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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210643/perception-of-health-problems-among-competitive-runners-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-appraisals-and-behavioral-responses
#1
Sara Jelvegård, Toomas Timpka, Victor Bargoria, Håkan Gauffin, Jenny Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 of every 3 competitive runners sustain at least 1 health problem each season. Most of these problems are nontraumatic injuries with gradual onset. The main known risk indicator for sustaining a new running-related injury episode is a history of a previous injury, suggesting that behavioral habits are part of the causal mechanisms. PURPOSE: Identification of elements associated with purposeful interpretations of body perceptions and balanced behavioral responses may supply vital information for prevention of health problems in runners...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207777/quantifying-the-value-of-perfect-information-in-emergency-vaccination-campaigns
#2
Naomi V Bradbury, William J M Probert, Katriona Shea, Michael C Runge, Christopher J Fonnesbeck, Matt J Keeling, Matthew J Ferrari, Michael J Tildesley
Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries can lead to large economic costs and livestock losses but the use of vaccination has been contentious, partly due to uncertainty about emergency FMD vaccination. Value of information methods can be applied to disease outbreak problems such as FMD in order to investigate the performance improvement from resolving uncertainties. Here we calculate the expected value of resolving uncertainty about vaccine efficacy, time delay to immunity after vaccination and daily vaccination capacity for a hypothetical FMD outbreak in the UK...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205497/critical-motor-involvement-in-prediction-of-human-and-non-biological-motion-trajectories
#3
Matthieu M de Wit, Laurel J Buxbaum
OBJECTIVES: Adaptive interaction with the environment requires the ability to predict both human and non-biological motion trajectories. Prior accounts of the neurocognitive basis for prediction of these two motion classes may generally be divided into those that posit that non-biological motion trajectories are predicted using the same motor planning and/or simulation mechanisms used for human actions, and those that posit distinct mechanisms for each. Using brain lesion patients and healthy controls, this study examined critical neural substrates and behavioral correlates of human and non-biological motion prediction...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205191/novel-and-expanded-oncology-drug-approvals-of-2016-part-1-new-options-in-solid-tumor-management
#4
REVIEW
Todd C Knepper, James Saller, Christine M Walko
The nonradiologic medical management of solid tumors has evolved from the use of traditional cytotoxic agents to modern targeted therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapies. Advances in the understanding of cancer biology and therapeutic strategies have resulted in increasing numbers of new drug applications and approvals. Consequently, practicing oncologists need to learn how the newly available agents function and what toxicities to watch for, as well as ways to optimize the use of both new drugs and previously approved drugs with new indications...
February 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204861/factors-influencing-planning-of-a-familiar-grasp-to-an-object-what-it-is-to-pick-a-cup
#5
Elisabeth Rounis, Zuo Zhang, Gloria Pizzamiglio, Mihaela Duta, Glyn Humphreys
We assessed the factors influencing the planning of actions required to manipulate one of two everyday objects with matching dimensions but openings at opposite ends: a cup and a vase. We found that, for cups, measures of movement preparation to reach and grasp the object were influenced by whether the grasp was made to the functional part of the object (wide opening) and whether the action would end in a supinated as opposed to a pronated grasp. These factors interacted such that effects of hand posture were found only when a less familiar grasp was made to the non-functional part of the cup (the base)...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202089/suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-among-community-and-health-care-seeking-populations-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
M Jordans, S Rathod, A Fekadu, G Medhin, F Kigozi, B Kohrt, N Luitel, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, V Patel, C Lund
: Aims Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199324/establishing-a-reliable-framework-for-harnessing-the-creative-power-of-the-scientific-crowd
#7
Adrian J Carter, Amy Donner, Wen Hwa Lee, Chas Bountra
Discovering new medicines is difficult and increasingly expensive. The pharmaceutical industry has responded to this challenge by embracing open innovation to access external ideas. Historically, partnerships were usually bilateral, and the drug discovery process was shrouded in secrecy. This model is rapidly changing. With the advent of the Internet, drug discovery has become more decentralised, bottom-up, and scalable than ever before. The term open innovation is now accepted as just one of many terms that capture different but overlapping levels of openness in the drug discovery process...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#8
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
: The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196463/factors-associated-with-outpatient-visit-attendance-after-discharge-from-inpatient-psychiatric-units-in-a-new-york-city-hospital
#9
Jennifer L Humensky, Omar Fattal, Rachel Feit, Sarah D Mills, Roberto Lewis-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: A class action lawsuit in New York (Koskinas v. Cuomo) established the right of psychiatric inpatients to receive discharge planning, including arranging outpatient treatment. The attendance rate of the initial outpatient appointment after discharge from inpatient treatment in one city hospital was examined to determine whether rates varied by inpatient unit type. METHODS: The authors performed retrospective chart review of 1,884 discharges to outpatient care...
February 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195525/observing-others-speak-or-sing-activates-spt-and-neighboring-parietal-cortex
#10
Daniele Corbo, Guy A Orban
To obtain further evidence that action observation can serve as a proxy for action execution and planning in posterior parietal cortex, we scanned participants while they were (1) observing two classes of action: vocal communication and oral manipulation, which share the same effector but differ in nature, and (2) rehearsing and listening to nonsense sentences to localize area Spt, thought to be involved in audio-motor transformation during speech. Using this localizer, we found that Spt is specifically activated by vocal communication, indicating that Spt is not only involved in planning speech but also in observing vocal communication actions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194516/physical-activity-in-outpatients-with-mental-disorders-status-measurement-and-social-cognitive-determinants-of-health-behavior-change
#11
Moritz B Petzold, Sophie Bischoff, Janina Rogoll, Jens Plag, Christina Terán, Ralf Brand, Andreas Ströhle
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) can play an important role in improving the mental and physical health in patients with mental disorders but is not well studied in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the status of PA in outpatients with mental disorders, compare the convergence of self-rating and accelerometer measurement and examine the influence of social cognitive variables from the Motivation-Volition (MoVo) model and clinical measures on PA. METHODS: Eighty-four patients were recruited from three psychiatric outpatient clinics and local psychiatrists (Distribution of ICD-10-Diagnoses: F3...
February 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193793/guidance-on-completing-a-written-allergy-and-anaphylaxis-emergency-plan
#12
Julie Wang, Scott H Sicherer
Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening, severe allergic reaction. The immediate assessment of patients having an allergic reaction and prompt administration of epinephrine, if criteria for anaphylaxis are met, promote optimal outcomes. National and international guidelines for the management of anaphylaxis, including those for management of allergic reactions at school, as well as several clinical reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend the provision of written emergency action plans to those at risk of anaphylaxis, in addition to the prescription of epinephrine autoinjectors...
February 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193791/epinephrine-for-first-aid-management-of-anaphylaxis
#13
Scott H Sicherer, F Estelle R Simons
Anaphylaxis is a severe, generalized allergic or hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Epinephrine (adrenaline) can be life-saving when administered as rapidly as possible once anaphylaxis is recognized. This clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics is an update of the 2007 clinical report on this topic. It provides information to help clinicians identify patients at risk of anaphylaxis and new information about epinephrine and epinephrine autoinjectors (EAs). The report also highlights the importance of patient and family education about the recognition and management of anaphylaxis in the community...
February 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193230/analysis-of-the-policymaking-process-in-burkina-faso-s-health-sector-case-studies-of-the-creation-of-two-health-system-support-units
#14
Andre Zida, John N Lavis, Nelson K Sewankambo, Bocar Kouyate, Kaelan Moat, Jessica Shearer
BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso has made a number of health system policy decisions to improve performance on health indicators and strengthen responsiveness to health-related challenges. These included the creation of a General Directorate of Health Information and Statistics (DGISS) and a technical unit to coordinate performance-based financing (CT-FBR). We analysed the policymaking processes associated with the establishment of these units, and documented the factors that influenced this process...
February 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190729/a-functional-gradient-in-the-rodent-prefrontal-cortex-supports-behavioral-inhibition
#15
Stefanie Hardung, Robert Epple, Zoe Jäckel, David Eriksson, Cem Uran, Verena Senn, Lihi Gibor, Ofer Yizhar, Ilka Diester
The ability to plan and execute appropriately timed responses to external stimuli is based on a well-orchestrated balance between movement initiation and inhibition. In impulse control disorders involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1], this balance is disturbed, emphasizing the critical role that PFC plays in appropriately timing actions [2-4]. Here, we employed optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to systematically analyze the functional role of five key subareas of the rat medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in action control [5-9]...
February 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188969/interpreting-beta-diversity-components-over-time-to-conserve-metacommunities-in-highly-dynamic-ecosystems
#16
Albert Ruhí, Thibault Datry, John L Sabo
The concept of 'metacommunity', or a set of local communities linked by dispersal, has gained great popularity among community ecologists over the last decade. However, whereas metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial biodiversity patterns at the regional scale, conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities, and the contributions that individual (local) habitats make to regional dynamics. Here we propose that recent advances in diversity partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and for the identification of keystone habitats...
February 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188493/serious-fungal-infections-in-chile
#17
E Alvarez Duarte, D W Denning
The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187937/anticipating-species-distributions-handling-sampling-effort-bias-under-a-bayesian-framework
#18
Duccio Rocchini, Carol X Garzon-Lopez, Matteo Marcantonio, Valerio Amici, Giovanni Bacaro, Lucy Bastin, Neil Brummitt, Alessandro Chiarucci, Giles M Foody, Heidi C Hauffe, Kate S He, Carlo Ricotta, Annapaola Rizzoli, Roberto Rosà
Anticipating species distributions in space and time is necessary for effective biodiversity conservation and for prioritising management interventions. This is especially true when considering invasive species. In such a case, anticipating their spread is important to effectively plan management actions. However, considering uncertainty in the output of species distribution models is critical for correctly interpreting results and avoiding inappropriate decision-making. In particular, when dealing with species inventories, the bias resulting from sampling effort may lead to an over- or under-estimation of the local density of occurrences of a species...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187182/delimiting-priority-areas-for-the-conservation-of-endemic-and-threatened-neotropical-birds-using-a-niche-based-gap-analysis
#19
Dorinny Lisboa de Carvalho, Tiago Sousa-Neves, Pablo Vieira Cerqueira, Gustavo Gonsioroski, Sofia Marques Silva, Daniel Paiva Silva, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos
Knowledge of spatiotemporal distribution of biodiversity is still very incomplete in the tropics. This is one of the major problems preventing the assessment and effectiveness of conservation actions. Mega-diverse tropical regions are being exposed to fast and profound environmental changes, and the amount of resources available to describe the distribution of species is generally limited. Thus, the tropics is losing species at unprecedented rates, without a proper assessment of its biodiversity. Species distribution models (SDMs) can be used to fill such biogeographic gaps within a species' range and, when allied with systematic conservation planning (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187084/uptake-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-a-national-cohort-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-the-united-states
#20
Jeffrey T Parsons, H Jonathon Rendina, Jonathan M Lassiter, Thomas H F Whitfield, Tyrel J Starks, Christian Grov
OBJECTIVES: The HIV care cascade provides milestones to track the progress of HIV-positive people from seroconversion through viral suppression. We propose a Motivational pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Cascade involving 5 stages based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change. METHODS: We analyzed data from 995 men in One Thousand Strong, a longitudinal study of a national panel of HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in the United States. RESULTS: Nearly all (89%) participants were sexually active in the past 3 months and 65% met Centers for Disease Control criteria for PrEP candidacy...
1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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