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Oncology Updates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931096/-nutrition-therapy-of-cancer-patients
#1
József Lövey
The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926891/-advances-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#2
X R Zhu, L Z Zheng
Currently, immunotherapy is considered as the fourth major modality of cancer treatment except surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The new therapeutic approach based on immune checkpoint inhibitors is a landmark innovation. Strategies considering checkpoint inhibitors have shown good anti-tumor effect by targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Moreover, DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors appear to be potential candidates for these therapies...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926430/targeting-histone-methylation-in-cancer
#3
Michael T McCabe, Helai P Mohammad, Olena Barbash, Ryan G Kruger
Most, if not all, human cancers exhibit altered epigenetic signatures that promote aberrant gene expression that contributes to cellular transformation. Historically, attempts to pharmacologically intervene in this process have focused on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, genome-wide studies have identified histone and chromatin regulators as one of the most frequently dysregulated functional classes in a wide range of cancer types. These findings have provided numerous potential therapeutic targets including many that affect histone methylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#4
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923561/update-on-the-safety-of-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Faysal A Yafi, Ira D Sharlip, Edgardo F Becher
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Although historically found to have limited drug-related adverse events, emerging data have suggested that PDE5Is might be associated with melanoma or recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. AIM: To summarize the literature on the safety of PDE5Is. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1990 through 2016 regarding ED...
September 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923221/an-update-on-randomized-clinical-trials-in-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Kayla Barnard, V Suzanne Klimberg
Numerous clinical trials reveal new innovations and therapies that continually change the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Earlier trials have changed the standard of care from radical mastectomy to breast conservation therapy and individualized treatment based on tumor-specific biology. As research continues and long-term follow-up results become available, updated reviews on randomized clinics trials become exceedingly important in discerning the most effective and oncologically safe therapies to provide optimal outcomes...
October 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922023/fatty-acid-synthase-fasn-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer
#7
Javier A Menendez, Ruth Lupu
Ten years ago, we put forward the metabolo-oncogenic nature of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in breast cancer. Since the conception of this hypothesis, which provided a model to explain how FASN is intertwined with various signaling networks to cell-autonomously regulate breast cancer initiation and progression, FASN has received considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, despite the ever-growing evidence demonstrating the involvement of FASN as part of the cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming, translation of the basic science-discovery aspects of FASN blockade to the clinical arena remains a challenge...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901726/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-paediatric-oncology-impact-on-optimising-gentamicin-use-in-febrile-neutropenia
#8
Stefanie Hennig, Christine E Staatz, Daniel Natanek, Sabina Bialkowski, Carolina Consuelo Llanos Paez, Rachael Lawson, Julia Clark
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention, involving introduction of new guidelines on the treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN), on improving the use of gentamicin in paediatric oncology patients. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Updated guidelines for gentamicin usage in paediatrics with FN were implemented at a tertiary children's teaching hospital, in Brisbane, Australia. Data on gentamicin usage before and after the guideline change were collected retrospectively from children with cancer admitted to hospital with FN between January 2012 and December 2013...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892431/nintedanib-plus-pemetrexed-cisplatin-in-patients-with-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-phase-ii-results-from-the-randomized-placebo-controlled-lume-meso-trial
#9
Federica Grosso, Nicola Steele, Silvia Novello, Anna K Nowak, Sanjay Popat, Laurent Greillier, Thomas John, Natasha B Leighl, Martin Reck, Paul Taylor, David Planchard, Jens Benn Sørensen, Mark A Socinski, Ute von Wangenheim, Arsène Bienvenu Loembé, José Barrueco, Nassim Morsli, Giorgio Scagliotti
Purpose LUME-Meso is a phase II/III randomized, double-blind trial designed to assess efficacy and safety of nintedanib plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Phase II results are reported here. Patients and Methods Chemotherapy-naïve patients with unresectable, nonsarcomatoid MPM (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1), stratified by histology (epithelioid or biphasic), were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to up to six cycles of pemetrexed and cisplatin plus nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or placebo followed by nintedanib plus placebo monotherapy until progression...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863725/clinical-practice-recommendations-based-on-an-updated-review-of-breast-cancer-risk-among-women-treated-for-childhood-cancer
#10
Yael E Derman
Breast cancer is the most common secondary malignancy among women treated for childhood cancer. This review highlights interacting etiologies contributing to development of secondary breast cancer to complement guidelines for surveillance and survivorship care and make recommendations for clinical practice. Treatment exposures determine Children's Oncology Group breast cancer surveillance guidelines; those treated with cumulative doses ≥20 Gy chest irradiation should undergo annual magnetic resonance imaging and mammography after age 25 years or 8 years after exposure, whichever comes last...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861637/impact-of-repeat-her2-testing-after-initial-equivocal-her2-fish-results-using-2013-asco-cap-guidelines
#11
Fang-Ping Xu, Kun Wang, Jie Xu, Jie Chen, Yi-Fang Zhang, Hong-Mei Wu, Ming-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Xu Long, Xin-Lan Luo, Ke-Ping Zhang, Dan-Yi Lin, Yan-Hui Liu
PURPOSE: The updated 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing have made some major changes in HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) interpretation criteria with additional FISH equivocal cases. Repeat HER2 testing is recommended after initial HER2 FISH equivocal results; however, little is known about its impact on final HER2 status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether reflex test clarifies HER2 status, and to characterize clinicopathological features of the newly defined HER2 equivocal group...
August 31, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856437/diagnosis-and-empirical-treatment-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-fuo-in-adult-neutropenic-patients-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#12
REVIEW
W J Heinz, D Buchheidt, M Christopeit, M von Lilienfeld-Toal, O A Cornely, H Einsele, M Karthaus, H Link, R Mahlberg, S Neumann, H Ostermann, O Penack, M Ruhnke, M Sandherr, X Schiel, J J Vehreschild, F Weissinger, G Maschmeyer
Fever may be the only clinical symptom at the onset of infection in neutropenic cancer patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A prompt and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approach is mandatory. A systematic search of current literature was conducted, including only full papers and excluding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy were developed by an expert panel and approved after plenary discussion by the AGIHO. Randomized clinical trials were mainly available for therapeutic decisions, and new diagnostic procedures have been introduced into clinical practice in the past decade...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855797/oncology-update-anamorelin
#13
REVIEW
Eric Prommer
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a catabolic syndrome associated with uncontrolled muscle breakdown. There may be associated fat loss. Occurring in high frequency in advanced cancer, it is an indicator of poor prognosis. Besides weight loss, patients experience a cluster of symptoms including anorexia, early satiety, and weakness. The 3 stages of cachexia include stages of precachexia, cachexia, and refractory cachexia. Refractory cachexia is associated with active catabolism or the presence of factors that make active management of weight loss no longer possible...
2017: Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844506/-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-hepatic-malignancies-organs-at-risk-uncertainties-margins-doses
#14
T Lacornerie, E Rio, M-A Mahé
Stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies can be performed in association and/or as an alternative to surgery and radiofrequency. The consequences of the great number of techniques available are heterogeneity in contouring, dose prescription and in determination of dose constraints for organs at risk. The objective of this paper is to improve the quality and safety and to help the diffusion of this technique for a majority of patients. In 2016, the French Society of Radiation Oncology (SFRO) published guidelines for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy ("Recorad")...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841799/updated-response-assessment-criteria-for-high-grade-glioma-beyond-the-macdonald-criteria
#15
Mayur Sharma, Rupa Gopalan Juthani, Michael A Vogelbaum
High-grade glioma continues to be a challenging disease with few effective treatment options and a poor prognosis, necessitating intensive research into alternate therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) committee was formed to create a robust endpoint assessment criteria in Neuro-Oncology in order to streamline the assessment of new therapies in a uniform fashion. The aim of this committee is to create standardized guidelines to assess clinical and imaging response in the treatment of brain tumors, which can then be applied in clinical trials...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841101/implementation-and-evaluation-of-medicine-and-therapeutic-information-service-by-clinical-pharmacists-in-oncology-care-setting
#16
Himanshu Patel, Parthasarathi Gurumurthy
Background This study was conducted to explore the role of clinical pharmacists in providing medicine and therapeutic information service in oncology care setting. Methods It was a prospective study conducted for a period of three years after implementation of medicine and therapeutic information service as an integral part of oncology pharmacy services. The medicine and therapeutic information queries were received during ward rounds, at ambulatory care and via telephone by clinical pharmacists. All the medicine and therapeutic information requests were reviewed and answered to the concerned requester(s)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841099/survey-of-guidelines-and-current-practices-for-safe-handling-of-antineoplastic-and-other-hazardous-drugs-used-in-24-countries
#17
Patricia I Mathias, Barbara A MacKenzie, Christine A Toennis, Thomas H Connor
Purpose A survey of guidelines and current practices was conducted to examine the safe handling procedures for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs that are used in 24 countries including the Americas, Europe, the Mideast, Far East, and Australia. Methods Subject experts were asked to complete a brief survey regarding safe handling guidelines and practices for hazardous drugs in their countries. Questions addressed practices for handling monoclonal antibodies, the use of closed-system transfer devices, medical surveillance practices, and measurements of compliance with existing guidelines...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838807/skeletal-health-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#18
REVIEW
Olivier Bruyère, Pierre Bergmann, Etienne Cavalier, Evelien Gielen, Stefan Goemaere, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Serge Rozenberg, Jean-Jacques Body
Although some risk factors for breast cancer might be protective for osteoporosis, several cross-sectional studies have reported, nevertheless, that patients with breast cancer have a lower bone mass and potentially a higher incidence of fractures than expected. In any case, it appears that patients with breast cancer are not protected from osteoporosis, which provides further support for the recommendation that bone health is assessed after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Most adjuvant therapies will lead to increased bone loss and a higher fracture rate...
August 18, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837374/antiemetics-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-update-summary
#19
Paul J Hesketh, Kari Bohlke, Mark G Kris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822332/eso-esmo-3rd-international-consensus-guidelines-for-breast-cancer-in-young-women-bcy3
#20
Shani Paluch-Shimon, Olivia Pagani, Ann H Partridge, Omalkhair Abulkhair, Maria-João Cardoso, Rebecca Alexandra Dent, Karen Gelmon, Oreste Gentilini, Nadia Harbeck, Anita Margulies, Dror Meirow, Giancarlo Pruneri, Elzbieta Senkus, Tanja Spanic, Medha Sutliff, Luzia Travado, Fedro Peccatori, Fatima Cardoso
The 3rd International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY3) took place in November 2016, in Lugano, Switzerland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO) and the European Society of Medical Oncologists (ESMO). Consensus recommendations for the management of breast cancer in young women were updated from BCY2 with incorporation of new evidence to inform the guidelines, and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes the ESO-ESMO international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA)...
October 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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