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Kristin Salottolo, Emmett McGuire, Charles W Mains, Erika C van Doorn, David Bar-Or
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine occurrence, predictors, and prognosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and delirium tremens in patients with traumatic injury. DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Three U.S. trauma centers. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight thousand one hundred one trauma patients admitted from 2010-2014. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Measures included occurrence of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and delirium tremens, injury characteristics, risk factors for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, clinical outcomes, pharmacologic treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores...
March 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Shreyas Pendharkar, Surendra K Mattoo, Sandeep Grover
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Annemarie Heberlein, Rilana Schuster, Alexandra Kleimann, Adrian Groh, Andreas Kordon, Birgitt Opfermann, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Michael Gröschl, Johannes Kornhuber, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Thomas Hillemacher
AIMS: Neurotrophins have been linked to the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. We aimed to investigate a possible association between the methylation of the promoters of both neurotrophins, the serum levels of the cytokines and core symptoms of alcohol dependence as withdrawal severity and anxiety. METHODS: In this study we investigated a possible association between alterations in the methylation of the BDNF IV/NGF I gene promoter and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 55 male alcohol-dependent patients...
January 26, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Audrey Littlefield, Claire Chan, Dawn Cooper, Jason Heavner, Jeanette Kurtz, Margaret Pisani, Mojdeh Heavner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Dominic Murphy, Emily Palmer, Greta Westwood, Walter Busuttil, Neil Greenberg
The aim of this paper was to provide insights into alcohol misuse within UK veterans to inform as to whether their presentations differ from the general public. This was done by exploring differences in the severity of alcohol misuse between UK veterans and the general public admitted to a general NHS hospital over an 18 month period using retrospective data. All patients admitted to the hospital were screened for alcohol misuse. Those deemed as experiencing problems were referred for specialist nurse-led support...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mary E Eberly, Anna G Lockwood, Sean Lockwood, Kelly W Davis
Background: There are varying dosing strategies for the administration of benzodiazepines in the setting of alcohol withdrawal. In October 2014, a symptom-based alcohol withdrawal protocol (AWP) using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale was implemented at one institution. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the AWP. Methods: Retrospective chart review was completed, including patients receiving at least one dose of diazepam for alcohol withdrawal pre- and post-protocol...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Soumitra Sen, Philip Grgurich, Amanda Tulolo, Andrew Smith-Freedman, Yuxiu Lei, Anthony Gray, James Dargin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the efficacy of symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocol utilizing Riker Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) scoring for the treatment of AWS in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a before-and-after study in a medical ICU. A protocol incorporating SAS scoring and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing was implemented in place of a protocol that utilized the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale and fixed benzodiazepine dosing...
February 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Gregory Gipson, Kim Tran, Cuong Hoang, Miriam Treggiari
We designed a study to evaluate the use of benzodiazepines and ethanol in patients being assessed for alcohol withdrawal and compare outcomes between the two agents. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to neurocritical care or neurosurgical services who were at risk for ethanol withdrawal between June 2011 and September 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on the first medication administered for alcohol withdrawal management, either benzodiazepine (n=50) or enteral ethanol (n=50)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Samuel B Holzman, Darius A Rastegar
AIMS: This study compared the Glasgow Modified Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (GMAWS) and a newly devised 3-item "Anxiety Sweats Tremor" Scale (AST) to the Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment Scale (CIWA-Ar)-the standard of care for symptom-triggered management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. METHODS: Our study took place over 2 separate 1-week observational periods, and included 332 serial evaluations from 85 unique patients. All study participants were treated per hospital protocol based on CIWA-Ar, with supplemental scoring initially by GMAWS and later by AST in tandem...
May 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
K Girish, K Vikram Reddy, Lakshmi V Pandit, H P Pundarikaksha, R Vijendra, K Vasundara, R Manjunatha, Moulya Nagraj, R Shruthi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a distressing condition, generally controlled by benzodiazepines (BZD's). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABAB) agonist, has also shown promising results in controlling AWS. As there are few studies comparing the efficacy and tolerability of chlordiazepoxide with baclofen, the present study was taken up. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and tolerability of baclofen with chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated AWS. METHODS: Sixty subjects with uncomplicated AWS were randomized into two groups of 30 each, to receive baclofen (30 mg) or chlordiazepoxide (75 mg) in decremented fixed dose regime for 9 days...
February 2016: Biomedical Journal
Manu Jose, Jayanthi Mathaiyan, Shivanand Kattimani, Surendiran Adithan, Adithan Chandrasekaran
PURPOSE: Alcohol dependence is a public health problem worldwide, commonly associated with withdrawal symptoms for which diazepam is a frequently used drug. We studied the effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on diazepam loading dose requirement and time to reversal of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms. We also studied the influence of the polymorphism in this gene on the persistent symptoms after loading dose of diazepam. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who reported to the psychiatry department with symptoms of alcohol withdrawal diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria were included for the study...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
John J Mariani, Robert J Malcolm, Agnieszka K Mamczur, Jean C Choi, Ronald Brady, Edward Nunes, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine use disorders are a common clinical problem among methadone maintenance treatment patients and have adverse effects on clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate gabapentin for the outpatient treatment of benzodiazepine abuse or dependence in methadone maintenance patients. METHODS: Participants (n = 19) using benzodiazepines at least 4 days per week were enrolled into an 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled outpatient pilot trial...
May 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Alexander Owen James, Timothy R Nicholson, Robert Hill, Jennifer Bearn
Meprobamate, a benzodiazepine-like drug, was commonly prescribed for anxiety in the 1960s and 1970s, but fell out of favour, at least in part, due to the risk of dependence, for which there is little published evidence to guide clinical management. We discuss a 70-year-old man with a 45-year history of meprobamate dependency and multiple failed previous withdrawal attempts who was successfully withdrawn from meprobamate using diazepam during a 2-week inpatient stay on a specialist Addictions ward. An appropriate diazepam dose was established using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment scale for benzodiazepines (CIWA-B)...
February 29, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Nisha Dutta, Sarah G Helton, Melanie Schwandt, Xi Zhu, Reza Momenan, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal (AW) can be a serious consequence of alcohol dependence and consists of various neurochemical adaptations in the brain. One such neuroadaptation occurs in the monoamine neurotransmitter system. Recently, a functional variant in the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter gene (VMAT1/SLC18A1-Thr136Ile-rs1390938) was found to significantly increase transport of monoamines into synaptic vesicles in vitro. We hypothesize that the alteration of magnitude of monoamine release contributes to severity of AW symptoms...
March 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Stephanie Pope, Kasia Gustaw-Rothenberg, Christina Delos Reyes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to collect objective data concerning the prescription of vitamin supplementation treatment in hospitalized patients at risk for alcohol withdrawal. METHODS: This study compared the total number of orders for folate, thiamine, and multivitamins with assessments ordered using the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) during 2 congruent time periods in a hospital system before and after these orders were linked to determine the effectiveness of the link...
January 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Parham Aarabi, Narges Norouzi, Taylor Dear, Sally Carver, Simon Bromberg, Sara Gray, Mel Kahan, Bjug Borgundvaag
This paper evaluates the relation between Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome tremors in the left and right hands of patients. By analyzing 122 recordings from 61 patients in emergency departments, we found a weak relationship between the left and right hand tremor frequencies (correlation coefficient of 0.63). We found a much stronger relationship between the expert physician tremor ratings (on CIWA-Ar 0-7 scale) of the two hands, with a correlation coefficient of 0.923. Next, using a smartphone to collect the tremor data and using a previously developed model for obtaining estimated tremor ratings, we also found a strong correlation (correlation coefficient of 0...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
James Russell, Neal Richardson, Aglaja Dar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
José R Maldonado, Yelizaveta Sher, Smita Das, Kelsey Hills-Evans, Anna Frenklach, Sermsak Lolak, Rachel Talley, Eric Neri
AIMS: The prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among hospitalized medically ill patients exceeds 40%. Most AUD patients experience uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), requiring only supportive medical intervention, while complicated AWS occurs in up to 20% of cases (i.e. seizures, delirium tremens). We aimed to prospectively test and validate the Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale (PAWSS), a new tool to identify patients at risk for developing complicated AWS, in medically ill hospitalized patients...
September 2015: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ranjani Ramanujam, Padma L, Swaminath G, Rohini S Thimmaiah
BACKGROUND: Currently, benzodiazepines are the preferred drugs in the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, the most frequently used drugs have a long duration of action and are converted to active metabolites in the liver, while lorazepam is shorter acting, with no active metabolites. OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the safety and efficacy of lorazepam and chlordiazepoxide in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome with symptoms of alcohol withdrawal...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The treatment baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (searched 13 January 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2015), EMBASE (1980 to January 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015)...
April 3, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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