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Mohan P Joshi, Chifumbe Chintu, Mirfin Mpundu, Dan Kibuule, Oliver Hazemba, Tenaw Andualem, Martha Embrey, Bayobuya Phulu, Heran Gerba
The multi-faceted complexities of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require consistent action, a multidisciplinary approach, and long-term political commitment. Building coalitions can amplify stakeholder efforts to carry out effective AMR prevention and control strategies. We have developed and implemented an approach to help local stakeholders kick-start the coalition-building process. The five-step process is to (1) mobilise support, (2) understand the local situation, (3) develop an action plan, (4) implement the plan, and (5) monitor and evaluate...
March 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Pamela A Yankeelov, Anna C Faul, Joseph G D'Ambrosio, Barbara A Gordon, Teresa J McGeeney
Our global population is aging at an accelerated pace. While the average life expectancy has seen dramatic increases, chronic disease and disability have also increased, with rural America tending to be older, sicker, and poorer. This article examines the implementation and outcomes associated with the community engagement method of the world café that was instrumental in developing a "culture of health" aimed to reduce diabetes-related inequalities for older adults in rural counties of Kentucky...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Mohammed Basheer, Kevin G Wheeler, Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Majdalawi, Gamal Abdo, Edith A Zagona
Efficient utilization of the limited Water, Energy, and Food (WEF) resources in stressed transboundary river basins requires understanding their interlinkages in different transboundary cooperation conditions. The Blue Nile Basin, a transboundary river basin between Ethiopia and Sudan, is used to illustrate the impacts of cooperation between riparian countries on the Water-Energy-Food nexus (WEF nexus). These impacts are quantified and evaluated using a daily model that simulates hydrological processes, irrigation water requirements, and water allocation to hydro-energy generation and irrigation water supply...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Julie H Hernandez, Mbadu Muanda, Mélissa Garcia, Grace Matawa
CONTEXT: Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. METHODS: Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Denise D Quigley, Amelia M Haviland, Jacob W Dembosky, David J Klein, Marc N Elliott
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether Medicare patients' reports of denied care, appeals/complaints, and satisfactory resolution were associated with ratings of their health plan or care. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 2010 Medicare Advantage Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey data. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression of data from 154,766 respondents (61.1% response rate) tested the association of beneficiary ratings of plan and care with beneficiary reports of denied care, appeals, complaints, and complaint resolution, adjusting for beneficiary demographics...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Nathan D Shippee, Michael Finch, Douglas R Wholey
OBJECTIVES: Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) represent a widespread model of healthcare transformation. Despite evidence that PCMHs can improve care quality, the mechanisms by which they improve outcomes are relatively unexamined. We aimed to assess the mechanisms linking certification as a Health Care Home (HCH), a statewide PCMH initiative, with asthma care quality and outcomes. We compared direct certification effects versus indirect clinical effects (via improved care process)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Susan Horton, Richard Sullivan, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Mark Lawler
Modern, affordable pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) systems are essential to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals for health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this last in a Series of three papers about PALM in LMICs, we discuss the policy environment and emphasise three crucial high-level actions that are needed to deliver universal health coverage. First, nations need national strategic laboratory plans; second, these plans require adequate financing for implementation; and last, pathologists themselves need to take on leadership roles to advocate for the centrality of PALM to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
H Morioka, M Nagao, S Yoshihara, H Ohge, K Kasahara, N Shigemoto, T Kajihara, M Mori, M Iguchi, Y Tomita, S Ichiyama, T Yagi
BACKGROUND: The Japanese government adopted a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which aims to reduce drug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial use. A point-prevalence survey (PPS) is a useful surveillance method to gain information about hospital epidemiology; however, no multi-centre PPS has previously been performed in Japan. AIM: To investigate general information about hospital epidemiology, healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), and antimicrobial use in multiple Japanese university hospitals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland, Tonje Lossius Husum, Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen
More knowledge is needed on how to reduce the prevalence of formal and informal coercion in Norwegian mental health care. To explore possible reasons for the widespread differences in coercive practice in psychiatry and drug addiction treatment in Norway, and the poor compliance to change initiatives, we performed a nationwide survey. Six vignettes from concrete and realistic clinical situations where coercive measures were among the alternative courses of action, and where the difference between authoritarian (paternalistic) and dialogical (user participation) practices was explicitly delineated, were presented in an electronic questionnaire distributed to five groups of professionals: psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, other professionals and auxiliary treatment staff...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Manuela Gander, Diana Diamond, Anna Buchheim, Kathrin Sevecke
Forced displacements and their psychosocial consequences in adolescent refugees and their families have received increasing attention in recent years. Although supportive family relations play a key role in buffering the impact of traumatization in adolescents, parental ability to provide such is often subject to extreme pressure. Under conditions of forced dislocation and fear, maladaptive interpersonal strategies in the parent-child relationships may develop, contributing to the onset of psychopathology. We explore new aspects of attachment-related issues for the understanding and treatment of adolescent refugees who have experienced multiple traumas in their childhood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Aida Kamišalić, David Riaño, Tatjana Welzer
BACKGROUND: In medical practice, long term interventions are common and they require timely planning of the involved processes. Unfortunately, evidence-based statements about time are hard to find in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and in other sources of medical knowledge. At the same time, health care centers use medical records and information systems to register data about clinical processes and patients, including time information about the encounters, prescriptions, and other clinical actions...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Elizabeth Ruvalcaba, Shang-En Chung, Cynthia Rand, Kristin A Riekert, Michelle Eakin
OBJECTIVE: Asthma disproportionately affects minority groups, low income populations, and young children under 5. Head Start (HS) programs predominantly serve this high-risk population, yet staff are not trained on asthma management. The objective of this study was to assess a 5-year, multicomponent HS staff asthma education program in Baltimore City HS programs. METHODS: All HS programs were offered annual staff asthma education by a medical research team that included didactic lectures and hands-on training...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Jiyeon Kang, Yeon Jin Jeong, Kyoung Ran Kong
PURPOSE: This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. METHODS: Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. RESULTS: Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment...
February 2018: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Jane M Garbutt, Sherry Dodd, Emily Walling, Amanda A Lee, Katharine Kulka, Rebecca Lobb
BACKGROUND: The national guideline for use of the vaccine targeting oncogenic strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an evidence-based practice that is poorly implemented in primary care. Recommendations include completion of the vaccine series before the 13th birthday for girls and boys, giving the first dose at the 11- to 12-year-old check-up visit, concurrent with other recommended vaccines. Interventions to increase implementation of this guideline have had little impact, and opportunities to prevent cancer continue to be missed...
March 13, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Kristin M Brown, Susan J Elliott, Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle M Vine, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential population-level impact of a health-promoting schools approach, schools face challenges in implementation, indicating a gap between school health research and practice. Knowledge exchange provides an opportunity to reduce this gap; however, there has been limited evaluation of these initiatives. This research explored researchers' and knowledge users' perceptions of outcomes associated with a knowledge exchange initiative within COMPASS, a longitudinal study of Canadian secondary students and schools...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Erda Rindrasih, Thomas Hartmann, Patrick Witte, Tejo Spit, Annelies Zoomers
Tourists are particularly vulnerable when natural disasters occur in regions that they are visiting. It is assumed that they lack awareness and understanding of the actions that they need to take in such circumstances. This study examines the responses of tourists in times of disaster, building on empirical data collected through large-scale surveys conducted in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2015. Both are important tourist destinations in the country that have suffered major disasters in recent years...
March 13, 2018: Disasters
Homero Martinez, Aliki P Weakland, Lynn B Bailey, Lorenzo D Botto, Luz Maria De-Regil, Kenneth H Brown
As infectious disease control programs achieve increasing success, further reductions in child mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will require focused prevention strategies for birth defects and other noninfectious diseases. Neural tube defects (NTDs) can cause early death or lifelong disability. Preventing NTDs provides a feasible, significant opportunity to decrease the toll of birth defects and contribute to further reducing child mortality globally. The Micronutrient Forum convened a technical consultation on Folate Status in Women and Neural Tube Defects Prevention to develop a roadmap to inform and prioritize investments in NTD prevention in LMICs; help guide implementation efforts in terms of the feasibility of interventions and the potential for acceleration; and identify research and knowledge gaps...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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