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Cerebral infarction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244126/silent-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-twice-as-prevalent-in-middle-aged-well-controlled-cart-treated-hiv-infected-individuals-than-hiv-uninfected-individuals
#1
Antoine Moulignier, Julien Savatovsky, Lambert Assoumou, François-Xavier Lescure, Cédric Lamirel, Ophelia Godin, Nadia Valin, Roland Tubiana, Ana Canestri, Pascal Roux, Jean-Claude Sadik, Laurence Salomon, Marie Abrivard, Christine Katlama, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Pialoux, Pierre-Marie Girard, Dominique Costagliola
Background: Silent cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) is defined as white matter hyperintensities, silent brain infarction or microbleeds. CSVD is responsible for future vascular events, cognitive impairment, frailty and shorter survival. CSVD prevalence among middle-aged persons living with well-controlled HIV infection (PLHIVs) is unknown. Methods: ANRS EP51 MicroBREAK (NCT02082574) is a cross-sectional study with prospective enrollment of treated PLHIVs, ≥50 years old with viral load controlled for ≥12 months, and frequency age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected controls (HUCs)...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244081/atrial-fibrillation-type-matters-greater-infarct-volume-and-worse-neurological-defects-seen-in-acute-cardiogenic-cerebral-embolism-due-to-persistent-or-permanent-rather-than-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Osamu Inaba, Yasuteru Yamauchi, Masahiro Sekigawa, Naoyuki Miwa, Junji Yamaguchi, Yasutoshi Nagata, Toru Obayashi, Takamichi Miyamoto, Tomoyuki Kamata, Mitsuaki Isobe, Masahiko Goya, Kenzo Hirao
Aims: Some studies have shown that the type of atrial fibrillation (AF), whether paroxysmal AF (PAF) or persistent or permanent AF (PeAF), affects the incidence of ischaemic stroke. This study sought to determine the relationship between the AF pattern and the severity and brain volume of infarction in an AF population including transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients. Methods and results: This was a retrospective observational study. We studied 161 consecutive patients who were admitted to our stroke care unit with cardiogenic embolism or TIA related to non-valvular AF (age 79 ± 9...
December 12, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243974/pediatric-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-or-compression-in-the-setting-of-skull-fractures-from-blunt-head-trauma
#3
David S Hersh, Nir Shimony, Mari L Groves, Gerald F Tuite, George I Jallo, Ann Liu, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Thierry A G M Huisman, Ryan J Felling, Joseph A Kufera, Edward S Ahn
OBJECTIVE Pediatric cerebral venous sinus thrombosis has been previously described in the setting of blunt head trauma; however, the population demographics, risk factors for thrombosis, and the risks and benefits of detection and treatment in this patient population are poorly defined. Furthermore, few reports differentiate between different forms of sinus pathology. A series of pediatric patients with skull fractures who underwent venous imaging and were diagnosed with intrinsic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or extrinsic sinus compression is presented...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243061/neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-via-mediating-autophagy-and-inflammation
#4
Lifa Huang, Chengwei Chen, Xin Zhang, Xu Li, Zupeng Chen, Chao Yang, Xiaolong Liang, Guochong Zhu, Zhen Xu
Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, has drawn attention for its effective bioactivities against ischemia-induced injury. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and investigate the underlying mechanism that mediates autophagy and inflammation in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Curcumin was delivered to Sprague Dawley male rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg curcumin by intraperitoneal injection 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240562/occurrence-of-impaired-physical-performance-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#5
Jurre H Verwer, Geert-Jan Biessels, Rutger Heinen, Lieza G Exalto, Marielle H Emmelot-Vonk, Huiberdina L Koek
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) occurs often in memory clinic patients. Apart from cognitive deficits, these patients can express physical decline, which predicts adverse health outcomes. In this study, we investigated the cooccurrence of clinically relevant impairments in physical performance and CSVD in memory clinic patients. We included 131 patients with vascular brain injury, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease with available 3T MRI and physical performance scores. CSVD was visually rated according to 3 subtypes and as a total burden score, composed of the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunar infarcts (LI), and cerebral microbleeds (MB)...
December 13, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239807/an-objective-measurement-of-lacunar-infarct-location-from-the-middle-cerebral-artery-stem
#6
Shanal S Kumar, Bradford A Moffat, Simon Salinas, Leonid Churilov, Bernard Yan
BACKGROUND: There is emerging interest in the relationship between neuroimaging location of lacunar infarcts and underlying stroke risk factors. Recent methods used for localization of lacunar infarcts are affected by high inter-rater variability. We used a novel algorithm-driven method that provided quantitative assessment of the distance of the lacunar infarct from the origins of the lenticulostriate arteries. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with lacunar infarcts between 2007 and 2011...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238322/acute-ischemic-pediatric-stroke-management-an-extended-window-for-mechanical-thrombectomy
#7
Ashish Kulhari, Elizabeth Dorn, Jonathan Pace, Vilakshan Alambyan, Stephanie Chen, Osmond C Wu, Macym Rizvi, Anthony Hammond, Ciro Ramos-Estebanez
Ischemic stroke is a rare condition to afflict the pediatric population. Congenital cardiomyopathy represents one of several possible etiologies in children. We report a 9-year-old boy who developed right middle cerebral artery stroke secondary to primary restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the absence of pediatric guidelines, the child met adult criteria for mechanical thrombectomy given the small core infarct and large penumbra. The literature suggests children may benefit from mechanical thrombectomy in carefully selected cases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238112/crevice-sign-as-an-indicator-of-plaque-laceration-associated-with-postoperative-severe-thromboembolism-after-carotid-artery-stenting-a-case-report
#8
Tomotaka Ohshima, Taiki Yamamoto, Shunsaku Goto, Kojiro Ishikawa, Toshihisa Nishizawa, Shinji Shimato
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is increasingly utilized in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Various intraprocedural and postprocedural complications have been reported in the literature. We present a case of symptomatic major thromboembolism after CAS. The intraprocedural angiogram showed extraordinary slow filling of the contrast medium into the plaque, which we named as "crevice sign." An 83-year-old man presented repeat right amaurosis fugax for 6 months. The radiological examinations revealed 85% stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235296/-effect-of-astragaloside-%C3%A2-combined-with-panax-notoginseng-saponins-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-study-of-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#9
Jing-Xian Li, Xiao-Qian Yang, Biao Tang, Xiao-Dan Liu, Ying-Hong Tang, Chang-Qing Deng, Xiao-Ping Huang
The aim is to study the effect of astragaloside Ⅳ (AST Ⅳ) combined with Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to probe the synergistic mechanism through the pharmacokinetics of the four major components such as AST Ⅳ, ginsenoside Rg₁ (Rg₁), ginsenoside Rb₁ (Rb₁), notoginsenoside R₁ (R₁) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. Following the establishment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model in rats by modified suture method, neurological function score, cerebral infarction area and pathomorphology were used to evaluate the pharmacological effect that the combination of AST Ⅳ and PNS antagonized cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; the contents of AST Ⅳ, Rg₁, Rb₁, R₁ in rat plasma of different time points were determined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and pharmacokinetics changes of the main effective components were analyzed...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233158/etiology-of-isolated-pontine-infarctions-a-study-based-on-high-resolution-mri-and-brain-small-vessel-disease-scores
#10
Cheng Xia, Hui-Sheng Chen, Shi-Wen Wu, Wei-Hai Xu
BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, we investigated the main pathogenesis of the two types of isolated pontine infarction: paramedian pontine infarcts (PPIs) and small deep pontine infarcts (SDPIs). METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients, comprising 117 PPI patients and 40 SDPI patients, were enrolled. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) and routine MRI sequences were performed for each patient, and clinical data were collected. The following brain small vessel disease (SVD) features of the MRI scans were each rated (0 or 1) separately: asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WMLs), deep and infratentorial cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231426/-row-acupuncture-at-the-gaps-between-phalanges-for-dorsal-stretch-of-fingers-after-cerebral-infarction
#11
Zhenyuan Lin, Wenyu Wu, Mingxia Wu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect differences between row acupuncture at the gaps between phalanges and physical therapy for the dorsal stretch of fingers after cerebral infarction. METHODS: Seven-one cases were randomized into a row acupuncture at the gaps between phalanges group (group A, 37 cases) and a physical therapy group (group B, 34 cases). Body acupuncture was applied in the two groups. Row acupuncture at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd gaps between phalanges was used in the group A, with continuous wave of electroacupuncture...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231236/relevance-of-the-cerebral-collateral-circulation-in-ischaemic-stroke-time-is-brain-but-collaterals-set-the-pace
#12
Simon Jung, Roland Wiest, Jan Gralla, Richard McKinley, Heinrich Mattle, David Liebeskind
Blood supply to the brain is secured by an extensive collateral circulation system, which can be divided into primary routes, i.e., the Circle of Willis, and secondary routes, e.g., collaterals from the external to the internal carotid artery and leptomeningeal collaterals. Collateral flow is the basis for acute stroke treatment, since neurones will only survive long enough to be rescued with reperfusion therapies if there is sufficient collateral flow. Poor collateral flow is associated with worse outcome and faster growth of larger infarcts in acute stroke treatment...
December 12, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228907/secondary-pallidonigral-degeneration-mimicking-recurrent-acute-stroke-in-clinical-presentation-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report
#13
Ruei-Je Tsai, Li-Chun Hsieh, Sho-Jen Cheng, Cheng-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Secondary pallidonigral transneuronal degeneration after a remote primary cerebral infarct can mimic recurrent stroke at clinical presentation. We describe a patient with secondary pallidonigral degeneration following a previous putaminal infarct, which was diagnosed through diffusion-weighted (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old man complained of an acute relapse of right-lower-limb weakness following a cerebral infarction 2 months before presentation...
December 11, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228630/transplantation-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-overexpressing-sdf-1%C3%AE-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#14
Monica Chau, Todd C Deveau, Mingke Song, Zheng Z Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability while clinical treatments are limited. The adult brain possesses endogenous regenerative activities that may benefit tissue repair after stroke. Trophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) are upregulated in the ischemic brain, which promote endogenous regeneration. The regenerative response, however, is normally insufficient. Transplantation of exogenous cells has been explored as regenerative therapies. One promising cell type for transplantation is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells which are cells genetically reprogrammed from adult somatic cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228591/up-regulation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-in-response-to-acute-ischemic-stroke-via-erk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Zhou Ou, Meng-Xing Tao, Qing Gao, Xue-Ling Zhang, Yang Yang, Jun-Shan Zhou, Ying-Dong Zhang
Cerebral ischemic stroke is usually caused by a temporary or permanent decrease in blood supply to the brain. Despite general progress in diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of stroke is still unsatisfactory, and more detailed potential mechanisms are needed to investigate underlying the pathological process. Here, we showed that serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) concentration was positively correlated with infarct volume after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Moreover, using a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model, we indicated for the first time that increased ACE expression in response to AIS was regulated by the ERK/NF-κB pathway in peri-infarct regions...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228445/the-protective-effect-and-its-mechanism-of-3-n-butylphthalide-pretreatment-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#16
R-Y Yan, S-J Wang, G-T Yao, Z-G Liu, N Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effect of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) pretreatment on the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and the relevant mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 rats was divided into three groups: Sham operation group (Sham group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I-R group), and NBP pretreatment group (NBP group 75 mg·kg-1·d-1 gavage). Pre-treatment was given once a day within 1 week before establishing the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228325/episodic-migraine-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-association-of-pain-lateralization
#17
Ahmet Yalcin, Mustafa Ceylan, Omer Faruk Bayraktutan, Adem Akkurt
Background: Migraine pathophysiology involves a neuronal mechanism that is closely associated with the neuronal activation of peripheral trigeminal nociceptive pathways. It also involves a vascular mechanism that is supported by studies concerning the presence of migraine with aura in various vascular diseases. Migraine is associated with silent infarct-like lesions and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) that can be encountered during magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the migraine-WMH link based on pain lateralization...
December 8, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227541/protective-effects-of-microrna-431-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-by-targeting-the-rho-rho-kinase-signaling-pathway
#18
Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Yong-Jian Wang, Shan Wang, Min Shen, Zi-Feng Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan, Qun Shan, Liang Wang, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
This study investigates the protective effects of miR-431 against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through the Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway. SD rats were randomly classified into normal, sham and model (middle cerebral artery occluded) groups. Rho expression and cerebral infarction were visualized by immunohischemistry and TTC staining, respectively. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein expression of miR-431 and Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway-related genes. Hippocampal neurons were extracted and assigned into normal, blank, negative control (NC), miR-431 mimics, miR-431 inhibitors, siRNA-Rho and miR-431 inhibitors + siRNA-Rho groups...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226637/the-value-of-mean-platelet-volume-for-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-cerebral-infarction
#19
Jiao-Long Wan, Zhi-Wei Ma
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of mean platelet volume (MPV) for prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). METHODS: One hundred ACI patients and 80 healthy volunteers acting as healthy controls (HCs) were consecutively included in this study. Their baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from an electroniccase system. ACI patients were followed for 90 days to collect the main study endpoints including poor prognosis, death due to cardiovascular causes, and the recurrence of stroke...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223602/prognostic-significance-of-shockable-and-non-shockable-cardiac-arrest-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-primary-angioplasty
#20
Nevio Taglieri, Francesco Saia, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Gabriele Ghetti, Antonio Giulio Bruno, Claudia Rosetti, Matteo Bruno, Anna Corsini, Paola Battistini, Gianluca Lanati, Maria Teresa Di Dio, Diego Della Riva, Miriam Compagnone, Cinzia Marrozzini, Claudio Rapezzi
OBJECTIVE: To determine, in patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the prognostic weight of cardiac arrest (CA) according to the type of rhythm (shockable vs. non-shockable). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 3278 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. Multivariable Cox regression was used to establish the relation to 1-year cardiac mortality of both type of CA. In patients suffering from CA we identified predictors of both poor neurological outcome (cerebral performance categories 3-5) and cardiac mortality at 1year...
December 6, 2017: Resuscitation
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