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Methodology, epidemiology

Lona Mody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jeanine Elise Aune, Lynn Lundy Evans, Nancy Boury
The nature of science (NOS) is a foundational framework for understanding scientific ideas and concepts. This framework includes scientific methodology, the process of revising and interpreting data, and the ways in which science is a social endeavor. Nature of science literature treats science as a way of knowing that is based on observable phenomenon. While discipline-specific coursework teaches the factual information of science, it may fall short on teaching scientific literacy, a key component of which is understanding NOS...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Shuaijun Guo, Rebecca Armstrong, Elizabeth Waters, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Sheikh M Alif, Geoffrey R Browne, Xiaoming Yu
OBJECTIVE: Improving health literacy at an early age is crucial to personal health and development. Although health literacy in children and adolescents has gained momentum in the past decade, it remains an under-researched area, particularly health literacy measurement. This study aimed to examine the quality of health literacy instruments used in children and adolescents and to identify the best instrument for field use. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: A wide range of settings including schools, clinics and communities...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Liang Ma, Ousmane H Cissé, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis , a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro , making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study organism...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Paul Kligfield, Fabio Badilini, Isabelle Denjoy, Saeed Babaeizadeh, Elaine Clark, Johan De Bie, Brian Devine, Fabrice Extramiana, Gianluca Generali, Richard Gregg, Eric Helfenbein, Jan Kors, Remo Leber, Peter Macfarlane, Pierre Maison-Blanche, Ian Rowlandson, Ramun Schmid, Martino Vaglio, Gerard van Herpen, Joel Xue, Brian Young, Cynthia L Green
BACKGROUND: Automated measurements of electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals by current-generation digital electrocardiographs are critical to computer-based ECG diagnostic statements, to serial comparison of ECGs, and to epidemiological studies of ECG findings in populations. A previous study demonstrated generally small but often significant systematic differences among 4 algorithms widely used for automated ECG in the United States and that measurement differences could be related to the degree of abnormality of the underlying tracing...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Valerie Elliot, Allison Cammer, William Pickett, Barbara Marlenga, Joshua Lawson, James Dosman, Louise Hagel, Niels Koehncke, Catherine Trask
BACKGROUND: Children living on farms experience exceptionally high risks for traumatic injury. There is a large body of epidemiological research documenting this phenomenon, yet few complementary studies that have explored the deep underlying reasons for such trends. Fundamental to this is understanding the decision-making processes of parents surrounding their choice to bring children, or not, into the farm worksite. OBJECTIVES: To (1) document farm parent views of the risks and benefits of raising children on a family farm, and, (2) understand more deeply why children are brought into the farm worksite...
2018: PloS One
Sarah L O'Beirne, Sushila A Shenoy, Jacqueline Salit, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Robert J Kaner, Sudha Visvanathan, Jay S Fine, Jason G Mezey, Ronald G Crystal
RATIONALE: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter ambient pollution has adverse effects on lung health, exacerbated by cigarette smoking. Fine air-borne particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5) are among the most harmful urban pollutants, and are closely linked to respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: Based on the knowledge that the small airway epithelium (SAE) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung disease, we hypothesized that elevated PM2...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sonia Ratib, Esther Burden-Teh, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Catherine Harwood, Fiona Bath-Hextall
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize available research evidence to determine the risk of skin cancer in patients with long-term use of topical corticosteroids (TCS). INTRODUCTION: Topical corticosteroids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in dermatology and the mainstay of the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin conditions such as psoriasis. They are often required for months or years to control the disease and ultimately restore patients' quality of life...
June 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Emmanuel Stamatakis, Ulf Ekelund, Ding Ding, Mark Hamer, Adrian E Bauman, I-Min Lee
Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been proposed as an 'independent' risk factor for chronic disease risk, attracting much research and media attention. Many countries have included generic, non-quantitative reductions in SB in their public health guidelines and calls for quantitative SB targets are increasing. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate key evidence areas relating to the development of guidance on sitting for adults. We carried out a non-systematic narrative evidence synthesis across seven key areas: (1) definition of SB, (2) independence of sitting from physical activity, (3) use of television viewing as a proxy of sitting, (4) interpretation of SB evidence, (5) evidence on 'sedentary breaks', (6) evidence on objectively measured sedentary SB and mortality and (7) dose response of sitting and mortality/cardiovascular disease...
June 10, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Riffat Ara Shawon, Animesh Biswas, Junnatul Ferdoush, Afrida Unjum, A K M Fazlur Rahman
PURPOSE: This paper is focused to reflect the changes in burn mortality and events leading to fatal burn injuries. METHODS: Two national community-based cross sectional health and injury surveys were done in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2016. Similar methodology had been followed in both the surveys. Multistage cluster sampling method considering probability-proportional-to-size strategy was used in both the surveys to obtain the desired sample. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was deployed to identify causes of mortality and morbidity among the population...
June 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
C Bellet, M J Green, A J Bradley, J Kaler
It is agreed that exposure of adult dairy cattle to helminths on pasture can negatively affect production performances as milking herd. Young animals, especially replacement heifers, represent the future of a dairy farm and are among the most vulnerable to helminth infections in a dairy herd. For this reason, dairy farmers tend to frequently treat heifers against helminths, although the impact of helminths on heifers' production performances is still poorly understood. Using different epidemiological and serological tools, this study examines the relationship between heifer exposure to helminths on pasture and production performances over time...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Erik J Timmermans, Jeroen Lakerveld, Joline W J Beulens, Dorret I Boomsma, Sophia E Kramer, Mirjam Oosterman, Gonneke Willemsen, Mariska Stam, Giel Nijpels, Carlo Schuengel, Jan H Smit, Bert Brunekreef, Jasper E C Dekkers, Dorly J H Deeg, Brenda W J H Penninx, Martijn Huisman
PURPOSE: In the Netherlands, a great variety of objectively measured geo-data is available, but these data are scattered and measured at varying spatial and temporal scales. The centralisation of these geo-data and the linkage of these data to individual-level data from longitudinal cohort studies enable large-scale epidemiological research on the impact of the environment on public health in the Netherlands. In the Geoscience and Health Cohort Consortium (GECCO), six large-scale and ongoing cohort studies have been enriched with a variety of existing geo-data...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Pietro Zuccarello, Gea Oliveri Conti, Federico Cavallaro, Chiara Copat, Antonio Cristaldi, Maria Fiore, Margherita Ferrante
Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting for their ability to change the normal function of human endocrine system. Their action on the reproductive system, both on male and female, is the most one investigated by international scientific community. The aim of this systematic review was to gather the available information regarding the role of phthalates on breast carcinogenesis focusing our research in their intake through the diet. Research was performed according the PRISMA methodology and 25 scientific articles published between 2000 and 2018 were selected...
June 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mahmoud A Nahhas, Felix Asamoah, Stephen Mullen, Bright I Nwaru, Ulugbek Nurmatov
INTRODUCTION: There has been a notable increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children in many industrialised regions. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% in 1990 to 6.7% in 2010. Although many studies have been published, the epidemiological burden of overweight and obesity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) is unclear. There is a need to bring together and appraise relevant studies in order to estimate the epidemiological burden (including incidence, prevalence, risk factors, trend over time) of overweight and obesity in this region and thus help to inform national and regional policies...
June 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael A Irvine, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Fitting complex models to epidemiological data is a challenging problem: methodologies can be inaccessible to all but specialists, there may be challenges in adequately describing uncertainty in model fitting, the complex models may take a long time to run, and it can be difficult to fully capture the heterogeneity in the data. We develop an adaptive approximate Bayesian computation scheme to fit a variety of epidemiologically relevant data with minimal hyper-parameter tuning by using an adaptive tolerance scheme...
May 26, 2018: Epidemics
John L Perez, Judith Absalon, Johannes Beeslaar, Paul Balmer, Kathrin U Jansen, Thomas R Jones, Shannon Harris, Laura J York, Qin Jiang, David Radley, Annaliesa S Anderson, Graham Crowther, Joseph J Eiden
Given the characteristics of meningococcal carriage and transmission and the sudden, often severe onset and long-term consequences of disease, vaccination can most effectively provide large-scale control of invasive disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y) cause nearly all meningococcal disease globally. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines can prevent serogroups A, C, W, and Y disease. More recently, recombinant protein vaccines for preventing serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) disease have become available, with a major target of vaccine-induced immune response for both vaccines being bacterial factor H binding protein (FHbp)...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Bart Ostro, Joseph V Spadaro, Sophie Gumy, Pierpaolo Mudu, Yewande Awe, Francesco Forastiere, Annette Peters
The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) is a comparative assessment of the health impact of the major and well-established risk factors, including ambient air pollution (AAP) assessed by concentrations of PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 µm) and ozone. Over the last two decades, major improvements have emerged for two important inputs in the methodology for estimating the impacts of PM2.5: the assessment of global exposure to PM2.5 and the development of integrated exposure risk models (IERs) that relate the entire range of global exposures of PM2...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Niki L Dimou, Konstantinos K Tsilidis
Mendelian randomization (MR) is becoming a popular approach to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome overcoming limitations of observational epidemiology. The advent of genome-wide association studies and the increasing accumulation of summarized data from large genetic consortia make MR a powerful technique. In this review, we give a primer in MR methodology, describe efficient MR designs and analytical strategies, and focus on methods and practical guidance for conducting an MR study using summary association data...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ke Zu, Liuhua Shi, Robyn L Prueitt, Xiaobin Liu, Julie E Goodman
Asthma, a chronic respiratory disorder with complex etiology and various phenotypes, is a considerable public health concern in the USA and worldwide. While there is evidence suggesting ambient ozone exposure may exacerbate asthma, information regarding the potential role of ozone in asthma development is more limited. Thus, we conducted a critical review of observational epidemiology studies to determine whether long-term ambient ozone exposure is a risk factor for asthma development. We identified 14 relevant studies; 11 evaluated asthma development in children, while three studies, based on a single cohort, assessed this outcome in adults...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Piotr Romaniuk, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Magdalena Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Tomasz Holecki, Adam R Szromek
The effectiveness of health systems is an area of constant interest for public health researchers and practitioners. The varied approach to effectiveness itself has resulted in numerous methodological proposals related to its measurement. The limitations of the currently used methods lead to a constant search for better tools for the assessment of health systems. This article shows the possibilities of using the health system synthetic outcome measure (SOM) for this purpose. It is an original tool using 41 indicators referring to the epidemiological situation, health behaviors, and factors related to the health-care system, which allows a relatively quick and easy assessment of the health system in terms of its effectiveness...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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