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Cerebral vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221195/brain-perfusion-before-and-after-surgical-treatment-of-moyamoya-disease
#1
Clément Drouet, Olivier Morel, Laurent Thines, Clémence Porot, Hatem Boulahdour
Moyamoya disease is characterized by bilateral progressive terminal internal carotid arteries steno-occlusion. In this patient, the disease affected middle cerebral arteries and was disclosed after a left frontal cerebral infarction. Brain HMPAO perfusion scintigraphy with acetazolamide challenge, obtained before surgical treatment, demonstrates an extended bilateral frontal hypoperfusion with a vascular steal phenomenon. The same examination obtained after surgical treatment demonstrates a frank improvement in basal brain vascularization, with nearly complete correction of vascular steal phenomenon...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219828/treating-cognitive-impairment-with-transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy
#2
Jack C de la Torre
This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217013/contributions-to-the-study-of-blood-brain-flux-using-radioactive-tracers
#3
Ioan Mureşan, Ioan Cosma
In this paper, we present an original radiocirculographic method for investigates of cerebral blood flow, which has proven to be very useful, simple, and efficient for studies of brain hemodynamics. Physical considerations on injected radioactive tracer in cardiovascular system, allowed us to state a relationship for the blood flux, F, valued as the amount of fluid-blood that traverses a vascular segment in unit time. All these theoretical facts, along with a host of remarkable clinical results, are presented in a doctoral thesis entitled "The cerebral Hemodynamics in Essential Hypertension and Arteriosclerosis" of the eminent doctor Ioan Mures,an, who died in 1984, at only 50 years old...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215270/decreased-cerebral-vasomotor-reactivity-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#4
Oguzhan Oz, Serdar Tasdemir, Hakan Akgun, Murat Erdem, Adem Balikci, Ahmet Cetiz, Mehmet Yucel, Umit Hidir Ulas, Seref Demirkaya, Yasar Kutukcu, Fuat Özgen
OBJECTIVE: In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), any of the activated neural, vascular, hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombotic mechanisms may be related to increased cerebrovascular disease and risk of death; however, the possible pathophysiological process between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and stroke has not been clearly explained. We hypothesize that alterations in vasomotor reactivity in patients may be responsible for their altered cerebral blood flow, and may contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#5
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212801/notch-signaling-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
J T Baeten, B Lilly
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212190/endothelial-cell-disease-emerging-knowledge-from-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#7
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Matteo Malinverno, Elisabetta Dejana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cells dysfunctions are crucial determinants of several human diseases. We review here the most recent reports on endothelial cell defects in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), particularly focusing on adherens junctions. CCM is a vascular disease that affects specifically the venous microvessels of the central nervous system and which is caused by loss-of-function mutation in any one of the three CCM genes (CCM1, 2 or 3) in endothelial cells. The phenotypic result of these mutations are focal vascular malformations that are permeable and fragile causing neurological symptoms and occasionally haemorrhagic stroke...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211813/classification-of-depression-cognitive-disorders-and-co-morbid-depression-and-cognitive-disorders-with-perfusion-spect-neuroimaging
#8
Daniel G Amen, Pavitra Krishnamani, Somayeh Meysami, Andrew Newberg, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: Depression and cognitive disorders (CDs) are two common co-morbid afflictions that commonly present with overlapping symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs or both conditions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were DSM-IV defined depression or CDs (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia not otherwise specified, and amnestic disorders not otherwise specified) including persons with both (total n = 4,541; 847 CDs, 3,269 depression, 425 with both)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#9
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207465/two-rare-variants-of-left-vertebral-artery
#10
Rajani Singh
Though the variations of vertebral artery are clinically asymptomatic yet abnormalities are of diagnostic importance either prior to vascular surgery in the neck region or in patients of intravascular diseases such as arteriovenous malformations or cerebral aneurysms. Therefore, the aim of the study is to bring out 2 variations in the configuration of vertebral artery and their clinical implication. During dissection of thorax of 2 female cadavers, 2 different variants of configurations of left vertebral arteries were observed...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#11
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
February 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202749/endothelial-cell-oligodendrocyte-interactions-in-small-vessel-disease-and-aging
#12
REVIEW
Rikesh M Rajani, Anna Williams
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a prevalent, neurological disease that significantly increases the risk of stroke and dementia. The main pathological changes are vascular, in the form of lipohyalinosis and arteriosclerosis, and in the white matter (WM), in the form of WM lesions. Despite this, it is unclear to what extent the key cell types involved-the endothelial cells (ECs) of the vasculature and the oligodendrocytes of the WM-interact. Here, we describe the work that has so far been carried out suggesting an interaction between ECs and oligodendrocytes in SVD...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197669/clearance-of-cerebral-a%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease-reassessing-the-role-of-microglia-and-monocytes
#13
REVIEW
Leah Zuroff, David Daley, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
Deficiency in cerebral amyloid β-protein (Aβ) clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of the common late-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of misfolded Aβ in the brain is believed to be a net result of imbalance between its production and removal. This in turn may trigger neuroinflammation, progressive synaptic loss, and ultimately cognitive decline. Clearance of cerebral Aβ is a complex process mediated by various systems and cell types, including vascular transport across the blood-brain barrier, glymphatic drainage, and engulfment and degradation by resident microglia and infiltrating innate immune cells...
February 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195500/new-developments-in-clinical-ischemic-stroke-prevention-and-treatment-and-their-imaging-implications
#14
Jeremy J Heit, Max Wintermark
Acute ischemic stroke results from blockage of a cerebral artery or impaired cerebral blood flow due to cervical or intracranial arterial stenosis. Ischemic stroke prevention seeks to minimize the risk of developing impaired cerebral perfusion by controlling vascular and cardiac disease risk factors. Similarly, ischemic stroke treatment aims to restore cerebral blood flow through recanalization of an occluded artery or dilation of a severely narrowed artery that supplies cerebral tissue. Stroke prevention and treatment are increasingly informed by imaging studies, and neurovascular and cerebral perfusion imaging has become essential in in guiding ischemic stroke prevention and treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194663/cilostazol-use-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-dementia-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#15
Shu-Yu Tai, Chen-Yu Chien, Yu-Han Chang, Yuan-Han Yang
Whether antiplatelet agents have a preventive effect on cognitive function remains unknown. We examined the potential association between the use of cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent and cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, and the risk of dementia in an Asian population. Patients initiating cilostazol therapy between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009 without a prior history of dementia were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Participants were stratified by age, sex, comorbidities, and comedication...
February 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191623/the-ivy-sign-on-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-related-to-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-cerebral-blood-flow-in-moyamoya-disease-a-case-report
#16
Fumihiro Matano, Yasuo Murai, Asami Kubota, Takayuki Mizunari, Shiro Kobayashi, Akio Morita
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic progressive cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disorder characterized by the formation of numerous collaterals called moyamoya vessels. Accurate evaluation of vascular status and CBF is needed for prompt treatment to prevent ischemic and/or hemorrhagic events. The pathogenesis of the ivy sign on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of moyamoya disease patients is unclear. We report a moyamoya disease case wherein the ivy sign changed in relation to SPECT-measured CBF during progression and following treatment...
January 17, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183839/mr-imaging-of-individual-perfusion-reorganization-using-superselective-pseudocontinuous-arterial-spin-labeling-in-patients-with-complex-extracranial-steno-occlusive-disease
#17
V Richter, M Helle, M J P van Osch, T Lindner, A S Gersing, P Tsantilas, H-H Eckstein, C Preibisch, C Zimmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with multiple stenoses or occlusions of the extracranial arteries require an individualized diagnostic approach. We evaluated the feasibility and clinical utility of a novel MR imaging technique for regional perfusion imaging in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling with a circular labeling spot enabling selective vessel labeling was added to routine imaging in a prospective pilot study in 50 patients (10 women, 70...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180096/the-frozen-elephant-trunk-technique-european-association-for-cardio-thoracic-surgery-position-and-bologna-experience
#18
REVIEW
Luca Di Marco, Antonio Pantaleo, Alessandro Leone, Giacomo Murana, Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Davide Pacini
Complex lesions of the thoracic aorta are traditionally treated in 2 surgical steps with the elephant trunk technique. A relatively new approach is the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique, which potentially allows combined lesions of the thoracic aorta to be treated in a 1-stage procedure combining endovascular treatment with conventional surgery using a hybrid prosthesis. These are very complex and time-consuming operations, and good results can be obtained only if appropriate strategies for myocardial, cerebral, and visceral protection are adopted...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#20
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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