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Daniel Deimel
Clinical social work has established itself as a health-specific profession in Germany over the past 15 years. It refers to a bio-psycho-social health understanding and is particularly focused on hard-to-reach client groups. The concept of evidence-based practice is often criticized and rejected by parts of the profession and discipline of social work. The concepts of evidence-based medicine and clinical social work are associated with positive outcomes for clinical practice and professional development.
March 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Riikka Homanen
The multimillion-euro fertility industry increasingly tailors its treatments to infertile people who are willing to travel across national borders for treatments inaccessible at home, especially reproductive tissue donor treatments. Finland is the Nordic destination for access to donor eggs, particularly for Swedes and Norwegians hoping for a donor match that will achieve a child of phenotypically plausible biological descent. Finns are seen as Nordic kin, and the inheritability of "Nordicness" is reinforced at clinics...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Ken W S Ashwell, Boaz Shulruf
We have used an unbiased statistical approach to compare the pace of development in the main and accessory olfactory systems in monotremes and metatherians with that in rodents and humans. We hypothesized that if metatherians and monotremes, which are born at small body size, use olfaction to locate the pouch and/or teat/milk field, then olfactory structures should reach structural maturity in metatherians and monotremes at a smaller size than eutherians like humans and rodents. The achievement of key structural milestones in the development of the main and accessory olfactory systems (11 and 7 milestones, respectively) was scored for 354 specimens and compared against a measure of general somatic growth (body length)...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Jayne S Weiss, Laura Sapigni, Cristina Bovone, Leila Mattioli, Emilio C Campos, Massimo Busin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate and outcomes of immunologic stromal rejection occurring after large deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and the effect of the underlying disease on the cumulative probability of rejection. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all eyes that underwent a 9-mm DALK at Ospedali Privati Forlì (Forlì, Italy). On the basis of preoperative diagnosis, eyes were assigned to group 1: keratoconus, group 2: stromal disease with a low risk for rejection, or group 3: stromal disease with a high risk for rejection...
March 14, 2018: Cornea
Kaiyi Zhu, Yueyue Lu, Shulian Zhang, Haowen Ruan, Shin Usuki, Yidong Tan
Ultrasound modulated laser confocal feedback technology is proposed in the imaging inside turbid media. By selecting the detectable signal photons and rejecting the background noise photons in the frequency domain based on the ultrasound modulation, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be much improved, especially in the turbid media, compared with the traditional imaging without ultrasound modulation. This is a promising method to reach both a larger penetration depth and a better SNR than other optical methods...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Xiaolong Liu, Yuan Yu, Haitao Tang, Lu Xu, Jianji Dong, Xinliang Zhang
We propose and demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based widely tunable microwave photonic filter (MPF), which is implemented by using an under-coupled microring resonator (MRR) assisted by two cascaded tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers. In the experiment, the MPF achieves an ultrahigh peak rejection exceeding 60 dB, a full width at half-maximum bandwidth of 780 MHz, and a frequency tuning range of 0-40 GHz, even when the propagation loss of the MRR is 1.65 dB/cm. To the best of our knowledge, this MPF demonstrates ultrahigh peak rejection and narrow bandwidth simultaneously in SOI for the first time with MRR of such propagation loss and avoids using external electrical devices to improve the rejection...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Kazuaki Tokodai, Shigehito Miyagi, Chikashi Nakanishi, Yasuyuki Hara, Wataru Nakanishi, Koji Miyazawa, Kenji Shimizu, Keigo Murakami, Hironobu Sasano, Masafumi Goto, Michiaki Unno, Takashi Kamei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of post-transplant DSA as a predictor of liver fibrosis during long-term follow-up after pediatric LT. We evaluated the histological findings in 18 LT recipients who underwent liver biopsy after DSA screening. Liver fibrosis was scored based on the METAVIR fibrosis staging. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on histological findings, and clinical characteristics among patients with liver fibrosis were assessed. Of 18 patients, 7 were included in the fibrosis group...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Lambros Kordelas, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Bettina Wagner, Markus Ditschkowski, Tobias Liebregts, Monika Lindemann, Falko M Heinemann, Peter A Horn, Dietrich W Beelen, Vera Rebmann
HLA-G is a non-classical class I molecule which induces tolerance in allogeneic situations by inhibition of cytotoxic NK and CD8 + T cells and by induction of regulatory T cells. Concordantly, in solid organ transplantation HLA-G is associated with a lower risk for acute and chronic rejection, whereas its role in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is less established. We here present detailed analyses of HLA-G-levels in patients after allo-SCT showing a correlation of elevated soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels with less severe acute (p = 0...
March 14, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bin Zhao, Jun-Jie Xia, Lu-Min Wang, Chang Gao, Jia-Li Li, Jia-Yin Liu, Qi-Jun Cheng, Chen Dai, Qi-Lin Ma, Zhong-Quan Qi, Ben-Hua Zhao
The role of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) in inhibiting immune rejection and prolonging islet allograft survival has been identified in islet allotransplantation. This study aims to explore the role of As2 O3 in islet xenotransplantation and the action mechanism. The streptozotocin (STZ) was used in C57BL/6 mice to induce the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for xenotransplantation models establishment. Donor islets were isolated by digesting. The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze lymphocyte types. The blood sugar level was detected by using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Joseph M Ladowski, Gregory R Martens, Luz M Reyes, Zheng-Yu Wang, Devin E Eckhoff, Vera Hauptfeld-Dolejsek, Matt Tector, A Joseph Tector
Genetically engineered pig organs could provide transplants to all patients with end-stage organ failure, but Ab-mediated rejection remains an issue. This study examines the class II swine leukocyte Ag (SLA) as a target of epitope-restricted Ab binding. Transfection of individual α- and β-chains into human embryonic kidney cells resulted in both traditional and hybrid class II SLA molecules. Sera from individuals on the solid organ transplant waiting list were tested for Ab binding and cytotoxicity to this panel of class II SLA single-Ag cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Julio Rosenstock, Vlado Perkovic, John H Alexander, Mark E Cooper, Nikolaus Marx, Michael J Pencina, Robert D Toto, Christoph Wanner, Bernard Zinman, David Baanstra, Egon Pfarr, Michaela Mattheus, Uli C Broedl, Hans-Juergen Woerle, Jyothis T George, Maximilian von Eynatten, Darren K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have underrepresented patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to uncertainty regarding their kidney efficacy and safety. The CARMELINA® trial aims to evaluate the effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on both CV and kidney outcomes in a study population enriched for cardio-renal risk. METHODS: CARMELINA® is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 27 countries in T2D patients at high risk of CV and/or kidney events...
March 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Fen Chen, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently been utilized as a noninvasive tool for evaluating renal oxygenation. Several methods have been proposed for analyzing BOLD images. Regional ROI selection is the earliest and most widely used method for BOLD analysis. In the last 20 years, many investigators have used this method to evaluate cortical and medullary oxygenation in patients with ischemic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury and renal allograft rejection...
March 8, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Nicole A Pilch, Vinayak Rohan, Vinaya Rao, Patrick D Mauldin, Zemin Su, Derek A Dubay, Thomas A Morinelli, David J Taber
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been performed to evaluate surrogate markers of long-term allograft function in renal transplant recipients. These include serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), slope of eGFR, and more recently eGFR variability. The aim of this study was to measure eGFR slope while assessing the variability of this slope and if high variability occurring at any time post-transplant was predictive of poorer long-term outcomes in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Suwasin Udomkarnjananun, Natavudh Townamchai, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Kroonpong Iampenkhae, Krit Pongpirul, Boonchoo Sirichindakul, Kamol Panumatrassamee, Jakapat Vanichanan, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5), which is expressed in the liver. However, CYP3A5 is also expressed in the kidney tissue and may contribute to local tacrolimus clearance in the kidney allograft. We aimed to evaluate the association between the allograft CYP3A5 genotype and transplant outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand, comparing 2 groups of donor and recipient CYP3A5 genotypes, the expressor (*1/*1 and *1/*3) and the non-expressor (*3/*3)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Xuyao Zhang, Wei Chen, Jiajun Fan, Shaofei Wang, Zongshu Xian, Jingyun Luan, Yubin Li, Yichen Wang, Yanyang Nan, Man Luo, Song Li, Wenzhi Tian, Dianwen Ju
CD47-targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors have been investigated for immunotherapy of several cancers, glioblastoma, one of the most common tumors in brain, was still a challenge for CD47-targeting therapy. Herein, we reported novel strategies for glioblastoma therapy via blocking CD47-SIRPα by SIRPα-Fc alone or in combination with autophagy inhibition. Our results showed that SIRPα-Fc increased macrophages-triggered cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of glioblastoma cells then elicited potent anti-tumor efficacy...
March 10, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
Ladislav Bocak, Michal Motyka, Matej Bocek, Milada Bocakova
The relationships of the monogeneric family Plastoceridae Crowson, 1972 (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) have remained contentious due to its modified morphology, incorrect information on incomplete metamorphosis of females and the absence of molecular data. We produced the sequences for P. angulosus (Germar, 1844) (the type-species of Plastocerus Schaum, 1852) and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to estimate its position. The analyses of Elateroidea (186 spp.) and Elateridae (110 spp.) molecular datasets of two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments repeatedly placed Plastocerus Schaum, 1852 in relationships with the elaterid genera Oxynopterus Hope, 1842 and Pectocera Hope, 1842...
2018: PloS One
Kevin Rey, Sukhbir Manku, Winnie Enns, Thea Van Rossum, Kevin Bushell, Ryan D Morin, Fiona S L Brinkman, Jonathan C Choy
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota influences many immunological processes but how its disruption affects transplant rejection is poorly understood. METHODS: Interposition grafting of aortic segments was used to examine vascular rejection. The gut microbiota was disrupted in graft recipients using an antibiotic cocktail (ampicillin, vancomycin, metronidazole, neomycin sulfate) in their drinking water. RESULTS: Treatment of mice with antibiotics severely reduced total bacterial content in the intestine and disrupted the bacterial composition...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
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