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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926686/orthopaedic-trauma-care-capacity-assessment-and-strategic-planning-in-ghana-mapping-a-way-forward
#1
Barclay T Stewart, Adam Gyedu, Gavin Tansley, Dominic Yeboah, Forster Amponsah-Manu, Charles Mock, Wilfred Labi-Addo, Robert Quansah
BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic conditions incur more than 52 million disability-adjusted life years annually worldwide. This burden disproportionately affects low and middle-income countries, which are least equipped to provide orthopaedic care. We aimed to assess orthopaedic capacity in Ghana, describe spatial access to orthopaedic care, and identify hospitals that would most improve access to care if their capacity was improved. METHODS: Seventeen perioperative and orthopaedic trauma care-related items were selected from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926654/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-ethical-approaches-to-the-identification-of-pregnant-women-who-use-drugs
#2
Mishka Terplan, Howard Minkoff
The United States is experiencing an epidemic of opioid use, addiction, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Consequentially, a great deal of public, and public health, attention has turned toward the timely recognition of pregnant women who use drugs. We explore the clinical efficacy and ethical acceptability of different methods of identification-contrasting drug testing (using biologic samples such as urine) with screening (using an instrument or questionnaire) under both universal and selective approaches within the current legal and social landscape, which is fraught with potential adverse consequences for both the woman and her child...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926615/coronary-artery-evaluation-by-screening-echocardiogram-in-intercollegiate-athletes
#3
Walter J Hoyt, Peter N Dean, Daniel S Schneider, Mark R Conaway, Christopher M Kramer, Robert W Battle
INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery anomalies are the second most common congenital cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. Some centers have advocated for limited transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) protocols in the screening of college athletes, which may miss important causes of SCD. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of screening TTE to determine origin and proximal course of the coronary arteries in intercollegiate athletes...
December 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925894/prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-its-complications-from-clinical-evidence-to-real-life-experience
#4
Giovanni Gabutti, Paolo Bonanni, Michele Conversano, Guido Fanelli, Elisabetta Franco, Donato Greco, Giancarlo Icardi, Marzia Lazzari, Alessandro Rossi, Silvestro Scotti, Antonio Volpi
Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, with a sharp increase in >50 year-old subjects. Currently, treatment options for HZ are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is complex and often unsatisfactory...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925822/what-findings-are-needed-to-advocate-personalized-precision-prevention-of-disease
#5
Noel S Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925785/accelerating-scientific-advancement-for-pediatric-rare-lung-disease-research-report-from-a-national-institutes-of-health-nhlbi-workshop-september-3-and-4-2015
#6
Lisa R Young, Bruce C Trapnell, Kenneth D Mandl, Daniel T Swarr, Jennifer A Wambach, Carol J Blaisdell
Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925002/a-novel-adjuvant-solution-layer-strategy-for-improving-the-efficacy-of-cryosurgery
#7
K K Ramajayam, A Kumar, S K Sarangi, A Thirugnanam
BACKGROUND: During cryosurgery, studies reported earlier suggest increased destruction inside the tumour due to adjuvants or the prevention of damage to neighbouring healthy tissue through different methods. OBJECTIVE: This study advocates a novel strategy that increases the freezing inside agarose gel phantoms by addition of glycine and limits the freezing to the desired location using a perfluorohexane layer during cryosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cryosurgery of glycine containing gels is carried out with and without perfluorohexane layer and the thermal history is measured using K-type thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system...
September 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924437/disability-life-writing-and-the-problem-of-dependency-in-the-autobiography-of-gaby-brimmer
#8
Rachel Adams
Independence was a core value of the movement for disability rights. People with disabilities did not have to be dependent, advocates claimed; they were robbed of autonomy by poverty, social prejudice, and architectural barriers. Recently, critics have noted that the emphasis on independence equates personhood with autonomy, reason, and self-awareness, thereby excluding those who are incapable of self-determination. The stigma of dependency is communicated to caregivers whose work is devalued and undercompensated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924405/an-analysis-of-dental-intercanine-distance-for-use-in-court-cases-involving-bite-marks
#9
Suzana Reinprecht, Paul J van Staden, Joyce Jordaan, Herman Bernitz
High levels of crime in South Africa and the resulting court cases requiring bite mark evidence have necessitated continuous research into the prevalence and interrelationship of recognisable dental features present in bite marks. This study represents the largest data set of descriptive statistics related to intercanine distance, in which the means, standard deviations, medians and interquartile ranges across four racial groups were determined. Intercanine distances were also statistically weighted by determining the common, uncommon and very uncommon values for each of the racial groups...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924030/using-predictive-specificity-to-determine-when-gene-set-analysis-is-biologically-meaningful
#10
Sara Ballouz, Paul Pavlidis, Jesse Gillis
Gene set analysis, which translates gene lists into enriched functions, is among the most common bioinformatic methods. Yet few would advocate taking the results at face value. Not only is there no agreement on the algorithms themselves, there is no agreement on how to benchmark them. In this paper, we evaluate the robustness and uniqueness of enrichment results as a means of assessing methods even where correctness is unknown. We show that heavily annotated ('multifunctional') genes are likely to appear in genomics study results and drive the generation of biologically non-specific enrichment results as well as highly fragile significances...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923860/using-a-domestic-and-sexual-violence-prevention-advocate-to-implement-a-dating-violence-prevention-program-with-athletes
#11
M C D Jaime, M Stocking, K Freire, L Perkinson, S Ciaravino, E Miller
'Coaching Boys into Men' is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program messages and outcomes. Randomly, one school received the program delivered by an advocate while another school received the program delivered by coaches. Athletes completed baseline and follow-up surveys (n = 148), and a subset who received the advocate-led program participated in focus groups (four groups; n = 26)...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923394/an-economic-research-based-approach-to-calculate-community-health-staffing-requirements-in-xicheng-district-beijing
#12
Delu Yin, Tao Yin, Huiming Yang, Qianqian Xin, Lihong Wang, Ninyan Li, Xiaoyan Ding, Bowen Chen
BACKGROUND: A shortage of community health professionals has been a crucial issue hindering the development of CHS. Various methods have been established to calculate health workforce requirements. This study aimed to use an economic-research-based approach to calculate the number of community health professionals required to provide community health services in the Xicheng District of Beijing and then assess current staffing levels against this ideal. METHODS: Using questionnaires, we collected relevant data from 14 community health centers in the Xicheng District, including resident population, number of different health services provided, and service volumes...
December 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923371/type-of-sexual-intercourse-experience-and-suicidal-ideation-plans-and-attempts-among-youths-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-korea
#13
Geum Hee Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyun Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923364/pcan-phenotype-consensus-analysis-to-support-disease-gene-association
#14
Patrice Godard, Matthew Page
BACKGROUND: Bridging genotype and phenotype is a fundamental biomedical challenge that underlies more effective target discovery and patient-tailored therapy. Approaches that can flexibly and intuitively, integrate known gene-phenotype associations in the context of molecular signaling networks are vital to effectively prioritize and biologically interpret genes underlying disease traits of interest. RESULTS: We describe Phenotype Consensus Analysis (PCAN); a method to assess the consensus semantic similarity of phenotypes in a candidate gene's signaling neighborhood...
December 7, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922900/treat-me-like-everyone-else-the-experience-of-nurses-who-had-disabilities-while-in-school
#15
Leslie Neal-Boylan, Michelle Miller
The Americans With Disabilities Act requires that nursing programs not discriminate against students with disabilities. This article describes a qualitative study of RNs who had disabilities while in nursing school. As students, participants tried to hide their disabilities, experienced fear and anger from faculty, were frequently told they could never be nurses, wanted to be treated like everyone else, had to work harder than others to prove themselves worthy, and learned to advocate for themselves.
December 5, 2016: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921218/from-problem-solving-to-problem-definition-scrutinizing-the-complex-nature-of-clinical-practice
#16
Sayra Cristancho, Lorelei Lingard, Glenn Regehr
In medical education, we have tended to present problems as being singular, stable, and solvable. Problem solving has, therefore, drawn much of medical education researchers' attention. This focus has been important but it is limited in terms of preparing clinicians to deal with the complexity of the 21st century healthcare system in which they will provide team-based care for patients with complex medical illness. In this paper, we use the Soft Systems Engineering principles to introduce the idea that in complex, team-based situations, problems usually involve divergent views and evolve with multiple solution iterations...
December 5, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921148/metabolites-deciphering-the-molecular-language-between-dcs-and-their-environment
#17
REVIEW
Lucía Minarrieta, Peyman Ghorbani, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Dendritic cells (DCs) determine the outcome of the immune response based on signals they receive from the environment. Presentation of antigen under various contexts can lead to activation and differentiation of T cells for immunity or dampening of immune responses by establishing tolerance, primarily through the priming of regulatory T cells. Infections, inflammation and normal cellular interactions shape DC responses through direct contact or via cytokine signaling. Although it is widely accepted that DCs sense microbial components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), increasing evidence advocates for the existence of a set of signals that can profoundly shape DC function via PRR-independent pathways...
December 5, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920422/population-based-screening-for-selective-immunoglobulin-a-iga-deficiency-in-lithuanian-children-using-a-rapid-antibody-based-fingertip-test
#18
Vaidotas Urbonas, Jolita Sadauskaite, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Arvydas Kaminskas, Markku Mäki, Kalle Kurppa
BACKGROUND Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common inherited immunodeficiency disorder worldwide. An early diagnosis is advocated because of the increased risk of infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. We investigated the usefulness of a rapid point-of-care test in detecting for IgA deficiency in a population with a previously unknown prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 1000 children aged 11-13 years from randomly selected Lithuanian schools were enrolled. A point-of-care test with a fingertip sample was used to screen for the presence of IgA deficiency in children whose parents gave consent...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919206/differences-and-similarities-in-therapeutic-mode-use-between-occupational-therapists-and-occupational-therapy-students-in-norway
#19
Tove Carstensen, Tore Bonsaksen
BACKGROUND: The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. AIM: To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. METHODS: The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918860/where-is-the-client-patient-voice-in-interprofessional-healthcare-team-assessments-findings-from-a-one-day-forum
#20
Sophie Soklaridis, Donna Romano, Alan Wai Lun Fung, Maria Athina Tina Martimianakis, Joan Sargeant, Jennifer Chambers, David Wiljer, Ivan Silver
There is a growing interest in interprofessional care (IPC) as a way to provide better healthcare. However, it is difficult to evaluate this mode of healthcare delivery because identifying the appropriate measurement tool is a challenge, given the wide diversity in team composition and settings. Adding to this complexity is a key gap in the IPC evaluation research: the client/patient perspective. This perspective has generally not been included in the development of IPC healthcare team evaluations. The authors received a Canadian Institute for Health Research Planning Grant to host a one-day forum with 24 participants from across Canada representing health professions such as social work, medicine, occupational therapy, and physical therapy, in addition to researchers, client/patient advocates, and hospital administrators...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
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