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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784956/dynamics-and-function-of-dna-methylation-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Huiming Zhang, Zhaobo Lang, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic modification that is important for gene regulation and genome stability. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation can lead to plant developmental abnormalities. A specific DNA methylation state is an outcome of dynamic regulation by de novo methylation, maintenance of methylation and active demethylation, which are catalysed by various enzymes that are targeted by distinct regulatory pathways. In this Review, we discuss DNA methylation in plants, including methylating and demethylating enzymes and regulatory factors, and the coordination of methylation and demethylation activities by a so-called methylstat mechanism; the functions of DNA methylation in regulating transposon silencing, gene expression and chromosome interactions; the roles of DNA methylation in plant development; and the involvement of DNA methylation in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781129/the-role-of-competitive-and-cooperative-norms-in-the-development-of-deviant-evaluations
#2
Luke McGuire, Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy...
May 20, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778903/orcokinins-regulate-the-expression-of-neuropeptide-precursor-genes-related-to-ecdysis-in-the-hemimetabolous-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#3
Juan Pedro Wulff, Natalia Capriotti, Sheila Ons
Ecdysis is a vital process for insects, during which they shed the old cuticle in order to emerge as the following developmental stage. Given its relevance for survival and reproduction, ecdysis is tightly regulated by peptidic hormones that conform an interrelated neuromodulatory network. This network was studied in species that undergo a complete metamorphosis, but not in hemimetabola. In a recent work, we demonstrated that orcokinin neuropeptides are essential for ecdysis to occur in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#4
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766620/insane-in-the-apical-membrane-trafficking-events-mediating-apicobasal-epithelial-polarity-during-tube-morphogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Cayla E Jewett, Rytis Prekeris
The creation of cellular tubes is one of the most vital developmental processes, resulting in the formation of most organ types. Cells have co-opted a number of different mechanisms for tube morphogenesis that vary among tissues and organisms; however, generation and maintenance of cell polarity is fundamental for successful lumenogenesis. Polarized membrane transport has emerged as a key driver not only for establishing individual epithelial cell polarity, but also for coordination of epithelial polarization during apical lumen formation and tissue morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764858/distinct-regulation-of-snail-in-two-muscle-lineages-of-the-ascidian-embryo-achieves-temporal-coordination-of-muscle-development
#6
Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou
The transcriptional repressor Snail is required for proper differentiation of the tail muscle of ascidian tadpole larvae. Two muscle lineages (B5.1 and B6.4) contribute to the anterior tail muscle cells, and are consecutively separated from a transcriptionally quiescent germ cell lineage at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Concomitantly, cells of these lineages begin to express Tbx6.b at the 16- and 32-cell stages, respectively. Meanwhile, Snail expression begins in these two lineages simultaneously at the 32-cell stage...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764377/transcriptome-display-during-tilapia-sex-determination-and-differentiation-as-revealed-by-rna-seq-analysis
#7
Wenjing Tao, Jinlin Chen, Dejie Tan, Jing Yang, Lina Sun, Jing Wei, Matthew A Conte, Thomas D Kocher, Deshou Wang
BACKGROUND: The factors determining sex in teleosts are diverse. Great efforts have been made to characterize the underlying genetic network in various species. However, only seven master sex-determining genes have been identified in teleosts. While the function of a few genes involved in sex determination and differentiation has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate in this process. RESULTS: To enable systematic insights into fish sexual differentiation, we generated a dynamic co-expression network from tilapia gonadal transcriptomes at 5, 20, 30, 40, 90, and 180 dah (days after hatching), plus 45 and 90 dat (days after treatment) and linked gene expression profiles to both development and sexual differentiation...
May 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761509/similar-geometric-rules-govern-the-distribution-of-veins-and-stomata-in-petals-sepals-and-leaves
#8
Feng-Ping Zhang, Madeline R Carins Murphy, Amanda A Cardoso, Gregory J Jordan, Timothy J Brodribb
Investment in leaf veins (supplying xylem water) is balanced by stomatal abundance, such that sufficient water transport is provided for stomata to remain open when soil water is abundant. This coordination is mediated by a common dependence of vein and stomatal densities on cell size. Flowers may not conform to this same developmental pattern if they depend on water supplied by the phloem or have high rates of nonstomatal transpiration. We examined the relationships between veins, stomata and epidermal cells in leaves, sepals and petals of 27 angiosperms to determine whether common spacing rules applied to all tissues...
May 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759978/the-developmental-origin-of-brain-tumours-a-cellular-and-molecular-framework
#9
REVIEW
Roberta Azzarelli, Benjamin D Simons, Anna Philpott
The development of the nervous system relies on the coordinated regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. The discovery that brain tumours contain a subpopulation of cells with stem/progenitor characteristics that are capable of sustaining tumour growth has emphasized the importance of understanding the cellular dynamics and the molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell behaviour. By focusing on recent work on glioma and medulloblastoma, we review how lineage tracing contributed to dissecting the embryonic origin of brain tumours and how lineage-specific mechanisms that regulate stem cell behaviour in the embryo may be subverted in cancer to achieve uncontrolled proliferation and suppression of differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758994/structural-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-grey-matter-covariance-impact-of-developmental-insult
#10
Casey Paquola, Maxwell Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis...
May 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758541/molecular-interaction-studies-of-some-co-iii-surfactants-with-the-transport-protein
#11
Gopalaswamy Vignesh, Marimuthu Parthiban, Rajendran Senthilkumar, Sankaralingam Arunachalam
The present work describes the synthesis and the molecular interaction of two single-chain Co(III)-coordinated surfactant complexes with a plasma protein, human serum albumin by using various biophysical and in silico techniques. The experimental data reveals that like ordinary classical surfactants, our metallosurfactants also have the tendency to associate themselves and form micelles at critical micelle concentration. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG°) derived from the experiment demonstrates that the alkyl chain length and the head group of the Co(III)-surfactant complexes played a vital role in the binding process...
May 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758178/lin28a-regulates-neurogliogenesis-in-mammalian-retina-through-the-igf-signaling
#12
Xiaohuan Xia, Pooja Teotia, Iqbal Ahmad
In the developing central nervous system (CNS) the majority of neurons are born before the generation of glia. Emerging evidence implicates heterochronic gene, Lin28 in the temporal switch between two distinct lineages. However, the respective contributions of Lin28a and Lin28b in neurogliogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we have examined the relative involvement of Lin28a and Lin28b in mammalian retina, a simple and accessible CNS model where neurogliogenic decision largely occurs postnatally. Examination of Lin28a/b involvement during late histogenesis by the perturbation of function approaches revealed that while Lin28b did not influence differentiation in general Lin28a facilitated and antagonized the generation of neurons and glia, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756260/membrane-trafficking-in-morphogenesis-and-planar-polarity
#13
REVIEW
Yi Xie, Hui Miao, J Todd Blankenship
Our understanding of how membrane trafficking pathways function to direct morphogenetic movements and the planar polarization of developing tissues is a new and emerging field. While a central focus of developmental biology has been on how protein asymmetries and cytoskeletal force generation direct cell shaping, the role of membrane trafficking in these processes has been less clear. Here, we review recent advances in Drosophila and vertebrate systems in our understanding of how trafficking events are coordinated with planar cytoskeletal function to drive lasting changes in cell and tissue topologies...
May 14, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753021/the-antagonistic-action-of-abscisic-acid-and-cytokinin-signaling-mediates-drought-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#14
Xiaozhen Huang, Lingyan Hou, Jingjing Meng, Huiwen You, Zhen Li, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang, Yiting Shi
As sessile organisms, plants encounter a variety of environmental stresses and must optimize their growth for survival. Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and environmental stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antagonism remains poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that Sucrose nonfermenting1-related kinases SnRK2.2/2.3/2.6, the key kinases of ABA signaling pathway, directly interacted with and phosphorylated type-A response regulator 5 (ARR5), a negative regulator in cytokinin signaling...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750989/altered-ca-2-signaling-in-enamelopathies
#15
REVIEW
Miriam Eckstein, Francisco J Aulestia, Meerim K Nurbaeva, Rodrigo S Lacruz
Biomineralization requires the controlled movement of ions across cell barriers to reach the sites of crystal growth. Mineral precipitation occurs in aqueous phases as fluids become supersaturated with specific ionic compositions. In the biological world, biomineralization is dominated by the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) in crystal lattices. Ca2+ channels are intrinsic modulators of this process, facilitating the availability of Ca2+ within cells in a tightly regulated manner in time and space. Unequivocally, the most mineralized tissue produced by vertebrates, past and present, is dental enamel...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749079/acute-tau-knockdown-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-mice-causes-learning-and-memory-deficits
#16
Ramon Velazquez, Eric Ferreira, An Tran, Emily C Turner, Ramona Belfiore, Caterina Branca, Salvatore Oddo
Misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulates in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Down syndrome, and Pick's disease. Tau is a microtubule-binding protein, and its role in microtubule stabilization is well defined. In contrast, while growing evidence suggests that tau is also involved in synaptic physiology, a complete assessment of tau function in the adult brain has been hampered by robust developmental compensation of other microtubule-binding proteins in tau knockout mice...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747587/functional-signaling-and-gene-regulatory-networks-between-the-oocyte-and-the-surrounding-cumulus-cells
#17
Fernando H Biase, Katelyn M Kimble
BACKGROUND: The maturation and successful acquisition of developmental competence by an oocyte, the female gamete, during folliculogenesis is highly dependent on molecular interactions with somatic cells. Most of the cellular interactions identified, thus far, are modulated by growth factors, ions or metabolites. We hypothesized that this interaction is also modulated at the transcriptional level, which leads to the formation of gene regulatory networks between the oocyte and cumulus cells...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746896/insights-into-cerebellar-development-and-connectivity
#18
REVIEW
Jaclyn Beckinghausen, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum has a well-established role in controlling motor functions such coordination, balance, posture, and skilled learning. There is mounting evidence that it might also play a critical role in non-motor functions such as cognition and emotion. It is therefore not surprising that cerebellar deficits are associated with a wide array of diseases including ataxia, dystonia tremor, schizophrenia, dyslexia, and autism spectrum disorder. What is intriguing is that a seemingly uniform circuit that is often described as being "simple" should carry out all of these behaviors...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746174/developmental-regulation-of-kidney-and-liver-slc-and-abc-drug-transporters-and-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-the-role-of-remote-organ-communication
#19
Jeremiah D Momper, Sanjay K Nigam
The ontogeny of drug transport and metabolism is generally studied independently in tissues, yet in the immediate postnatal period the developmental regulation of transporters and metabolizing enzymes must be coordinated. Using the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis as a framework, we describe how a systems physiology view helps to make sense of how inter-organ communication via hepatic, renal, and intestinal transporters and drug metabolizing (DMEs) enzymes is regulated from the immediate postnatal period through adulthood...
May 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745442/mrpc-a-crp-fnr-homolog-functions-as-a-negative-autoregulator-during-the-myxococcus-xanthus-multicellular-developmental-program
#20
Patrick T McLaughlin, Vidhi Bhardwaj, Brooke E Feeley, Penelope I Higgs
MrpC, a member of the CRP/Fnr superfamily of transcriptional regulators, plays a key role in coordination of the multicellular developmental program in Myxococcus xanthus. Previous reports suggest MrpC is subject to complex regulation including activation by an unusual LonD-dependent proteolytic processing event that removes its unique N-terminal peptide, producing the isoform MrpC2. MrpC2 is proposed to positively autoregulate and regulate transcription of hundreds of genes necessary for both the aggregation and sporulation phases of the developmental program...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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