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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891066/cerebellar-tumors
#1
Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Michael A Grotzer
The cerebellum is the most common site of presentation of central nervous system tumors in children but exceedingly rare in adults. Children often present with acute symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure, requiring urgent surgical intervention. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes a variety of benign and malignant entities. Cerebellar low-grade gliomas are the most common and benign, slow-growing tumors, for which surgical resection alone is curative. Embryonal tumors, on the other hand - most commonly medulloblastomas - are highly aggressive and treatment includes intensive postsurgical radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804214/pseudoprogression-successfully-treated-with-bevacizumab-in-a-child-with-spinal-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#2
Kenji Miyata, Toshinori Hori, Yasuto Shimomura, Masahiro Joko, Masakazu Takayasu, Akihisa Okumura
CLINICAL CASE: We report on a 7-year-old female with spinal pilocytic astrocytoma complicated by pseudoprogression 1 month after completion of radiation therapy. Although she was initially treated with high-dose steroids, her clinical symptoms did not completely resolve, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extension of the lesions into the medulla oblongata. Treatment with bevacizumab was commenced, followed by rapid resolution of the clinical symptoms and improvements in the MRI findings...
May 27, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770223/profound-hearing-loss-following-surgery-in-pediatric-patients-with-posterior-fossa-low-grade-glioma
#3
Yahya Ghazwani, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Johnnie K Bass, Shengjie Wu, Jason Chiang, Frederick Boop, Amar Gajjar, Zsila Sadighi
Background: Hearing loss may occur in patients with posterior fossa low-grade glioma who undergo surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 217 patients with posterior fossa low-grade glioma, including 115 for whom results of hearing tests performed after surgery and before chemotherapy or radiation therapy were available. We explored the association of UHL with age at diagnosis, sex, race, tumor location, extent of resection, posterior fossa syndrome, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and histology...
May 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766345/visual-function-assessed-by-visually-evoked-potentials-in-optic-pathway-low-grade-gliomas-with-and-without-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#4
Patrícia de Freitas Dotto, Adriana Berezovsky, Andrea Maria Cappellano, Nasjla Saba da Silva, Paula Yuri Sacai, Frederico Adolfo B Silva, Arthur Gustavo Fernandes, Daniel Martins Rocha, Solange Rios Salomão
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of full-field transient pattern-reversal visually evoked potentials (PRVEP) on cross-sectional evaluations of visual function in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) affected by optic pathway low-grade gliomas (OPLGG). METHODS: Participants were children and adolescents referred for visual function evaluation and receiving treatment for OPLGG, linked (NF1-OPLGG) or not to NF1 (Non-NF1-OPLGG). An age-adjusted control group was included for comparison...
May 15, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741274/neurologic-impairments-from-pediatric-low-grade-glioma-by-tumor-location-and-timing-of-diagnosis
#5
Zsila S Sadighi, Elizabeth Curtis, Jennifer Zabrowksi, Catherine Billups, Amar Gajjar, Raja Khan, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: The neurologic outcomes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) according to tumor location and duration of presenting symptoms remain poorly characterized in children. PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed neurologic impairments in 246 pediatric patients with LGGs (88 with optic pathway and midline tumors, 56 with posterior fossa tumors, 52 with cerebral hemisphere tumors, 35 with brainstem tumors, and 15 with spinal cord tumors) who were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1995 and 2005...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#6
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705876/comparative-study-of-pulsed-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging-by-histogram-analysis-in-evaluation-of-glial-tumors
#7
Atsuko Arisawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hisashi Tanaka, Hiroto Takahashi, Chisato Matsuo, Takuya Fujiwara, Masahiro Fujiwara, Yasunori Fujimoto, Noriyuki Tomiyama
PURPOSE: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive perfusion technique that may be an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for assessment of brain tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on histogram analysis of ASL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ASL is comparable with DSC-MRI in terms of differentiating high-grade and low-grade gliomas by evaluating the histogram analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the entire tumor...
June 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704429/insights-into-optic-pathway-glioma-vision-loss-from-mouse-models-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#8
REVIEW
Morgan E Freret, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The NF1-encoded protein (neurofibromin) is an inhibitor of the oncoprotein RAS and controls cell growth and survival. Individuals with NF1 are prone to developing low-grade tumors of the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations, termed optic pathway gliomas (OPGs), which can cause vision loss. A paucity of surgical tumor specimens and of patient-derived xenografts for investigative studies has limited our understanding of human NF1-associated OPG (NF1-OPG)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692922/-18-f-fdopa-pet-mri-for-monitoring-early-response-to-bevacizumab-in-children-with-recurrent-brain-tumors
#9
Karen Gauvain, Maria Rosana Ponisio, Amy Barone, Michael Grimaldi, Ephraim Parent, Hayden Leeds, Manu Goyal, Joshua Rubin, Jonathan McConathy
Background: Noninvasively predicting early response to therapy in recurrent pediatric brain tumors provides a challenge. 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18 F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18 F-FDOPA) PET/MRI has not been previously studied as a tool to evaluate early response to antiangiogenic therapy in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using 18 F-FDOPA PET/MRI to assess response to bevacizumab in children with relapsed brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Six patients with recurrent gliomas (5 low-grade, 1 high-grade) planned to undergo treatment with bevacizumab were enrolled...
March 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618666/peptide-vaccine-immunotherapy-biomarkers-and-response-patterns-in-pediatric-gliomas
#10
Sören Müller, Sameer Agnihotri, Karsen E Shoger, Max I Myers, Nicholas Smith, Srilakshmi Chaparala, Clarence R Villanueva, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Adrian V Lee, Lisa H Butterfield, Aaron Diaz, Hideho Okada, Ian F Pollack, Gary Kohanbash
Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most common brain tumor affecting children. We recently reported an early phase clinical trial of a peptide-based vaccine, which elicited consistent antigen-specific T cell responses in pediatric LGG patients. Additionally, we observed radiologic responses of stable disease (SD), partial response (PR), and near-complete/complete response (CR) following therapy. To identify biomarkers of clinical response in peripheral blood, we performed RNA sequencing on PBMC samples collected at multiple time points...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617945/intracranial-neoplasms-in-the-first-year-of-life-results-of-a-third-cohort-of-patients-from-a-single-institution
#11
Sebastian M Toescu, Gregory James, Kim Phipps, Owase Jeelani, Dominic Thompson, Richard Hayward, Kristian Aquilina
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors in the first year of life are rare and their management remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: To report on the contemporary management of brain tumors in infants with reference to previous series from our institution. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study design. Electronic/paper case note review of all brain tumors diagnosed at our institution in children aged <1 yr since the publication of our previous series. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were seen...
April 3, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548059/gliomas-in-children
#12
Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405073/the-use-of-neo-adjuvant-single-agent-vinblastine-for-tumour-shrinkage-in-a-highly-vascular-paediatric-low-grade-glioma
#13
Vita Stagno, Conor Mallucci, Shivaram Avula, Barry Pizer
Vinblastine has shown activity as second line treatment in Low Grade Glioma (LGG) in children as well as anti-angiogenic activity in vitro. A 5 year old girl presented with 6 week history of headaches. MRI demonstrated a right temporo-parietal mass with abnormal pathological vasculature including aneurysmal vessels. Biopsy showed a pilocytic astrocytoma. Due to increased risk from surgery, first line treatment with vinblastine was given. Over 10 months, progressive reduction of tumour vascularity was demonstrated...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396719/challenges-in-the-management-of-childhood-low-grade-glioma-in-a-developing-country
#14
Khalid Abdalla, Shaker Abdullah, Abeer Almehdar, Naglla Elimam, Mohammed Burhan Abrar, Wasil Jastaniah
BACKGROUND: Treatment modality impacts outcome of childhood low-grade glioma (LGG). Optimizing management in developing countries can be challenging. This study evaluates the clinical characteristics, treatment, and factors influencing outcome of childhood LGG in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated 59 children consecutively diagnosed with LGG between January 2001 and June 2016. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 6...
May 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393184/chemotherapy-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#15
Keita Terashima
Under specific indications, chemotherapy may play an important role in the treatment of pediatric patients with intracranial gliomas. It can be effectively administered in inoperable low-grade tumors, particularly with the use of combination regimens based on carboplatin and vincristine. In very young children with high-grade gliomas (HGG), chemotherapy may result in control of tumor growth, which allows to postpone fractionated radiation therapy (FRT). At the same time, in difference with adults, there is no current evidence that addition of chemotherapy to aggressive surgical resection followed by FRT has any positive impact on survival of pediatric patients with non-pontine HGG...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393179/irradiation-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#16
Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Clemens Seidel, Klaus Müller, Franz Wolfgang Hirsch
Attainment of local control is a cornerstone in the management of brain tumors in children. Treatment of progressive low-grade and all high-grade gliomas traditionally includes resection followed by fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) or FRT alone in neoplasms not amenable to surgical removal. While in younger children chemotherapy is typically used as a first-line non-surgical management option, FRT in such patients remains the standard of salvage therapy. Recent improvements in techniques for radiation treatment planning and delivery allow conformal and selective coverage of the target volume with a prescribed dose, sparing adjacent normal tissues to assure maximal tumor control and minimal toxicity...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383433/volumetric-assessment-of-tumor-size-changes-in-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-feasibility-and-comparison-with-linear-measurements
#17
Felice D'Arco, Patricia O'Hare, Fatima Dashti, Alvaro Lassaletta, Thalia Loka, Uri Tabori, Giacomo Talenti, Stefanie Thust, Giancarlo Messalli, Patrick Hales, Eric Bouffet, Suzanne Laughlin
PURPOSE: We report a retrospective comparison between bi-dimensional RANO criteria and manual volumetric segmentation (MVS) in pediatric low-grade gliomas. METHODS: MRI FLAIR or T1 post contrast images were used for assessment of tumor response. Seventy patients were included in this single center study, for each patient two scans were assessed ("time 0" and "end of therapy") and response to therapy was evaluated for both methods. Inter-reader variability and average time for volumetric assessment were also calculated...
April 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369501/targeted-therapy-for-infants-with-diencephalic-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-management-strategies
#18
Lars M Wagner, John S Myseros, Douglas E Lukins, Christi M Willen, Roger J Packer
Young children with emaciation caused by a hypothalamic glioma are considered to have diencephalic syndrome (DS), which is often poorly controlled with conventional treatment. We describe an infant with DS whose tumor progressed following chemotherapy. Biopsy was performed for molecular testing and demonstrated a BRAF fusion. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor trametinib for 18 months resulted in reduction of tumor size, normalization of his weight curve, and marked neurodevelopmental improvement. Our results build on earlier reports of using targeted agents for low-grade glioma, and we review the evolving management strategy for such patients in the era of precision medicine...
January 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357120/magnetic-resonance-perfusion-for-differentiating-low-grade-from-high-grade-gliomas-at-first-presentation
#19
REVIEW
Jill M Abrigo, Daniel M Fountain, James M Provenzale, Eric K Law, Joey Sw Kwong, Michael G Hart, Wilson Wai San Tam
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343527/visual-outcomes-after-chemotherapy-for-optic-pathway-glioma-in-children-with-and-without-neurofibromatosis-type-1-results-of-the-international-society-of-paediatric-oncology-siop-low-grade-glioma-2004-trial-uk-cohort
#20
Kevin Falzon, Evangelos Drimtzias, Susan Picton, Ian Simmons
AIMS: To report visual acuity (VA) outcomes following chemotherapy for optic pathway glioma (OPG) in children with or without neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) and to analyse associated risk factors. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, cohort study involving 155 children treated between September 2004 and December 2012. Initial and final VA was used for per-eye and per-subject analysis. Correlation tests were performed to determine whether initial VA predicted final VA...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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