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Methodology, epidemiology

D J Snodin
The cancer threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) as determined by Kroes et al. in 2004 (0.15 µg/day and 1.5 µg/day at risk levels of 1 in 10(6) or 10(5), respectively) has been uncritically employed as a key metric in multiple regulatory guidance documents. There are numerous concerns regarding transparency and the highly conservative methodology in relation to its derivation; moreover, no formal confirmation has been undertaken by any regulatory body prior to its adoption. A recent joint report from the European Food Safety Authority and World Health Organization follows this trend, largely replicating previous conclusions and downplaying the need for a re-assessment...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Wasiq Khan, Amira S El Rifay, Mamun Malik, Ghazi Kayali
Given the importance of influenza infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), we conducted a comprehensive literature review to analyze the status of influenza research in the region from 2012. Influenza research has gained more momentum recently with the emergence of H5N1 and new virus strains. Research covering epidemiological, veterinary, and basic science aspects is growing. More sequences were being generated per year, not only for diagnostic purposes but also for research. We included gray literature publications in our search and found several graduate student dissertations from Egypt, which were published on an online portal...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
John Schutzer-Weissmann, Paul Farquhar-Smith
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is common and treatment is often suboptimal with less than half of patients achieving adequate 50% pain relief. As an area of unmet clinical need and as an archetype of neuropathic pain, it deserves the attention of clinicians and researchers. Areas covered: This review summarises the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical features of varicella infection. It describes the current and possible future management strategies for preventing varicella infection and reactivation and for treating PHN...
October 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sowmiya Moorthie, Hannah Blencowe, Matthew W Darlison, Joy E Lawn, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Joan K Morris, Bernadette Modell
Congenital disorders are an important cause of pregnancy loss, premature death and life-long disability. A range of interventions can greatly reduce their burden, but the absence of local epidemiological data on their prevalence and the impact of interventions impede policy and service development in many countries. In an attempt to overcome these deficiencies, we have developed a tool-The Modell Global Database of Congenital Disorders (MGDb) that combines general biological principles and available observational data with demographic data, to generate estimates of the birth prevalence and effects of interventions on mortality and disability due to congenital disorders...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
David Sando, Timothy Abuya, Anteneh Asefa, Kathleen P Banks, Lynn P Freedman, Stephanie Kujawski, Amanda Markovitz, Charity Ndwiga, Kate Ramsey, Hannah Ratcliffe, Emmanuel O Ugwu, Charlotte E Warren, R Rima Jolivet
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse (D&A) of women during childbirth in health facilities. Variations in reported prevalence may be associated with differences in study instruments and data collection methods. This systematic review and comparative analysis of methods aims to aggregate and present lessons learned from published studies that quantified the prevalence of Disrespect and Abuse (D&A) during childbirth. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines...
October 11, 2017: Reproductive Health
Thomas Harder, Anja Takla, Tim Eckmanns, Simon Ellis, Frode Forland, Roberta James, Joerg J Meerpohl, Antony Morgan, Eva Rehfuess, Holger Schünemann, Teun Zuiderent-Jerak, Helena de Carvalho Gomes, Ole Wichmann
Decisions in public health should be based on the best available evidence, reviewed and appraised using a rigorous and transparent methodology. The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) defined a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence in infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control that takes different domains and question types into consideration. The methodology rates evidence in four domains: disease burden, risk factors, diagnostics and intervention. The framework guiding it has four steps going from overarching questions to an evidence statement...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Jesus Maria Aranaz Andrés, Ramon Limón Ramírez, Carlos Aibar Remón, Maria Teresa Gea-Velázquez de Castro, Francisco Bolúmar, Ildefonso Hernández-Aguado, Nieves López Fresneña, Cristina Díaz-Agero Pérez, Enrique Terol García, Philippe Michel, Paulo Sousa, Itziar Larizgoitia Jauregui
BACKGROUND: Adverse events (AEs) epidemiology is the first step to improve practice in the healthcare system. Usually, the preferred method used to estimate the magnitude of the problem is the retrospective cohort study design, with retrospective reviews of the medical records. However this data collection involves a sophisticated sampling plan, and a process of intensive review of sometimes very heavy and complex medical records. Cross-sectional survey is also a valid and feasible methodology to study AEs...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
Oumar Coulibaly, Coralie L'Ollivier, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque
In this critical literature review, we summarize the epidemiological trends of dermatophytoses reported in Africa. Our findings clearly emphasize the heavy burden of dermatophytosis in Africa. Tinea capitis is the primary clinical presentation of dermatophytosis in African children throughout the entire African continent. The disease affects more than 20% of school-age children in West Africa, while the prevalence ranges from 10% to more than 70% in other regions of Africa. In African adults, the presence of tinea corporis is the most frequent indicator of dermatophytosis...
July 28, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Evangelia Samoli, Barbara K Butland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Outdoor air pollution exposures used in epidemiological studies are commonly predicted from spatiotemporal models incorporating limited measurements, temporal factors, geographic information system variables, and/or satellite data. Measurement error in these exposure estimates leads to imprecise estimation of health effects and their standard errors. We reviewed methods for measurement error correction that have been applied in epidemiological studies that use model-derived air pollution data...
October 5, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Lavinia Paternoster, Kate Tilling, George Davey Smith
The past decade has been proclaimed as a hugely successful era of gene discovery through the high yields of many genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, much of the perceived benefit of such discoveries lies in the promise that the identification of genes that influence disease would directly translate into the identification of potential therapeutic targets, but this has yet to be realized at a level reflecting expectation. One reason for this, we suggest, is that GWAS, to date, have generally not focused on phenotypes that directly relate to the progression of disease and thus speak to disease treatment...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Sarah J Lewis, Mike Gardner, Julian Higgins, Jeff Mp Holly, Tom R Gaunt, Claire M Perks, Suzanne D Turner, Sabina Rinaldi, Steve Thomas, Sean Harrison, Rosie J Lennon, Vanessa Tan, Cath Borwick, Pauline Emmett, Mona Jeffreys, Kate Northstone, Giota Mitrou, Martin Wiseman, Rachel Thompson, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Human, animal and cell experimental studies, human biomarker studies and genetic studies complement epidemiological findings and can offer insights into biological plausibility and pathways between exposure and disease but methods for synthesising such studies are lacking. We therefore developed a methodology for identifying mechanisms and carrying out systematic reviews of mechanistic studies which underpin exposure-cancer associations. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team with expertise in informatics, statistics, epidemiology, systematic reviews, cancer biology and nutrition was assembled...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Parthenopi Ktistaki, Nephely Alevra, Maria Voulgari
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death (after lung, stomach, liver and colon cancer), while among women it is first on the list. The incidence of breast cancer has made a dramatic increase since 1970 which is partly interpreted by the modern western life standards. The expected risk of breast cancer throughout a lifespan of an average is 1 in 11 women. The five-year survival rates for breast cancer are at 80% if it has not spread, and only at 40% for the metastatic type of cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Luiz Sérgio Marcelino Gomes, Milton Valdomiro Roos, Edmilson Takehiro Takata, Ademir Antônio Schuroff, Sérgio Delmonte Alves, Antero Camisa Júnior, Ricardo Horta Miranda
While the value of national arthroplasty registries (NAR) for quality improvement in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has already been widely reported, some methodological limitations associated with observational epidemiological studies that may interfere with the assessment of safety and efficacy of prosthetic implants have recently been described in the literature. Among the main limitations of NAR, the need for at least 80% compliance of all health institutions covered by the registry is emphasized; completeness equal or greater than 90% of all THA performed; restricted data collection; use of revision surgery as the sole criterion for outcome; and the inability of establishing a definite causal link with prosthetic dysfunction...
2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Muzaffer Kaser, Sinan Guloksuz
The last decade has witnessed a burgeoning interest in studies exploring the link between psychosis spectrum disorders (PSD) and altered immune function. While epidemiological and clinical studies point to evidence for increased peripheral inflammatory markers in PSD, it is not clear whether peripheral inflammation correlates with central inflammation in the brain. Furthermore, these studies are confounded by multiple methodological and disorder-related factors such as antipsychotic medications, smoking, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, all of which independently contribute to altered inflammation...
July 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Otacilio C Moreira, Zaida E Yadon, Elisa Cupolillo
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is spread worldwide and is the most common manifestation of leishmaniasis. Diagnosis is performed by combining clinical and epidemiological features, and through the detection of Leishmania parasites (or DNA) in tissue specimens or trough parasite isolation in culture medium. Diagnosis of CL is challenging, reflecting the pleomorphic clinical manifestations of this disease. Skin lesions vary in severity, clinical appearance, and duration, and in some cases, they can be indistinguishable from lesions related to other diseases...
September 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
Matheus Oliveira Almeida, Bruno T Saragiotto, Chris G Maher, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa
INTRODUCTION: Meta-epidemiological studies examining the influence of methodological characteristics, such as allocation concealment and intention-to-treat analysis have been performed in a large number of healthcare areas. However, there are no studies investigating these characteristics in physical therapy interventions for patients with low back pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of allocation concealment and the use of intention-to-treat analysis on estimates of treatment effects of physical therapy interventions in low back pain clinical trials...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Open
Anthony Marius Smith, Shannon Lucrecia Smouse, Nomsa Pauline Tau, Colleen Bamford, Vineshree Mischka Moodley, Charlene Jacobs, Kerrigan Mary McCarthy, Adré Lourens, Karen Helena Keddy
BACKGROUND: Workers in clinical microbiology laboratories are exposed to a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Salmonella species is among the most commonly reported bacterial causes of laboratory-acquired infections. We report on three cases of laboratory-acquired Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) infection which occurred over the period 2012 to 2016 in South Africa. METHODS: Laboratory investigation included phenotypic and genotypic characterization of isolates...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sally J Bromley, Michael K Drew, Scott Talpey, Andrew S McIntosh, Caroline F Finch
BACKGROUND: Combat sports involve body contact through striking, kicking and/or throwing. They are anecdotally referred to as 'dangerous', yet long-term investigation into specific injury rates is yet to be explored. OBJECTIVE: To describe incidence and prevalence of injury and illness within Olympic combat sports and to investigate risk of bias of prospective injury and illness research within these sports. METHODS: We systematically searched literature published up until May 2016...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Judy S LaKind, Laura G Anthony, Michael Goodman
Environmental epidemiology data are becoming increasingly important in public health decision making, which commonly incorporates a systematic review of multiple studies. This review addresses two fundamental questions: What is the quality of available reviews on associations between exposure to synthetic organic chemicals and neurodevelopmental outcomes? What is the value (e.g., quality and consistency) of the underlying literature? Published reviews on associations between synthetic organic environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children were systematically evaluated...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Melanie Carder, Louise Hussey, Annemarie Money, Matthew Gittins, Roseanne McNamee, Susan Jill Stocks, Dil Sen, Raymond M Agius
Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH) is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases...
September 2017: Safety and Health At Work
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