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Low grade glioma children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618666/peptide-vaccine-immunotherapy-biomarkers-and-response-patterns-in-pediatric-gliomas
#1
Sören Müller, Sameer Agnihotri, Karsen E Shoger, Max I Myers, Nicholas Smith, Srilakshmi Chaparala, Clarence R Villanueva, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Adrian V Lee, Lisa H Butterfield, Aaron Diaz, Hideho Okada, Ian F Pollack, Gary Kohanbash
Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most common brain tumor affecting children. We recently reported an early phase clinical trial of a peptide-based vaccine, which elicited consistent antigen-specific T cell responses in pediatric LGG patients. Additionally, we observed radiologic responses of stable disease (SD), partial response (PR), and near-complete/complete response (CR) following therapy. To identify biomarkers of clinical response in peripheral blood, we performed RNA sequencing on PBMC samples collected at multiple time points...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617945/intracranial-neoplasms-in-the-first-year-of-life-results-of-a-third-cohort-of-patients-from-a-single-institution
#2
Sebastian M Toescu, Gregory James, Kim Phipps, Owase Jeelani, Dominic Thompson, Richard Hayward, Kristian Aquilina
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors in the first year of life are rare and their management remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: To report on the contemporary management of brain tumors in infants with reference to previous series from our institution. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study design. Electronic/paper case note review of all brain tumors diagnosed at our institution in children aged <1 yr since the publication of our previous series. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were seen...
April 3, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548059/gliomas-in-children
#3
Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405073/the-use-of-neo-adjuvant-single-agent-vinblastine-for-tumour-shrinkage-in-a-highly-vascular-paediatric-low-grade-glioma
#4
Vita Stagno, Conor Mallucci, Shivaram Avula, Barry Pizer
Vinblastine has shown activity as second line treatment in Low Grade Glioma (LGG) in children as well as anti-angiogenic activity in vitro. A 5 year old girl presented with 6 week history of headaches. MRI demonstrated a right temporo-parietal mass with abnormal pathological vasculature including aneurysmal vessels. Biopsy showed a pilocytic astrocytoma. Due to increased risk from surgery, first line treatment with vinblastine was given. Over 10 months, progressive reduction of tumour vascularity was demonstrated...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396719/challenges-in-the-management-of-childhood-low-grade-glioma-in-a-developing-country
#5
Khalid Abdalla, Shaker Abdullah, Abeer Almehdar, Naglla Elimam, Mohammed Burhan Abrar, Wasil Jastaniah
BACKGROUND: Treatment modality impacts outcome of childhood low-grade glioma (LGG). Optimizing management in developing countries can be challenging. This study evaluates the clinical characteristics, treatment, and factors influencing outcome of childhood LGG in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated 59 children consecutively diagnosed with LGG between January 2001 and June 2016. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 6...
February 2, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393184/chemotherapy-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#6
Keita Terashima
Under specific indications, chemotherapy may play an important role in the treatment of pediatric patients with intracranial gliomas. It can be effectively administered in inoperable low-grade tumors, particularly with the use of combination regimens based on carboplatin and vincristine. In very young children with high-grade gliomas (HGG), chemotherapy may result in control of tumor growth, which allows to postpone fractionated radiation therapy (FRT). At the same time, in difference with adults, there is no current evidence that addition of chemotherapy to aggressive surgical resection followed by FRT has any positive impact on survival of pediatric patients with non-pontine HGG...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393179/irradiation-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#7
Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Clemens Seidel, Klaus Müller, Franz Wolfgang Hirsch
Attainment of local control is a cornerstone in the management of brain tumors in children. Treatment of progressive low-grade and all high-grade gliomas traditionally includes resection followed by fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) or FRT alone in neoplasms not amenable to surgical removal. While in younger children chemotherapy is typically used as a first-line non-surgical management option, FRT in such patients remains the standard of salvage therapy. Recent improvements in techniques for radiation treatment planning and delivery allow conformal and selective coverage of the target volume with a prescribed dose, sparing adjacent normal tissues to assure maximal tumor control and minimal toxicity...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383433/volumetric-assessment-of-tumor-size-changes-in-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-feasibility-and-comparison-with-linear-measurements
#8
Felice D'Arco, Patricia O'Hare, Fatima Dashti, Alvaro Lassaletta, Thalia Loka, Uri Tabori, Giacomo Talenti, Stefanie Thust, Giancarlo Messalli, Patrick Hales, Eric Bouffet, Suzanne Laughlin
PURPOSE: We report a retrospective comparison between bi-dimensional RANO criteria and manual volumetric segmentation (MVS) in pediatric low-grade gliomas. METHODS: MRI FLAIR or T1 post contrast images were used for assessment of tumor response. Seventy patients were included in this single center study, for each patient two scans were assessed ("time 0" and "end of therapy") and response to therapy was evaluated for both methods. Inter-reader variability and average time for volumetric assessment were also calculated...
January 30, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369501/targeted-therapy-for-infants-with-diencephalic-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-management-strategies
#9
Lars M Wagner, John S Myseros, Douglas E Lukins, Christi M Willen, Roger J Packer
Young children with emaciation caused by a hypothalamic glioma are considered to have diencephalic syndrome (DS), which is often poorly controlled with conventional treatment. We describe an infant with DS whose tumor progressed following chemotherapy. Biopsy was performed for molecular testing and demonstrated a BRAF fusion. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor trametinib for 18 months resulted in reduction of tumor size, normalization of his weight curve, and marked neurodevelopmental improvement. Our results build on earlier reports of using targeted agents for low-grade glioma, and we review the evolving management strategy for such patients in the era of precision medicine...
January 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357120/magnetic-resonance-perfusion-for-differentiating-low-grade-from-high-grade-gliomas-at-first-presentation
#10
REVIEW
Jill M Abrigo, Daniel M Fountain, James M Provenzale, Eric K Law, Joey Sw Kwong, Michael G Hart, Wilson Wai San Tam
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343527/visual-outcomes-after-chemotherapy-for-optic-pathway-glioma-in-children-with-and-without-neurofibromatosis-type-1-results-of-the-international-society-of-paediatric-oncology-siop-low-grade-glioma-2004-trial-uk-cohort
#11
Kevin Falzon, Evangelos Drimtzias, Susan Picton, Ian Simmons
AIMS: To report visual acuity (VA) outcomes following chemotherapy for optic pathway glioma (OPG) in children with or without neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) and to analyse associated risk factors. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, cohort study involving 155 children treated between September 2004 and December 2012. Initial and final VA was used for per-eye and per-subject analysis. Correlation tests were performed to determine whether initial VA predicted final VA...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315108/review-of-molecular-classification-and-treatment-implications-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#12
Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Vijay Ramaswamy, Craig Daniels, Michael D Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors and leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The advent of large-scale genomics has resulted in a plethora of profiling studies that have mapped the genetic and epigenetic landscapes of pediatric brain tumors, ringing in a new era of precision diagnostics and targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the most recent findings, focusing on studies published after 2015, and discuss how new evidence is changing the care of children with brain tumors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297618/siop-podc-adapted-treatment-guidelines-for-low-grade-gliomas-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#13
Laila Hessissen, Jeannette Parkes, Nisreen Amayiri, Naureen Mushtaq, Nongnuch Sirachainan, Yavuz Anacak, Dipayan Mitra, Anthony Figaji, Antoinette Schouten-van Meeteren, Michael Sullivan, Hester Burger, Alan Davidson, Eric Bouffet, Simon Bailey
Effective treatment of children with low grade glioma (LGG) requires a functioning multi-disciplinary team with adequate neurosurgical, neuroradiological, pathological, radiotherapy and chemotherapy facilities and personnel. In addition, the treating centre should have the capacity to manage a variety of LGG and treatment-associated complications. These requirements have made it difficult for many centers in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) to offer effective treatment and follow up. This article provides management recommendations for children with LGG according to the level of facilities available...
December 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280458/radiation-therapy-for-optic-pathway-and-hypothalamic-low-grade-gliomas-in-children
#14
Derek S Tsang, Erin S Murphy, Thomas E Merchant
PURPOSE: The long-term survival of pediatric patients with optic pathway or hypothalamic low-grade glioma (LGG) who receive radiation therapy (RT) has not been previously assessed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was performed of all patients with optic-hypothalamic pediatric LGG treated with RT at a single institution. Eligible patients were aged ≤21 years at the time of RT and had localized LGG diagnosed by neuroimaging or histology. The median RT dose was 54 Gy, delivered in 30 fractions...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246098/optic-pathway-gliomas-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#15
Cynthia J Campen, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common brain tumor predisposition syndromes, in which affected children are prone to the development of low-grade gliomas. While NF1-associated gliomas can be found in several brain regions, the majority arise in the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Owing to their location, 35-50% of affected children present with reduced visual acuity. Unfortunately, despite tumor stabilization following chemotherapy, vision does not improve in most children...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246097/neurofibromatosis-clinical-trial-consortium
#16
Roger J Packer, Michael J Fisher, Gary Cutter, Karen Cole-Plourde, Bruce R Korf
Neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2, affecting both children and adults, often results in devastating complications. The rapid unravelling of the genetic underpinnings of these unique disorders has led to the development of novel therapies, especially molecular-targeted therapies. To facilitate clinical trial development, the Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trial Consortium (NFCTC) was established in 2006 by the Department of Defense. Over the past decade, the Consortium has successfully completed studies for children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 and plexiform neurofibromas, neurocognitive challenges, low-grade gliomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#17
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238884/research-of-differential-expression-of-sil1rap-in-low-grade-gliomas-between-children-and-adults
#18
Jintao He, Xiang Li, Wanchun Zhu, Yaxiong Yu, Jian Gong
Glioma is the most common intracranial malignant tumor. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) occupy almost 80% in all of the gliomas. The prognosis of LGG in children is much better than in adult, however, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In our investigation, it was first found that the level of soluble IL1RAP (sIL1RAP) was significantly higher in the LGG from children than that from adult. We also revealed that sIL1RAP could induce the apoptosis of U251. In cells with overexpression of sIL-1RAP, the cell proliferation promoted by IL-1 was significantly inhibited...
January 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230924/response-in-a-child-with-a-braf-v600e-mutated-desmoplastic-infantile-astrocytoma-upon-retreatment-with-vemurafenib
#19
Cornelis M van Tilburg, Florian Selt, Felix Sahm, Heidi Bächli, Stefan M Pfister, Olaf Witt, Till Milde
Infants with low-grade glioma (LGG) and diencephalic syndrome have a poor outcome. The patient described here had a desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. After relapse following initial standard chemotherapy treatment, he was successfully treated with the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib at the age of 3 years 11 months and 5 years 0 months. A rapid response was observed on both occasions. This illustrates the possibility of continuous oncogenic addiction and the therapeutic potential of BRAF V600E inhibitor monotherapy in LGG, even in very young severely compromised children...
March 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148317/brainstem-glioma-prediction-of-histopathologic-grade-based-on-conventional-mr-imaging
#20
Yashar Moharamzad, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Farhad Niaghi, Elham Shobeiri
Objective The objective of this article is to investigate the association between specific MR imaging findings and histopathologic grading (low-grade vs. high-grade) of brainstem gliomas (BSGs). Methods Sixty-two males and 34 females (mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 24.61 (17.20) years, range = 3 to 70 years) with histologically diagnosed BSG underwent conventional 1.5 T MR imaging, which included T1-weighted (T1W), T2W, and post-contrast T1W sequences. There were 39 children (mean age of 9.38 years) and 57 adults (mean age of 35 years)...
February 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
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