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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694999/novel-approaches-to-the-study-of-neonatal-infections
#1
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689134/inferring-pathogen-dynamics-from-temporal-count-data-the-emergence-of-xylella-fastidiosa-in-france-is-probably-not-recent
#2
Samuel Soubeyrand, Pauline de Jerphanion, Olivier Martin, Mathilde Saussac, Charles Manceau, Pascal Hendrikx, Christian Lannou
Unravelling the ecological structure of emerging plant pathogens persisting in multi-host systems is challenging. In such systems, observations are often heterogeneous with respect to time, space and host species, and may lead to biases of perception. The biased perception of pathogen ecology may be exacerbated by hidden fractions of the whole host population, which may act as infection reservoirs. We designed a mechanistic-statistical approach to help understand the ecology of emerging pathogens by filtering out some biases of perception...
April 24, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680126/fungal-genomes-and-genotyping
#3
Ricardo Araujo, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this "kingdom." The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The "1000 Fungal Genomes Project" represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal organisms trying to fill some gaps on fungal genomics. Presently, there are 329 fungal families with at least one representative genome sequenced, but there is still a large number of fungal families without a single sequenced genome...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672372/testing-a-strategy-to-identify-incidence-of-nurse-suicide-in-the-united-states
#4
Judy E Davidson, Amy R Stuck, Sidney Zisook, James Proudfoot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test a strategy for quantifying incidence of nurse suicide using San Diego County data as a pilot for national investigation. BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 1 person dies by suicide every 40 seconds; more than 1 000 000 suicides occur yearly. Suicide rates for nurses in the United States have not been evaluated. This methodological article tested a strategy to identify incidence of nurse suicide compared with those of physicians and the general public...
May 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672231/is-there-an-association-between-exposure-to-cats-and-occurrence-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-humans-and-dogs
#5
Ana Paula Razal Dalvi, Thaiza Dutra Gomes de Carvalho, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
The domestic dog is considered the main reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, but the identification of cats infected by Leishmania suggests the possibility of these animals also acting as reservoirs. The incrimination of a species as reservoir requires the accumulation of epidemiological evidence on the co-occurrence between such species and the infection in question. This is a systematic review of epidemiological studies evaluating the association between exposure to cats and occurrence of VL in humans (HVL) or dogs (CVL)...
April 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671617/oxazole-and-thiazole-analogs-of-sulindac-for-cancer-prevention
#6
Bini Mathew, Judith V Hobrath, Michele C Connelly, R Kiplin Guy, Robert C Reynolds
AIM: Experimental and epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possess antitumor potential. Sulindac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can prevent adenomatous colorectal polyps and colon cancer, especially in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Sulindac sulfide amide (SSA) is an amide-linked sulindac sulfide analog that showed in vivo antitumor activity in a human colon tumor xenograft model. Results/methodology: A new analog series with heterocyclic rings such as oxazole or thiazole at the C-2 position of sulindac was prepared and screened against prostate, colon and breast cancer cell lines to probe the effect of these novel substitutions on the activity of sulindac analogs...
April 19, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667573/molecular-epidemiology-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
James R Johnson, Thomas A Russo
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. Molecular epidemiological analyses of ExPEC are based on structured observations of E. coli strains as they occur in the wild. By assessing real-world phenomena as they occur in authentic contexts and hosts, they provide an important complement to experimental assessment. Fundamental to the success of molecular epidemiological studies are the careful selection of subjects and the use of appropriate typing methods and statistical analysis...
April 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#8
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665768/support-to-triage-and-public-risk-perception-considering-long-term-response-to-a-cs-137-radiological-dispersive-device-scenario
#9
Cristiane Ps Andrade, Cláudio J Souza, Eduardo Sn Camerini, Isabela S Alves, Hélio C Vital, Matthew Jf Healy, Edson Ramos De Andrade
A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665621/on-the-analysis-of-discrete-time-competing-risks-data
#10
Minjung Lee, Eric J Feuer, Jason P Fine
Regression methodology has been well developed for competing risks data with continuous event times, both for the cause-specific hazard and cumulative incidence functions. However, in many applications, including those from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, the event times may be observed discretely. Naive application of continuous time regression methods to such data is not appropriate. We propose maximum likelihood inferences for estimation of model parameters for the discrete time cause-specific hazard functions, develop predictions for the associated cumulative incidence functions, and derive consistent variance estimators for the predicted cumulative incidence functions...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662502/sex-dependent-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Garima Singh, Vikrant Singh, Marissa Sobolewski, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Jay S Schneider
The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660259/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-in-the-americas-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Thomas Horvatits, Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Dirk Westhoelter, Johannes Hartl, Carolin Manthey, Marc Lütgehetmann, Geraldine Rauch, Levente Kriston, Ansgar W Lohse, Richard Bendall, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton, Sven Pischke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: While hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are a relevant topic in Europe, knowledge about epidemiology of HEV infections in the USA and Latin America is still limited. Aim of this study was to estimate anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in the Americas and to assess whether low socioeconomic status is associated with HEV exposure. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published 01/1994-12/2016...
April 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659685/can-curcumin-counteract-cognitive-decline-clinical-trial-evidence-and-rationale-for-combining-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-with-curcumin
#13
Julia Christina Kuszewski, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong, Peter Ranald Charles Howe
The rate of cognitive decline in the elderly is highly variable. One potential factor contributing to accelerated cognitive decline is chronic systemic inflammation, because it has been linked to cognitive impairment and increased dementia risk. Certain lifestyle factors, such as excess body weight and sedentary behavior, can exacerbate a proinflammatory state in older adults, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Supplementing the diet with curcumin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric, is a potential approach to prevent accelerated cognitive decline by counteracting chronic inflammatory processes...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658289/cancer-risk-following-alpha-emitter-exposure
#14
M Tirmarche
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) mandated a task group (Task Group 64) to review recently published epidemiological studies related to cancer risk and incorporated alpha emitters, and to evaluate whether the results might consolidate or challenge assumptions underlying the current radiation protection system. Three major alpha emitters were considered: radon and its decay products, plutonium, and uranium. Results came mainly from cohorts of workers, while for radon, major studies of the general population contributed to a better understanding of the risk of lung cancer at low and chronic exposure...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656047/the-complex-association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-male-hypogonadism
#15
Christina Dimopoulou, Dimitrios G Goulis, Giovanni Corona, Mario Maggi
BACKGROUND: The complex association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male hypogonadism is well established. A number of observational studies show that low testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for diabetes mellitus and MetS in men. AIMS: To elucidate the association between MetS and male hypogonadism, present epidemiological data on the co-existence of the two comorbidities, enlighten the underlying pathophysiology and appraise the effects of testosterone supplementation therapy (TTh) and lifestyle modifications on MetS and body composition in men...
April 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650699/update-of-an-occupational-asthma-specific-job-exposure-matrix-to-assess-exposure-to-30-specific-agents
#16
Nicole Le Moual, Jan-Paul Zock, Orianne Dumas, Theodore Lytras, Eva Andersson, Linnéa Lillienberg, Vivi Schlünssen, Geza Benke, Hans Kromhout
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update an asthmagen job exposure matrix (JEM) developed in the late 1990s. Main reasons were: the number of suspected and recognised asthmagens has since tripled; understanding of the aetiological role of irritants in asthma and methodological insights in application of JEMs have emerged in the period. METHODS: For each agent of the new occupational asthma-specific JEM (OAsJEM), a working group of three experts out of eight evaluated exposure for each International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1988 (ISCO-88) job code into three categories: 'high' (high probability of exposure and moderate-to-high intensity), 'medium' (low-to-moderate probability or low intensity) and 'unexposed'...
April 12, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650415/pulmonary-vein-stenosis-in-infants-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#17
Carl H Backes, Erin Nealon, Aimee K Armstrong, Clifford L Cua, Courtney Mitchell, Usha Krishnan, Rachel D Vanderlaan, Mi Kyoung Song, Nicola Viola, Charles V Smith, Patrick I McConnell, Brian K Rivera, Jeffrey Bridge
OBJECTIVE: To quantify outcomes of infants (<1 year of age) diagnosed with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS). STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science were searched through February 1, 2017, with no language restrictions. Publications including infants diagnosed with primary PVS, defined as the absence of preceding intervention(s), were considered. The study was performed according to Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, the Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analysis checklist, and registered prospectively...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649252/prevalence-of-psychotic-disorders-and-its-association-with-methodological-issues-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Berta Moreno-Küstner, Carlos Martín, Loly Pastor
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to provide an updated systematic review to identify studies describing the prevalence of psychosis in order to explore methodological factors that could account for the variation in prevalence estimates. METHODS: Studies with original data related to the prevalence of psychosis (published between 1990 and 2015) were identified via searching electronic databases and reviewing manual citations. Prevalence estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, 12-months and lifetime)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644442/-current-aspects-of-the-definition-and-diagnosis-of-sepsis-and-antibiotic-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Frank M Brunkhorst, Petra Gastmeier, Muna Abu Sin
Hospital mortality of patients with secondary sepsis remains high at around 40%. Because of the methodological deficiencies of the definitions used so far, valid epidemiological data on secondary sepsis that allow for national and international comparisons are lacking. Since 2016, new clinical diagnostic tools that are also suitable for sepsis screening outside of intensive care units have been available. To counteract the high mortality of nosocomial sepsis, new approaches to the early identification of at-risk patients are needed...
April 11, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#20
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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