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Cerebral vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#1
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340741/-platelet-inhibition-in-patients-with-coronary-cerebral-and-peripheral-macroangiopathy-what-when-and-how-long
#2
REVIEW
M Halbach, S Baldus
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of platelet aggregation can reduce the rate of vascular events in patients with coronary artery disease, carotid artery stenosis and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The choice of platelet inhibitors in monotherapy and combination therapy as well as the duration of dual platelet inhibition depend on the clinical situation and individual patient characteristics. GOAL: The present review summarizes the latest data from clinical trials and recommendations regarding platelet inhibition in coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial disease...
January 16, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324976/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-apoptosis-by-increasing-autophagy-via-the-ampk-mtor-signaling-in-serum-deprivation-macrophages
#3
Ping Yang, Lu Ling, Wenjing Sun, Junquan Yang, Ling Zhang, Guoji Chang, Jiazhi Guo, Jun Sun, Lin Sun, Di Lu
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has been widely used in a broad range of cardiovascular and cerebral-vascular diseases because of its unique therapeutic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of Rg1 in the treatment of atherosclerosis have not been fully explored. This study sought to determine the precise molecular mechanisms on how Rg1 might be involved in regulating apoptosis in serum deprivation-induced Raw264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. Results demonstrated that Rg1 treatment effectively suppressed apoptosis and the expression of phosphorylation level of mTOR induced by serum deprivation in Raw264...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323198/paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-pnh-brain-mri-ischemic-lesions-in-neurologically-asymtomatic-patients
#4
Wilma Barcellini, Elisa Scola, Silvia Lanfranconi, Marika Grottaroli, Francesca Binda, Bruno Fattizzo, Anna Zaninoni, Gloria Valcamonica, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Carla Boschetti, Massimiliano Buoli, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Nereo Bresolin, Fabio Triulzi, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi
This study investigated for the first time brain ischemic involvement in 19 consecutive neurologically asymptomatic PNH patients by non-enhanced cerebral MRI, and by intracranial arterial and venous angio-MRI. Eleven cases (58%, 7 aged <65) showed pathological findings: 9 white matter (WM) abnormalities related to chronic ischemic small vessel disease, 2 a focal abnormality >5 mm, and 5 cases a score >4 by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale. Compared with age and sex-matched controls (1:2 ratio), patients showed an increased frequency of periventricular WM vascular degeneration (32% versus 5...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320772/a-perfect-storm-the-role-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#5
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
January 11, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311754/correlation-between-cerebral-hemodynamic-and-perfusion-pressure-changes-in-non-human-primates
#6
A Ruesch, M A Smith, G Wollstein, I A Sigal, S Nelson, J M Kainerstorfer
The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral autoregulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and the oxygen supply might be unstable...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310406/cerebral-venous-thrombosis-originating-from-internal-jugular-vein-outflow-impairment-a-case-report
#7
Chunxiao Li, Li Sun, Xiuzhen Zhao, Mingqin Zhu, Ying Zhang
RATIONALE: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) comprises a group of cerebral vascular diseases resulting from cerebral venous outflow obstruction caused by various etiologies. The etiology of CVT is complex, including infectious and noninfectious factors. The diagnosis is difficult. As a result, many patients are misdiagnosed or never diagnosed. This patient was diagnosed with CVT due to unilateral internal jugular vein compression. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we present a case of acute onset CVT in a 15-year-old female patient who presented with a headache, nausea, and vomiting as the main clinical manifestations...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309970/can-vascular-risk-factors-influence-number-and-size-of-cerebral-metastases-a-3d-mri-study-in-patients-with-different-tumor-entities
#8
Sandra Nagel, Benjamin-Andreas Berk, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Clemens Seidel
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that cerebral microangiopathy reduces number of brain metastases. Aim of this study was to analyse if vascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia) or the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) can have an impact on number or size of brain metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 200 patients with pre-therapeutic 3D-brain MRI and available clinical data were analyzed retrospectively...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307022/fluorescein-videoangiography-during-extracranial-to-intracranial-bypass-surgery-preliminary-results
#9
Alessandro Narducci, Julia Onken, Marcus Czabanka, Nils Hecht, Peter Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: Over the last years, intraoperative use of fluorescein is gaining ground in the field of neurosurgery, due to development of a microscope-integrated YELLOW 560 module, with reported experiences in brain malignancies, aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformation surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and value of fluorescein videoangiography during bypass procedures. METHODS: The authors enrolled 11 patients who underwent extracranial-to-intracranial bypass for moyamoya disease, atherosclerotic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and flow replacement during a giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm treatment...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304541/rationale-design-and-methodology-of-the-computerized-registry-of-patients-with-venous-thromboembolism-riete
#10
Behnood Bikdeli, David Jimenez, Mayra Hawkins, Salvador Ortíz, Paolo Prandoni, Benjamin Brenner, Hervé Decousus, Frederick A Masoudi, Javier Trujillo-Santos, Harlan M Krumholz, Manuel Monreal
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable cause of in-hospital death, and one of the most prevalent vascular diseases. There is a lack of knowledge with regards to contemporary presentation, management and outcomes of patients with VTE. Many clinically important subgroups (including the elderly, those with recent bleeding and pregnant patients) have been under-represented in clinical trials. Furthermore, design of clinical trials is challenging in some scenarios, such as in those with hemodynamically unstable PE...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296213/suppression-of-microrna-9-5p-rescues-learning-and-memory-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-model
#11
Na Wei, Kai Zheng, Rui Xue, Sheng-Li Ma, Hua-Yan Ren, Hui-Fen Huang, Wei-Wei Wang, Jing-Jing Xu, Kui-Sheng Chen
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with cognitive impairment in dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular disease (VaD), the two most common neurodegenerative diseases in aged people. However, the effective therapeutic approaches for both AD and VaD are still missing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the epigenetic regulation in many neurological disorders; the critical roles of miRNAderegulation had been implicated in both AD and VaD. In the current study, we reported that miR-9-5p is elevated in the serum and cerebrospinalfluid of patientswith VaD...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288961/understanding-the-direction-of-the-relationship-between-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-vascular-origin-sleep-quality-and-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-atahualpa-project
#12
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
OBJECTIVE: The burden of cerebral small vessel disease, sleep disorders, and chronic kidney disease is on the rise in remote rural settings. However, information on potential links between these conditions is limited. We aimed to assess the relationships between these conditions in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were offered a brain MRI. A venous blood sample was obtained for serum creatinine determination...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287136/cerebrovascular-hemodynamics-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease
#13
Tingting Man, Yihua He, Ying Zhao, Lin Sun, Xiaowei Liu, Shuping Ge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that diminished cerebral vascular resistance or the "brain sparing effect" is associated with fetuses with complex congenital heart defects (CHD) and may affect their neurodevelopmental outcome. An alternative explanation is that it is related to the location, cardiac output, pressure, and resistance in left heart obstructive CHDs. We sought to determine the effects of various left and right heart obstructive defects on the cerebral and placental hemodynamics and to evaluate the utility of these variables for the assessment and prognosis of CHDs...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285346/subject-specific-multi-poroelastic-model-for-exploring-the-risk-factors-associated-with-the-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Liwei Guo, John C Vardakis, Toni Lassila, Micaela Mitolo, Nishant Ravikumar, Dean Chou, Matthias Lange, Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Brett J Tully, Zeike A Taylor, Susheel Varma, Annalena Venneri, Alejandro F Frangi, Yiannis Ventikos
There is emerging evidence suggesting that Alzheimer's disease is a vascular disorder, caused by impaired cerebral perfusion, which may be promoted by cardiovascular risk factors that are strongly influenced by lifestyle. In order to develop an understanding of the exact nature of such a hypothesis, a biomechanical understanding of the influence of lifestyle factors is pursued. An extended poroelastic model of perfused parenchymal tissue coupled with separate workflows concerning subject-specific meshes, permeability tensor maps and cerebral blood flow variability is used...
February 6, 2018: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284725/carotid-intima-media-thickness-is-associated-with-white-matter-hyperintensities-the-northern-manhattan-study
#15
David Della-Morte, Chuanhui Dong, Matthew S Markert, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Clinton B Wright, Tatjana Rundek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. WMH can be a manifestation of small vessel disease, although the total microvascular contribution to multifactorial WMH pathophysiology remains unknown. We hypothesized a possible relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), an ultrasound imaging marker of subclinical vascular disease, and brain WMH in a multiethnic, elderly stroke-free community-based cohort...
December 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284341/cerebral-perfusion-monitoring-in-adult-patients-following-cardiac-surgery-an-observational-study
#16
Tammy Slater, Julie Stanik-Hutt, Patricia Davidson
BACKGROUND: Strokes following adult cardiac surgery contribute to burdensome neurocognitive complications, which are often difficult to detect during the perioperative period. Fluctuations in regional cerebral perfusion and co-morbid conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, prior stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, aortic atherosclerotic disease, and peripheral vascular disease are associated with perioperative strokes. Approaches to achieve optimal cerebral perfusion remain elusive and traditional strategies for perioperative monitoring are not always sufficiently sensitive to detect acute changes in cerebral perfusion...
December 28, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282774/adult-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-abundant-phosphorylated-tau-accumulation-in-the-brainstem-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-findings
#17
Koichi Okamoto, Isao Naito, Toshio Fukuda, Keiji Suzuki, Masamitsu Takatama
We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman with moyamoya disease (MMD). She experienced her first intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at the age of 32 years, and had nine ICHs and/or intraventricular hemorrhages during the following 40 years. Cerebral angiograms and vascular pathologies at autopsy confirmed that the patient suffered from MMD. Macroscopically, there were brown-colored changes in the subarachnoid space, mainly at the base of the brain and around the cerebellar hemispheres. Microscopically, hemosiderin deposits were observed mainly in the old hemorrhagic lesions and on the surface of the brainstem and cerebellum...
December 27, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279830/homocystinuria-with-stroke-and-positive-familial-history
#18
Ali Mazaheri, Neda Mostofizadeh, Mahin Hashemipour
Homocystinuria is the second most common treatable aminoacidopathy. Clinically, affected patients present with eye, skeleton, central nervous system, and most importantly, vascular system abnormalities. This autosomal recessive disorder leads to accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites in the blood and urine. In this report, we present a case with clinical and biochemical findings of homocystinuria with stroke and a positive familial history of the disease in her brother. A 4-year-old girl was admitted to pediatric emergency ward because of acute onset of right hemiparesis and subsequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275602/-long-term-outcomes-of-implanting-drug-eluting-stents-for-unprotected-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction
#19
Y Pan, Q Qiu, W H Ren, X P Yu, Q Li, X J Ren
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of implanting drug-eluting stents (DES) for unprotected left main (ULM) coronary artery disease patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Methods: A total of 511 ULM coronary artery disease patients who underwent DES implantation from January 2005 to January 2012 in Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital were included in the study. Based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the patients were divided into three groups: LVEF≤40% (n=104), 41%≤LVEF≤49% (n=137), and LVEF≥50% (n=270)...
December 12, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274685/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-an-important-and-common-cause-of-thunderclap-and-recurrent-headaches
#20
REVIEW
M T Arrigan, M K S Heran, J R Shewchuk
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is an intracranial vascular manifestation of a wide variety of diseases. It is the second most common cause of thunderclap headache, the most common cause of recurrent severe secondary headaches, and, in patients <60 years of age, has been reported as the commonest cause of isolated convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage. Radiologically, its key feature is vasoconstriction of the intracranial vessels, a dynamic process that is typically maximal at 2 weeks, varies in its distribution over the course of the disease, and typically resolves after 3 months...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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