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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820985/human-bone-marrow-as-a-tissue-in-post-mortem-identification-and-determination-of-psychoactive-substances-screening-methodology
#1
Renata Wietecha-Posłuszny, Sofia Lendor, Magdalena Garnysz, Marcin Zawadzki, Paweł Kościelniak
The aim of this study was to apply a new instrumental approach to the analysis of human bone marrow for forensic purposes. A new screening method for the detection of more than 30 psychoactive drugs in bone marrow was developed and applied to case samples. The drugs used in this study belonged to the following groups: benzodiazepines (BZDs, n=16), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, n=5), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, n=4), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n=1), anticonvulsants (n=1), imidazopyridines (n=1) and piperazines (n=3)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816839/benzodiazepines-and-delirium-in-the-young-and-old-truth-be-told-or-still-not-sold
#2
Sapna R Kudchadkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816834/effect-of-amantadine-on-agitation-in-critically-ill-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jawaher A Gramish, Brian J Kopp, Asad E Patanwala
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the presence of agitation in traumatic brain injury patients treated with amantadine with those not treated with amantadine in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conduced in a trauma ICU of a tertiary care institution in the United States. Patients who received amantadine were compared with patients who did not receive amantadine. The primary outcome measure was the presence of agitation, defined as the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score of +2 or higher...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815276/determination-of-89-drugs-and-other-micropollutants-in-unfiltered-wastewater-and-freshwater-by-lc-ms-ms-an-alternative-sample-preparation-approach
#4
Alexandros G Asimakopoulos, Pranav Kannan, Sean Higgins, Kurunthachalam Kannan
A liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-qQq-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 89 legal neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs (both parent compounds and metabolites) and other micropollutants in unfiltered wastewater and freshwater. The target chemicals fall under the classes of amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine compounds, opiates and opioids, benzodiazepines, lysergic compounds, antipsychotics, anesthetics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, sympathomimetics, cannabinoids, blood thinners, antihistamines, β-blockers, caffeine derivatives, nicotine derivatives, z-drugs, new designer drugs, and Alzheimer medications...
August 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815028/the-majority-of-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals-are-at-risk-for-relevant-drug-drug-interactions
#5
Elise J Smolders, Floor Ac Berden, Clara Tmm de Kanter, Wietske Kievit, Joost Ph Drenth, David M Burger
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have improved treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection significantly. Direct-acting antivirals inhibit/induce and can also be substrates of drug-metabolising enzymes and transporters. This increases the risk for drug-drug interactions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to predict drug-drug interactions with co-medication used by hepatitis C virus-infected patients. METHODS: We assembled a nationwide cohort of hepatitis C patients and collected cross-sectional data on co-medication use...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814122/flibanserin-toxicity-in-a-toddler-following-ingestion
#6
Nicholas Granzella, Betty C Chen, Geoffrey S Baird, Matthew Valento
INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who ingested an estimated 600 mg of his mother's flibanserin...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812541/systematic-review-of-interventions-for-treating-or-preventing-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#7
Hanna Bergman, Dawn-Marie Walker, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Karla Soares-Weiser, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication can cause tardive dyskinesia (TD) - late-onset, involuntary, repetitive movements, often involving the face and tongue. TD occurs in > 20% of adults taking antipsychotic medication (first-generation antipsychotics for > 3 months), with this proportion increasing by 5% per year among those who continue to use these drugs. The incidence of TD among those taking newer antipsychotics is not different from the rate in people who have used older-generation drugs in moderate doses...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812400/new-benzodiazepine-and-z-hypnotic-users-and-disability-pension-an-eight-year-nationwide-observational-follow-up-study
#8
Ingunn F Tvete, Trine Bjørner, Tor Skomedal
OBJECTIVE: To compare how newly initiated treatment with benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics or both associates with the reception of disability pension among 40,661 individuals of a working age. DESIGN: Prescription register study. SETTING: Norwegian nationwide prescriptions socio-economic and disability status data. METHODS: Cox regression analyses. SUBJECTS: New benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time to receive disability pension given benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic use or both...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810127/medicaid-prior-authorization-and-opioid-medication-abuse-and-overdose
#9
Gerald Cochran, Adam J Gordon, Walid F Gellad, Chung-Chou H Chang, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Carroline Lobo, Evan Cole, Winfred Frazier, Ping Zheng, David Kelley, Julie M Donohue
OBJECTIVES: The US opioid medication epidemic has resulted in serious health consequences for patients. Formulary management tools adopted by payers, specifically prior authorization (PA) policies, may lower the rates of opioid medication abuse and overdose. We compared rates of opioid abuse and overdose among enrollees in plans that varied in their use of PA from "High PA" (ie, required PA for 17 to 74 opioids), with "Low PA" (ie, required PA for 1 opioid), and "No PA" policies for opioid medications...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807671/selective-inhibition-of-extra-synaptic-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-by-s44819-a-new-therapeutic-agent
#10
Lori-An Etherington, Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, István Ling, Katalin Pallagi, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, Ben G Gunn, Adam R Brown, Matthew R Livesey, Olivia Monteiro, Delia Belelli, József Barkóczy, Michael Spedding, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni, Jeremy J Lambert
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate neuronal inhibition and are important therapeutic targets. GABAARs are composed of 5 subunits, drawn from 19 proteins, underpinning expression of 20-30 GABAAR subtypes. In the CNS these isoforms are heterogeneously expressed and exhibit distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. We report the discovery of S44819, a novel tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine-derivative, that selectively inhibits α5-subunit-containing GABAARs (α5-GABAARs)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807495/the-colorful-spectrum-of-tourette-syndrome-and-its-medical-surgical-and-behavioral-therapies
#11
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807167/treatment-of-insomnia-with-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#12
Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807135/suicidal-ideation-and-suicidal-self-directed-violence-following-clinician-initiated-prescription-opioid-discontinuation-among-long-term-opioid-users
#13
Michael I Demidenko, Steven K Dobscha, Benjamin J Morasco, Thomas H A Meath, Mark A Ilgen, Travis I Lovejoy
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about patient outcomes following discontinuation of opioid therapy, which may include suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal self-directed violence (SSV). The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of SI and non-fatal SSV in a sample of patients discontinued from long-term opioid therapy (LTOT). METHOD: Five hundred-nine Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients whose clinicians discontinued them from LTOT were selected from a national cohort of VHA patients who discontinued opioids in 2012...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806561/delirium-and-exposure-to-psychoactive-medications-in-critically-ill-adults-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#14
Lisa D Burry, David R Williamson, Sangeeta Mehta, Marc M Perreault, Ioanna Mantas, Ranjeeta Mallick, Dean A Fergusson, Orla Smith, Eddy Fan, Sebastien Dupuis, Margaret Herridge, Louise Rose
PURPOSE: Investigate the relationship between psychoactive drugs and delirium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study of 520 critically ill adult patients admitted ≥24h to 6 intensive care units (ICUs). Data were collected on psychoactive drug exposure, use of sedation administration strategies, and incident delirium (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score≥4). RESULTS: Delirium was detected in 260 (50%) patients, median (IQR) duration 2 (1-5) days, and time to onset 3 (2-5) days...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803078/safety-and-effectiveness-of-palliative-drug-treatment-in-the-last-days-of-life-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Kristian Jansen, Dagny Faksvåg Haugen, Lisa Pont, Sabine Ruths
CONTEXT: Dying patients commonly experience potentially distressing symptoms. Palliative care guidelines recommend opioids, anticholinergics, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines for symptom relief. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of palliative drug treatment in the last days of life of adult patients, focusing on the management of pain, dyspnea, anxiety, restlessness, and death rattle. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature published before December 2016 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802513/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#16
Awais Aftab, Ashley VanDercar, Ayham Alkhachroum, Christine LaGrotta, Keming Gao
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT...
July 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799514/potentially-clinically-relevant-pharmacodynamic-interactions-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-psychotropic-drugs-an-update
#17
Edoardo Spina, Jose de Leon
BACKGROUND: Prior articles paid little attention to pharmacodynamic drug interactions (DIs) between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the most important psychotropic medications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and lithium) which have potential to be clinically relevant. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to provide an updated review of the potentially clinically relevant pharmacodynamic DIs between AEDs and psychotropic medications. Pharmacodynamic DIs take place directly at the site of action of a drug or indirectly by interfering with another physiological mechanism...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799512/modulation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#18
Eleonora Palma, Gabriele Ruffolo, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: A variety of evidence suggested that an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission could be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Understanding the causes of this imbalance may provide essential insight into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and may uncover novel targets for future drug therapies. Accordingly, GABA is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and its receptors (e.g., GABAARs) can still be relevant targets of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796283/flumazenil-versus-placebo-or-no-intervention-for-people-with-cirrhosis-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#19
REVIEW
Ee Teng Goh, Mette L Andersen, Marsha Y Morgan, Lise Lotte Gluud
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis which results in poor brain functioning. The spectrum of changes associated with hepatic encephalopathy ranges from the clinically 'indiscernible' or minimal hepatic encephalopathy to the clinically 'obvious' or overt hepatic encephalopathy. Flumazenil is a synthetic benzodiazepine antagonist with high affinity for the central benzodiazepine recognition site. Flumazenil may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy through an indirect negative allosteric modulatory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function...
August 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795846/a-novel-non-opioid-protocol-for-medically-supervised-opioid-withdrawal-and-transition-to-antagonist-treatment
#20
Gregory Rudolf, Jim Walsh, Abigail Plawman, Paul Gianutsos, William Alto, Lloyd Mancl, Vania Rudolf
BACKGROUND: The clinical feasibility of a novel non-opioid and benzodiazepine-free protocol was assessed for the treatment of medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to subsequent relapse prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of DSM-IV diagnosed opioid-dependent patients admitted for inpatient medically supervised withdrawal examined 84 subjects (52 males, 32 females) treated with a 4-day protocol of scheduled tizanidine, hydroxyzine, and gabapentin...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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