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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#1
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646139/genome-wide-identification-of-major-intrinsic-proteins-in-glycine-soja-and-characterization-of-gmtip2-1-function-under-salt-and-water-stress
#2
Da-Yong Zhang, Manoj Kumar, Ling Xu, Qun Wan, Yi-Hong Huang, Zhao-Long Xu, Xiao-Lan He, Jin-Biao Ma, Girdhar K Pandey, Hong-Bo Shao
In different plant species, aquaporins (AQPs) facilitate water movement by regulating root hydraulic conductivity under diverse stress conditions such as salt and water stresses. To improve survival and yield of crop plants, a detailed understanding of stress responses is imperative and required. We used Glycine soja genome as a tool to study AQPs, considering it shows abundant genetic diversity and higher salt environment tolerance features and identified 62 Gs AQP genes. Additionally, this study identifies major aquaporins responsive to salt and drought stresses in soybean and elucidates their mode of action through yeast two-hybrid assay and BiFC...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645972/does-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-modify-hand-dexterity-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Anthony Terrence O'Brien, Gabriel Torrealba Acosta, Rodrigo Huerta, Aurore Thibaut
INTRODUCTION: Dexterity is described as coordinated hand and finger movement for precision tasks. It is essential for day-to-day activities like computer use, writing or buttoning a shirt. Integrity of brain motor networks is crucial to properly execute these fine hand tasks. When these networks are damaged, interventions to enhance recovery are frequently accompanied by unwanted side effects or limited in their effect. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) are postulated to target affected motor areas and improve hand motor function with few side effects...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645892/meis1-effects-on-motor-phenotypes-and-the-sensorimotor-system-in-mice
#4
Aaro V Salminen, Lillian Garrett, Barbara Schormair, Jan Rozman, Florian Giesert, Kristina M Niedermeier, Lore Becker, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Miguel Torres, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter, Juliane Winkelmann
MEIS1 is a developmental transcription factor linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and with significant impact on the quality-of-life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the most potential system for modeling RLS in animals...
June 23, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645541/comparison-of-the-effect-by-which-gastric-plication-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-procedures-alter-metabolic-and-physical-parameters-in-an-obese-type-2-diabetes-rodent-model
#5
Min Ye, Renhong Huang, Zhijun Min, Peng Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are 2 restrictive bariatric surgeries that are associated with weight loss and health improvement in patients with obesity. However, differences in how these procedures exert their effects have not been systematically evaluated and compared between techniques. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of GP and SG surgeries for obese patients with type 2 diabetes based on evaluation of energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, and gastrointestinal dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645111/intersecting-transcriptomic-profiling-technologies-and-long-non-coding-rna-function-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-discovery-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-applications
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Castillo, Theresa R Stueve, Crystal N Marconett
Previously thought of as junk transcripts and pseudogene remnants, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into their own over the last decade as an essential component of cellular activity, regulating a plethora of functions within multicellular organisms. lncRNAs are now known to participate in development, cellular homeostasis, immunological processes, and the development of disease. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified. However, movement beyond mere discovery to the understanding of molecular processes has been stymied by the complicated genomic structure, tissue-restricted expression, and diverse regulatory roles lncRNAs play...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644922/hands-support-and-postural-oscillation-during-sit-to-stand-movement-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-typical-children
#7
Silvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
The authors aimed to compare the weight bearing on hands during sit-to-stand (STS) movement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical children (TC), verify its effect on postural oscillation, and analyze the relationship between weight bearing on hands and postural oscillation. Twenty children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) and 35 TC performed STS with and without anterior hands support. Mann-Whitney test compared weight bearing between groups. Wilcoxon test investigated differences in postural oscillation between the conditions with and without anterior hand support for both groups...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644677/young-athletes-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-single-leg-landing-asymmetries-at-the-time-of-return-to-sport-demonstrate-decreased-knee-function-2-years-later
#8
Matthew P Ithurburn, Mark V Paterno, Kevin R Ford, Timothy E Hewett, Laura C Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Previous work shows that young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate single-leg (SL) landing movement asymmetries at the time of return to sport (RTS); however, the effect of movement asymmetries on longitudinal knee-related function after ACLR has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SL drop-landing movement symmetry at the time of RTS on knee-related function 2 years later in young athletes after ACLR...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644574/effect-of-an-impaired-oral-stage-on-swallowing-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Yoko Wakasugi, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Chihiro Oda, Miho Murata, Haruka Tohara, Shunsuke Minakuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We investigated the swallowing function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using deteriorated tongue control because PD patients frequently exhibit an impaired oral stage of swallowing and the tongue movement affects to oral and pharyngeal stage. METHODS: In total, 201 PD patients (106 men, 95 women; mean age 70.6 ± 8.0 years; median Hoehn-Yahr Stage III) were studied. The patients swallowed 10 mL of liquid barium under videofluorography and their oral transit time (OTT) was measured...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644498/the-mechanism-of-anomalous-hardening-in-transition-metal-monoborides
#10
Yongcheng Liang, Zhenbang Gao, Ping Qin, Li Gao, Chun Tang
The quest for novel nanomaterials with unusual functionalities continues to be a central challenge to modern nanoscience. Here we report a surprisingly anomalous hardening behavior exhibited by a class of transition-metal monoborides (TMB). Most remarkable is the occurrence of the intrinsic hardness maximum at the valence-electron concentration (VEC) of about 8 electrons per formula unit (e per f.u.); both lower and higher VECs lead to the decrease of hardness, contrasting with the expected positive correlation between hardness and VEC...
June 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex (PIC) is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the PIC must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment and simple diffusion is difficult. Therefore, viruses have evolved to utilize the cellular mechanisms of movement through the cytoplasm, where microtubules are the roads, and the ATP dependent motors dynein and kinesin are the vehicles for retrograde and anterograde trafficking...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643183/dopaminergic-therapies-for-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Eva Schaeffer, Daniela Berg
Apart from the typical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a wide range of different non-motor symptoms, which are highly prevalent in all stages of the disease and have an incisive influence on quality of life. Moreover, their treatment continues to be challenging. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence for the impact of dopaminergic therapies on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We performed a PubMed search to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated the response of non-motor symptoms to dopaminergic therapy...
June 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642680/weight-bearing-over-ground-stepping-in-an-exoskeleton-with-non-invasive-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-after-motor-complete-paraplegia
#13
Parag Gad, Yury Gerasimenko, Sharon Zdunowski, Amanda Turner, Dimitry Sayenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
We asked whether coordinated voluntary movement of the lower limbs could be regained in an individual having been completely paralyzed (>4 year) and completely absent of vision (>15 year) using two novel strategies-transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation at selected sites over the spine as well as pharmacological neuromodulation by buspirone. We also asked whether these neuromodulatory strategies could facilitate stepping assisted by an exoskeleton (EKSO, EKSO Bionics, CA) that is designed so that the subject can voluntarily complement the work being performed by the exoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642572/disrupted-pursuit-compensation-during-self-motion-perception-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Jingru Wang, Xiaojun Guo, Xianbo Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Wei Yan
Our perception of the world is remarkably stable despite of distorted retinal input due to frequent eye movements. It is considered that the brain uses corollary discharge, efference copies of signals sent from motor to visual regions, to compensate for distortions and stabilize visual perception. In this study, we tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have impaired corollary discharge functions as evidenced by reduced compensation during the perception of optic flow that mimics self-motion in the environment...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#15
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641363/a-phase-iii-randomized-controlled-study-on-the-efficacy-and-improved-bowel-function-of-prolonged-release-pr-oxycodone-naloxone-up-to-160-80-mg-daily-vs-oxycodone-pr
#16
D Dupoiron, A Stachowiak, O Loewenstein, A Ellery, W Kremers, B Bosse, M Hopp
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone/naloxone (OXN PR) is a prolonged-release formulation containing oxycodone and naloxone in a 2:1 ratio. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of doses up to OXN160/80 mg PR compared with oxycodone prolonged-release formulation (OxyPR) in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were randomised to treatment with OXN PR (n = 123) or OxyPR (n = 120) during the 5-week double-blind study...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641325/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-associated-with-scuba-diving
#17
Naoharu Kitajima, Akemi Sugita-Kitajima, Seiji Kitajima
A 28-year-old female diver presented with dizziness and difficulty clearing her left ear whilst scuba diving. Her pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry were normal. Testing of Eustachian tube function revealed tubal stenosis. Video-oculography revealed a predominantly torsional nystagmus while the patient was in the lordotic position. Fistula signs were positive. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed a diagnosis of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCDS). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing showed that the amplitude of the cVEMP measured from her left ear was larger than that from the right...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641241/influence-of-shoulder-kinematic-estimate-on-joint-and-muscle-mechanics-predicted-by-musculoskeletal-model
#18
Yoann Blache, Mickael Begon
Little information is available in the existing literature regarding the influence of the scapular kinematic estimate method on musculoskeletal analysis. This study aimed to assess the propagation of errors due to the method used for scapular kinematics reconstruction in the workflow of musculoskeletal modeling (joint kinematics, joint torques, muscle force and joint reaction force) in shoulder and upper-limb movements. Two participants performed functional (arm elevation and rotation), daily life (eating and reaching pants pockets) and sports movements (a simulated throwing maneuver)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641235/computer-aided-training-sensorimotor-cortex-functions-in-humans-before-the-upper-limb-transplantation-using-virtual-reality-and-sensory-feedback
#19
Marek Kurzynski, Anna Jaskolska, Jaroslaw Marusiak, Andrzej Wolczowski, Przemyslaw Bierut, Lukasz Szumowski, Jerzy Witkowski, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation...
June 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641199/influence-of-weight-bearing-visual-feedback-on-movement-symmetry-during-sit-to-stand-task
#20
Sumayeh Abujaber, Federico Pozzi, Joseph Zeni
BACKGROUND: Weight-bearing asymmetry is common in individuals with hip osteoarthritis and after total hip arthroplasty. Including symmetry training to the rehabilitation programs may normalize movement strategies during dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate influences of real-time visual feedback of weight distribution on the interlimb movement symmetry during the sit-to-stand task, before and after total hip arthroplasty, and to determine whether physical impairments affect the response to visual feedback...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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