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Developmental coordination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933679/thyroid-hormone-stimulates-the-onset-of-adult-feeding-kinematics-in-zebrafish
#1
Sarah McMenamin, Casey Carter, Wiliam James Cooper
The physical demands for swimming and feeding change dramatically over the course of development for many aquatic animals. Indeed, in teleosts, the transition from larva to adult involves major shifts in both trophic morphology and feeding behavior. A spike in thyroid hormone (TH) coordinates many developmental processes that occur during this adult transition in numerous vertebrate species. Using mutant and transgenic zebrafish, we tested the hypothesis that TH is essential for the transition from larval to adult feeding kinematic profiles...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931628/type-b-response-regulators-act-as-central-integrators-in-transcriptional-control-of-the-auxin-biosynthesis-enzyme-taa1
#2
Zhenwei Yan, Xin Liu, Karin Ljung, Shuning Li, Wanying Zhao, Fan Yang, Meiling Wang, Yi Tao
During embryogenesis and organ formation, establishing proper gradient is critical for auxin function, which is achieved through coordinated regulation of both auxin metabolism and transport. Expression of auxin biosynthetic genes is often tissue specific and is regulated by environmental signals. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of a key auxin biosynthetic gene, TAA1 (L-Tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1). A canonical and a novel ARR (Arabidopsis response regulators) binding site were identified in the promoter and the second intron of TAA1, which were required for its tissue specific expression...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#3
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924034/polycomb-directs-timely-activation-of-germline-genes-in-spermatogenesis
#4
So Maezawa, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Masashi Yukawa, Akihiko Sakashita, Kris G Alavattam, Paul R Andreassen, Miguel Vidal, Haruhiko Koseki, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, a large number of germline genes essential for male fertility are coordinately activated. However, it remains unknown how timely activation of this group of germline genes is accomplished. Here we show that Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) directs timely activation of germline genes during spermatogenesis. Inactivation of PRC1 in male germ cells results in the gradual loss of a stem cell population and severe differentiation defects, leading to male infertility. In the stem cell population, RNF2, the dominant catalytic subunit of PRC1, activates transcription of Sall4, which codes for a transcription factor essential for subsequent spermatogenic differentiation...
September 18, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923944/single-master-regulatory-gene-coordinates-the-evolution-and-development-of-butterfly-color-and-iridescence
#5
Linlin Zhang, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Robert D Reed
The optix gene has been implicated in butterfly wing pattern adaptation by genetic association, mapping, and expression studies. The actual developmental function of this gene has remained unclear, however. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to show that optix plays a fundamental role in nymphalid butterfly wing pattern development, where it is required for determination of all chromatic coloration. optix knockouts in four species show complete replacement of color pigments with melanins, with corresponding changes in pigment-related gene expression, resulting in black and gray butterflies...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923004/regulatory-networks-underlying-mycorrhizal-development-delineated-by-genome-wide-expression-profiling-and-functional-analysis-of-the-transcription-factor-repertoire-of-the-plant-symbiotic-fungus-laccaria-bicolor
#6
Y Daguerre, E Levati, J Ruytinx, E Tisserant, E Morin, A Kohler, B Montanini, S Ottonello, A Brun, C Veneault-Fourrey, F Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi develop a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with the roots of their host plants. During this process, they undergo a series of developmental transitions from the running hyphae in the rhizosphere to the coenocytic hyphae forming finger-like structures within the root apoplastic space. These transitions, which involve profound, symbiosis-associated metabolic changes, also entail a substantial transcriptome reprogramming with coordinated waves of differentially expressed genes...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922859/spatial-embryonic-origin-delineates-gabaergic-hub-neurons-driving-network-dynamics-in-the-developing-entorhinal-cortex
#7
Laura Mòdol, Vitor Hugo Sousa, Arnaud Malvache, Thomas Tressard, Agnes Baude, Rosa Cossart
Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. We examined this issue in the entorhinal cortex, an initiation site for coordinated activity in the neocortex and for the activity-dependent maturation of the entire entorhinal-hippocampal network...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919664/developmental-coordination-disorders-and-sensory-processing-and-integration-incidence-associations-and-co-morbidities
#8
Susan Allen, Jackie Casey
INTRODUCTION: Children with developmental coordination disorder or sensory processing and integration difficulties face challenges to participation in daily living. To date there has been no exploration of the co-occurrence of developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration difficulties. METHOD: Records of children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - V criteria for developmental coordination disorder (n = 93) age 5 to 12 years were examined...
September 2017: British Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918308/appropriateness-of-different-pedagogical-approaches-to-road-safety-education-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-dcd
#9
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917097/development-of-motor-imagery-and-anticipatory-action-planning-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-longitudinal-approach
#10
Imke L J Adams, Jessica M Lust, Peter H Wilson, Bert Steenbergen
Children with impaired motor coordination (or Development Coordination Disorder - DCD) have difficulty with the predictive control of movements, evidenced by cross-sectional studies that show impaired motor imagery and action planning abilities. What remains unclear is whether this deficit in predictive control reflects immaturity of the motor system (a developmental delay) or some deviation from normal development (a disorder). To advance this discussion the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the development of motor imagery and action planning in children with DCD...
September 13, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#11
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#12
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915470/emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-exploring-parent-and-teacher-reports
#13
Laura Crane, Emma Sumner, Elisabeth L Hill
BACKGROUND: Although characterised by motor impairments, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) also show high rates of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, low self-esteem). Such findings have led to calls for the screening of mental health problems in this group. AIMS: To investigate patterns and profiles of emotional and behavioural problems in children with and without DCD, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Teachers and parents completed SDQs for 30 children with DCD (7-10 years)...
September 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#14
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914256/mettl3-mettl14-mediated-mrna-n-6-methyladenosine-modulates-murine-spermatogenesis
#15
Zhen Lin, Phillip J Hsu, Xudong Xing, Jianhuo Fang, Zhike Lu, Qin Zou, Ke-Jia Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Yuchuan Zhou, Teng Zhang, Youcheng Zhang, Wanlu Song, Guifang Jia, Xuerui Yang, Chuan He, Ming-Han Tong
Spermatogenesis is a differentiation process during which diploid spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) produce haploid spermatozoa. This highly specialized process is precisely controlled at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. Here we report that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), an epitranscriptomic mark regulating gene expression, plays essential roles during spermatogenesis. We present comprehensive m(6)A mRNA methylomes of mouse spermatogenic cells from five developmental stages: undifferentiated spermatogonia, type A1 spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, pachytene/diplotene spermatocytes, and round spermatids...
September 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910569/hierarchical-recruitment-of-polycomb-complexes-revisited
#16
Eshagh Dorafshan, Tatyana G Kahn, Yuri B Schwartz
Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins epigenetically repress key developmental genes and thereby control alternative cell fates. PcG proteins act as complexes that can modify histones and these histone modifications play a role in transmitting the "memory" of the repressed state as cells divide. Here we consider mainstream models that link histone modifications to hierarchical recruitment of PcG complexes and compare them to results of a direct test of interdependence between PcG complexes for recruitment to Drosophila genes...
September 14, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902066/latent-class-analysis-of-adhd-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-comorbidities
#17
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D Bramlett, Susanna N Visser, Melissa L Danielson, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and those who do often exhibit higher levels of impairment than children with ADHD alone. This study provides a latent class analysis (LCA) approach to categorizing children with ADHD into comorbidity groups, evaluating condition expression and treatment patterns in each group. METHODS: Parent-reported data from a large probability-based national sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) were used for an LCA to identify groups of children with similar groupings of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities among children with current ADHD (n = 2495)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900613/screening-for-developmental-disorders-in-3-and-4-year-old-italian-children-a-preliminary-study
#18
Elena Catino, Michela Di Trani, Federica Giovannone, Filippo Manti, Letizia Nunziata, Francesca Piccari, Virginia Sirchia, Lucia Vannucci, Carla Sogos
BACKGROUND: The "Osserviamo" project, coordinated by the Municipality of Rome and the Department of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry of Sapienza University, aimed to validate an Italian version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 and to collect, for the first time in Italy, data on developmental disorders in a sample of 4,000 children aged 3 and 4 years. The present paper presents the preliminary results of the "Osserviamo" project. METHODS: 600 parents of children between 39 and 50 months of age (divided in two age stages: 42 and 48 months) were contacted from 15 kindergarden schools...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899469/-association-between-family-environment-and-developmental-coordination-disorder-in-preschool-children
#19
Li-Fei Liu, Lan Lu, Hong-Ni Yue, Bei Huan, Gui-Xiong Gu, Hua Jin, Yu-Mei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of family environment on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in preschool children. METHODS: Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 1 727 children (4-6 years old). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to screen out the children with DCD. The Family Environment Scale on Motor Development for Preschool Urban Children and a self-designed questionnaire were used to assess family environment...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894169/an-embryonic-system-to-assess-direct-and-indirect-wnt-transcriptional-targets
#20
Jahnavi Suresh, Nathan Harmston, Ka Keat Lim, Prameet Kaur, Helen Jingshu Jin, Jay B Lusk, Enrico Petretto, Nicholas S Tolwinski
During animal development, complex signals determine and organize a vast number of tissues using a very small number of signal transduction pathways. These developmental signaling pathways determine cell fates through a coordinated transcriptional response that remains poorly understood. The Wnt pathway is involved in a variety of these cellular functions, and its signals are transmitted in part through a β-catenin/TCF transcriptional complex. Here we report an in vivo Drosophila assay that can be used to distinguish between activation, de-repression and repression of transcriptional responses, separating upstream and downstream pathway activation and canonical/non-canonical Wnt signals in embryos...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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