influencing-factors-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-emergent-central-sleep-apnea-in-the-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-at-high-altitude
#20
Z B Miao, Y Y Wang, R Sun, H L Lei, D J Huang, L H Huang, C Y Fan, Y H Lü
Objective: To investigate the incidence of treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA), the characteristics of demography and the influencing factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) after initial continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration at high altitude. Methods: Clinical data of 297 patients with OSAS which living in plateau areas (1 000 meters or more above sea level) were retrospectively analyzed in this study from January to December, 2015. All of these patients taken an overnight CPAP titration in the Sleep Medicine Center of First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province...
March 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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