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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346819/parametric-overdispersed-frailty-models-for-current-status-data
#1
Steven Abrams, Marc Aerts, Geert Molenberghs, Niel Hens
Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346025/guidance-on-radiation-dose-limits-for-the-lens-of-the-eye-overview-of-the-recommendations-in-ncrp-commentary-no-26
#2
Lawrence T Dauer, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joseph Dynlacht, David Hoel, Barbara E K Klein, Don Mayer, Christina R Prescott, Raymond H Thornton, Eliseo Vano, Gayle E Woloschak, Cynthia M Flannery, Lee E Goldstein, Nobuyuki Hamada, Phung K Tran, Michael P Grissom, Eleanor A Blakely
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new NCRP Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP also addressed radiation protection principles with respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345151/registries-in-european-post-marketing-surveillance-a-retrospective-analysis-of-centrally-approved-products-2005-2013
#3
Jacoline C Bouvy, Kevin Blake, Jim Slattery, Marie L De Bruin, Peter Arlett, Xavier Kurz
PURPOSE: Regulatory agencies and other stakeholders increasingly rely on data collected through registries to support their decision-making. Data from registries are a cornerstone of post-marketing surveillance for monitoring the use of medicines in clinical practice. This study was aimed at gaining further insight into the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) requests for new registries and registry studies using existing registries and to review the experience gained in their conduct. METHODS: European Public Assessment Reports were consulted to identify products for which a request for a registry was made as a condition of the marketing authorisation...
March 26, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343623/biological-therapy-and-development-of-neoplastic-disease-in-patients-with-juvenile-rheumatic-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
Vanessa Patricia L Pereira, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente Robazzi
Juvenile rheumatic diseases affect the musculoskeletal system and begin before the age of 18. These conditions have varied, identifiable or unknown etiologies, but those of an autoimmune inflammatory nature have been associated with an increased risk of development of cancer, regardless of treatment. This study aims to assess, through a systematic review of the literature according to Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) quality criteria, the risk of cancer in patients with juvenile rheumatic disease, and its association with biological agents...
March 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343614/incidence-and-prevalence-of-systemic-sclerosis-in-campo-grande-state-of-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil
#5
Alex Magno Coelho Horimoto, Erica Naomi Naka Matos, Márcio Reis da Costa, Fernanda Takahashi, Marcelo Cruz Rezende, Letícia Barrios Kanomata, Elisangela Possebon Pradebon Locatelli, Leandro Tavares Finotti, Flávia Kamy Maciel Maegawa, Rosa Maria Ribeiro Rondon, Natália Pereira Machado, Flávia Midori Arakaki Ayres Tavares do Couto, Túlia Peixoto Alves de Figueiredo, Raphael Antonio Ovidio, Izaias Pereira da Costa
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease which shows extreme heterogeneity in its clinical presentation and that follows a variable and unpredictable course. Although some discrepancies in the incidence and prevalence rates between geographical regions may reflect methodological differences in the definition and verification of cases, they may also reflect true local differences. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and incidence of systemic sclerosis in the city of Campo Grande, state capital of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, during the period from January to December 2014...
March 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342844/a-system-dynamics-modelling-approach-to-assess-the-impact-of-launching-a-new-nicotine-product-on-population-health-outcomes
#6
Andrew Hill, Oscar M Camacho
In 2012 the US FDA suggested the use of mathematical models to assess the impact of releasing new nicotine or tobacco products on population health outcomes. A model based on system dynamics methodology was developed to project the potential effects of a new nicotine product at a population level. A model representing traditional smoking populations (never, current and former smokers) and calibrated using historical data was extended to a two-product model by including electronic cigarettes use statuses. Smoking mechanisms, such as product initiation, switching, transition to dual use, and cessation, were represented as flows between smoking statuses (stocks) and the potential effect of smoking renormalisation through a feedback system...
March 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342778/-the-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-algeria
#7
REVIEW
M Chekiri-Talbi, D W Denning
In Algeria, superficial mycoses are very commonly diagnosed. Deep fungal infections are less often observed. Few data from Algeria are found in the literature. We report for the first time the main causes of these diseases in our country and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports...
March 22, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340609/a-systematic-review-of-screening-instruments-for-depression-for-use-in-antenatal-services-in-low-resource-settings
#8
Genesis Chorwe-Sungani, Jennifer Chipps
BACKGROUND: In low resource settings, short, valid and reliable instruments with good high sensitivity and specificity are essential for the screening of depression in antenatal care. A review of published evidence on screening instruments for depression for use in antenatal services in low resource settings was conducted. The aim of this review was to appraise the best available evidence on screening instruments suitable for detecting depression in antenatal care in low resource settings...
March 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339348/geological-occurrence-mineralogical-characterization-and-risk-assessment-of-potentially-carcinogenic-erionite-in-italy
#9
Matteo Giordani, Michele Mattioli, Paolo Ballirano, Alessandro Pacella, Marco Cenni, Matteo Boscardin, Laura Valentini
Erionite is a zeolite representing a well-known health hazard. In fact, exposure of humans to its fibers has been unequivocally associated with occurrence of malignant mesothelioma. For this reason, a multi-methodological approach, based upon field investigation, morphological characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) chemical analysis, and structure refinement through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), was applied to different samples of potentially carcinogenic erionite from Northern Italy...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321701/burden-of-disease-attributed-to-ambient-pm2-5-and-pm10-exposure-in-190-cities-in-china
#10
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Mohit Arora, Anil Kumar Dikshit
Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities of China. Association of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss with air pollution-related health effects demand quantitative analysis for correctional measures in air quality. This study applies an epidemiology-based exposure-response function to obtain the quantitative estimate of health impact of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 across 190 cities of China during years 2014-2015. The annual average concentration of PM2...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320408/factors-of-physical-activity-among-chinese-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Congchao Lu, Ronald P Stolk, Pieter J J Sauer, Anna Sijtsma, Rikstje Wiersma, Guowei Huang, Eva Corpeleijn
BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this distinct period of development. METHODS: A systematic search was finished on Jan 10(th), 2017, and identified 2200 hits through PubMed and Web of Science. English-language published studies were included if they reported statistical associations between factors and physical activity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319296/joint-effects-of-climate-variability-and-socio-ecological-factors-on-dengue-transmission-epidemiological-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Rokeya Akter, Wenbiao Hu, Suchithra Naish, Shahera Banu, Shilu Tong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological evidence on the joint effects of climate variability and socio-ecological factors on dengue transmission. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, a detailed literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Peer-reviewed, freely available and full text articles, considering both climate and socio-ecological factors in relation to dengue, published in English from January 1993 to October 2015 were included in this review...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316573/a-production-calendar-based-on-water-temperature-spat-size-and-husbandry-practices-reduce-oshv-1-%C3%AE-var-impact-on-cultured-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-in-the-ebro-delta-catalonia-mediterranean-coast-of-spain
#13
Noèlia Carrasco, Ignasi Gairin, Josu Pérez, Karl B Andree, Ana Roque, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Chris J Rodgers, Cristobal Aguilera, M Dolors Furones
Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314415/epidemiology-of-facial-injuries-in-sport
#14
REVIEW
Amanda M Black, Paul H Eliason, Declan A Patton, Carolyn A Emery
Facial injuries can pose a large health burden for athletes, potentially resulting in time loss and surgery. This article reviews the incidence, common mechanisms, and risk factors of facial injuries in several sports globally. Estimates of facial injury rates are complicated by a lack of, or inconsistent, reporting on specific types of injury. Much of the epidemiologic literature is based on hospital-based injury surveillance and there is a paucity of literature examining sport-specific risk factors. Future research should focus on prospective injury surveillance methodologies with consistent injury definitions examining risk factors and the effectiveness of facial injury prevention efforts...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297631/an-examination-of-suicide-research-and-funding-in-new-zealand-2006-16-implications-for-new-research-and-policies
#16
Daniel D L Coppersmith, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Annette L Beautrais
Objective Suicide is a significant public health problem in New Zealand, with the youth suicide rate being one of the highest among developed countries. Increased suicide rates in recent years suggest that the evidence base and research priorities for New Zealand suicide prevention need to be reassessed. To inform policy development, the aim of the present study was to evaluate all peer-reviewed New Zealand published suicide research and major grant allocations from 2006 to 2016.Methods The methodology duplicated a recent Australian review of suicide prevention research and funding...
March 16, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296338/effect-of-endocrine-disruptors-on-male-reproduction-in-humans-why-the-evidence-is-still-lacking
#17
D Bliatka, S Lymperi, G Mastorakos, D G Goulis
The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction...
March 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295287/design-considerations-for-identifying-breast-cancer-risk-factors-in-a-population-based-study-in-africa
#18
Louise A Brinton, Baffour Awuah, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Beatrice Wiafe-Addai, Daniel Ansong, Kofi M Nyarko, Seth Wiafe, Joel Yarney, Richard Biritwum, Michelle Brotzman, Andrew A Adjei, Ernest Adjei, Francis Aitpillah, Lawrence Edusei, Florence Dedey, Sarah J Nyante, Joseph Oppong, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Nicholas Titiloye, Verna Vanderpuye, Emma Brew Abaidoo, Bernard Arhin, Isaac Boakye, Margaret Frempong, Naomi Ohene Oti, Victoria Okyne, Jonine D Figueroa
Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences, and odds ratios (OR) for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291536/child-sexual-abuse-in-japan-a-systematic-review-and-future-directions
#19
Masako Tanaka, Yumi E Suzuki, Ikuko Aoyama, Kota Takaoka, Harriet L MacMillan
INTRODUCTION: Estimating the national prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health and developmental outcomes is the first step in developing prevention strategies. While such data are available from many countries, less is known about the epidemiology of CSA in Japan. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched English databases: Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), PsycINFO, and Japanese databases: Cinii, J-Stage, Children's Rainbow Center Japan, Japan Child and Family Research Institute, Japanese Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect to identify articles published before July 2015 examining the lifetime prevalence of CSA in Japan using non-clinical samples...
March 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290394/a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-research-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-india
#20
Benjamin B Massenburg, Deepa K Veetil, Nakul P Raykar, Amit Agrawal, Nobhojit Roy, Martin Gerdin
INTRODUCTION: Over a quarter of the world's trauma deaths occur in India, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as the leading cause of death and disability within trauma. With little known about TBI in India, we set out to do a systematic review to characterize the quantitative literature on TBI in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following databases were searched from their inception to December 31, 2015: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization's Global Health Library, using the keywords: neurotrauma, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, head injury, and India...
March 2017: Neurology India
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