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Developmental coordination

Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
Fabien Cignetti, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Aurelie Fontan, Marianne Jover, Marie-Odile Livet, Catherine Hugonenq, Frédérique Audic, Brigitte Chabrol, Christine Assaiante
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Barbara J Howard, Raymond Sturner
Purpose of review: To describe benefits and problems with screening and addressing developmental and behavioral problems in primary care and using an online clinical process support system as a solution. Recent findings: Screening has been found to have various implementation barriers including time costs, accuracy, workflow and knowledge of tools. In addition, training of clinicians in dealing with identified issues is lacking. Patients disclose more to and prefer computerized screening...
December 2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator transcription factor 21 (TCF21) is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot-specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Luz I Valenzuela-García, Víctor M Ayala-García, Ana G Regalado-García, Peter Setlow, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
The absence of base excision repair (BER) proteins involved in processing ROS-promoted genetic insults activates a DNA damage scanning (DisA)-dependent checkpoint event in outgrowing Bacillus subtilis spores. Here, we report that genetic disabling of transcription-coupled repair (TCR) or nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways severely affected outgrowth of ΔdisA spores, and much more so than the effects of these mutations on log phase growth. This defect delayed the first division of spore's nucleoid suggesting that unrepaired lesions affected transcription and/or replication during outgrowth...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Wanpeng Wang, Paja Sijacic, Pengbo Xu, Hongli Lian, Zhongchi Liu
Fundamental to plant and animal development is the regulated balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, a process intimately tied to cell cycle regulation. In Arabidopsis , mutations in TSO1, whose animal homolog is LIN54, resulted in severe developmental abnormalities both in shoot and root, including shoot meristem fasciation and reduced root meristematic zone. The molecular mechanism that could explain the tso1 mutant phenotype is absent. Through a genetic screen, we identified 32 suppressors that map to the MYB3R1 gene, encoding a conserved cell cycle regulator...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gohar Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Anne Lisbeth Hoffmann
In the absence of any known neurological condition or intellectual impairment, dyspraxia, also known as developmental coordination disorder, should be considered. Dyspraxia is the inability to plan, organize and execute movements. At all ages, dyspraxia can be congenital or acquired. While some learn to cope with their motor difficulties over the years, the majority will retain them as adults. Children with significant functional impairment should be identified and assessed as early as possible, since failure to address the motor and other commonly associated (co-morbid) features may have major consequences in adult life...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Santiago Martínez-Lumbreras, Caterina Alfano, Nicola J Evans, Katherine M Collins, Kelly A Flanagan, R Andrew Atkinson, Ewelina M Krysztofinska, Anupama Vydyanath, Jacquelin Jackter, Sarah Fixon-Owoo, Amy H Camp, Rivka L Isaacson
Global changes in bacterial gene expression can be orchestrated by the coordinated activation/deactivation of alternative sigma (σ) factor subunits of RNA polymerase. Sigma factors themselves are regulated in myriad ways, including via anti-sigma factors. Here, we have determined the solution structure of anti-sigma factor CsfB, responsible for inhibition of two alternative sigma factors, σG and σE , during spore formation by Bacillus subtilis. CsfB assembles into a symmetrical homodimer, with each monomer bound to a single Zn2+ ion via a treble-clef zinc finger fold...
March 3, 2018: Structure
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mitchell Schertz, Shlomi Constantini, Rina Eshel, Adi Hannah Sela, Jonathan Roth, Aviva Fattal-Valevski
OBJECTIVE Management of children with large temporal arachnoid cysts (TACs) remains controversial, with limited data available on their neurodevelopmental outcome. The aim of this study was to examine neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with large TACs. METHODS In this medical center-based cohort study, 25 patients (19 males) who were diagnosed in childhood with large TACs (9 patients [36%] with a Galassi type II and 16 patients [64%] with a Galassi type III TAC) were examined. The mean ± SD age at assessment was 11...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Ahrang Yoo, Monique Kim, Melissa M Ross, Angela Vaughn-Lee, Beverly Butler, Susan dosReis
Caregivers of youth with coexisting cognitive and mental health problems face difficult treatment decisions for their child and have unique challenges engaging in shared decision-making. Many stakeholders can influence care management decisions, and the child's cognitive impairment often prohibits their inclusion in the shared decision-making process. In-depth interviews and focus groups with 37 caregivers elicited their experiences with care management related to their child's educational, mental health, and other care needs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Vaibhav P Pai, Alexis Pietak, Valerie Willocq, Bin Ye, Nian-Qing Shi, Michael Levin
Endogenous bioelectrical signaling coordinates cell behaviors toward correct anatomical outcomes. Lack of a model explaining spatialized dynamics of bioelectric states has hindered the understanding of the etiology of some birth defects and the development of predictive interventions. Nicotine, a known neuroteratogen, induces serious defects in brain patterning and learning. Our bio-realistic computational model explains nicotine's effects via the disruption of endogenous bioelectrical gradients and predicts that exogenous HCN2 ion channels would restore the endogenous bioelectric prepatterns necessary for brain patterning...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Takashi Kei Kishimoto, Roberto A Maldonado
Antigen-specific immune tolerance has been a long-standing goal for immunotherapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and allergies and for the prevention of allograft rejection and anti-drug antibodies directed against biologic therapies. Nanoparticles have emerged as powerful tools to initiate and modulate immune responses due to their inherent capacity to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and deliver coordinated signals that can elicit an antigen-specific immune response. A wide range of strategies have been described to create tolerogenic nanoparticles (tNPs) that fall into three broad categories...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rémi-Xavier Coux, Felipe Karam Teixeira, Ruth Lehmann
Maintenance of cellular identity is essential for tissue development and homeostasis. At the molecular level, cell identity is determined by the coordinated activation and repression of defined sets of genes. The tumor suppressor L(3)mbt was shown to secure cellular identity in Drosophila larval brains by repressing germline-specific genes. Here we interrogate the temporal and spatial requirements for L(3)mbt in the Drosophila ovary, and show that it safeguards the integrity of both somatic and germline tissues...
March 6, 2018: Development
Emmanuel Bonney, Wendy Aertssen, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman
BACKGROUND: Assessment of anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is essential for treatment planning. However, available field-based measures have no established validity and reliability in this population. PURPOSE: To examine the psychometric properties of selected field-based anaerobic capacity tests in children with and without DCD. METHODS: School-aged children (6-16 years) with and without DCD participated in the study...
March 6, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ritu Mishra, Houda Benlhabib, Wei Guo, Connie B Lerma Cervantes, Carole R Mendelson
The major surfactant protein, SP-A (product of SFTPA gene), serves as a marker of type II pneumocyte differentiation and surfactant synthesis. SFTPA expression in cultured human fetal lung (HFL) epithelial cells is upregulated by hormones that increase cAMP and activate TTF-1/NKX2.1 and NF-κB. To further define mechanisms for type II cell differentiation and induction of SP-A, we investigated roles of miRNAs. Using microarray to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in HFL epithelial cells during type II cell differentiation in culture, we observed that members of the miR-199a/-214 cluster were significantly downregulated during differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nicholas E Fears, Jeffrey J Lockman
Even with recent technological advances, handwriting remains the developmental foundation from which communication via written language unfolds. Despite the importance of handwriting to academic success, previous research with beginning school-age children has only indirectly measured the processes of handwriting using post hoc assessments of legibility and accuracy. We adapted new head-mounted eye-tracking methods to directly measure visual-motor coordination of preschool and early elementary school children (N = 40) as they copied familiar (English letters) and unfamiliar (Cyrillic symbols) letter-like forms in real time...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Venla Lehti, David Gyllenberg, Auli Suominen, Andre Sourander
AIM: We examined the association between having at least one parent born abroad and being diagnosed with a developmental disorder related to speech and language, academic skills or coordination. METHODS: This nested case-control study was based on Finnish population records for 1996-2007. Cases from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were diagnosed with developmental disorders of speech and language, academic skills and coordination by the end of 2012. We identified 28,192 cases and 106,616 matched controls...
March 5, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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