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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646586/vaccine-candidate-discovery-for-the-next-generation-of-malaria-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
James Tuju, Gathoni Kamuyu, Linda M Murungi, Faith H A Osier
Although epidemiological observations, IgG passive transfer studies and experimental infections in humans all support the feasibility of developing highly effective malaria vaccines, the precise antigens that induce protective immunity remain uncertain. Here, we review the methodologies applied to vaccine candidate discovery for Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the pre- to post- genomic era. Probing of genomic and/or cDNA libraries with antibodies of defined specificities or functional activity predominated the former, while reverse vaccinology encompassing high throughput in silico analyses of genomic, transcriptomic or proteomic parasite datasets is the mainstay of the latter...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645968/development-of-a-meta-algorithm-for-guiding-primary-care-encounters-for-patients-with-multimorbidity-using-evidence-based-and-case-based-guideline-development-methodology
#2
Cathleen Muche-Borowski, Dagmar Lühmann, Ingmar Schäfer, Rebekka Mundt, Hans-Otto Wagner, Martin Scherer
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to develop a comprehensive algorithm (meta-algorithm) for primary care encounters of patients with multimorbidity. We used a novel, case-based and evidence-based procedure to overcome methodological difficulties in guideline development for patients with complex care needs. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic guideline development methodology including systematic evidence retrieval (guideline synopses), expert opinions and informal and formal consensus procedures...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641759/evaluation-of-a-methodology-to-validate-national-death-index-retrieval-results-among-a-cohort-of-u-s-service-members
#3
Nancy A Skopp, Derek J Smolenski, Daniel A Schwesinger, Christopher J Johnson, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukong, Mark A Reger
PURPOSE: Accurate knowledge of the vital status of individuals is critical to the validity of mortality research. National Death Index (NDI) and NDI-Plus are comprehensive epidemiological resources for mortality ascertainment and cause of death data that require additional user validation. Currently, there is a gap in methods to guide validation of NDI search results rendered for active duty service members. The purpose of this research was to adapt and evaluate the CDC National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) algorithm for mortality ascertainment in a large military cohort...
June 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641213/measurement-properties-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tools-for-autism-spectrum-adults-of-mean-normal-intelligence-a-systematic-review
#4
A Baghdadli, F Russet, L Mottron
BACKGROUND: The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID...
May 17, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640517/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-south-america-evaluation-of-risk-factors-demographics-and-therapy
#5
Jose D Debes, Aaron J Chan, Domingo Balderramo, Luciana Kikuchi, Esteban Gonzalez Ballerga, Jhon E Prieto, Monica Tapias, Victor Idrovo, Milagros B Davalos, Fernando Cairo, Fernando J Barreyro, Sebastian Paredes, Nelia Hernandez, Karla Avendaño, Javier Diaz Ferrer, Ju Dong Yang, Enrique Carrera, Jairo A Garcia, Angelo Z Mattos, Bruno S Hirsch, Pablo T Gonçalves, Flair J Carrilho, Lewis R Roberts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most studies addressing the epidemiology of HCC originate from developed countries. This study reports the preliminary findings of a multinational approach to characterize HCC in South America. METHODS: We evaluated 1336 HCC patients seen at 14 centers in six South American countries using a retrospective study design with participating centers completing a template chart of patient characteristics...
June 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#6
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628525/assessing-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-manchester-triage-system-in-the-evaluation-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-adult-patients-in-emergency-care-a-systematic-review
#7
Fernanda Ayache Nishi, Flávia de Oliveira Motta Maia, Itamar de Souza Santos, Dina de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz
BACKGROUND: Triage is the first assessment and sorting process used to prioritize patients arriving in the emergency department (ED). As a triage tool, the Manchester Triage System (MTS) must have a high sensitivity to minimize the occurrence of under-triage, but must not compromise specificity to avoid the occurrence of overtriage. Sensitivity and specificity of the MTS can be calculated using the frequency of appropriately assigned clinical priority levels for patients presenting to the ED...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624549/evaluation-of-a-new-trilocus-sequence-based-multiplex-pcr-to-detect-major-acinetobacter-baumannii-clonal-complexes-circulating-in-brazil
#8
Francielli Mahnic de Vasconcellos, Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas, Laís Calissi Brisolla Tavares, William Vaz de Souza, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Carlos Henrique Camargo
Dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is mainly due to the spread of clonal lineages, particularly those included into the clonal complexes (CC) CC1, CC2, CC15, CC25, and CC79. We evaluated the usefulness of a recently modified PCR-based trilocus sequence-based typing (m3LST) in comparison with the standard multilocus sequence typing (MSLT) of 7 housekeeping genes as per the Institute Pasteur Scheme to assign the clonal complexes in CRAB. A collection of 78 CRAB isolated from 67 different Brazilian health institutions was submitted to both methodologies, and concordance rate was calculated...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623995/rationale-design-and-methodology-of-the-observational-insights-svt-study-on-the-current-state-of-care-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-superficial-vein-thrombosis
#9
Rupert Bauersachs, Horst Eberhard Gerlach, Andreas Heinken, Ulrich Hoffmann, Florian Langer, Thomas Noppeney, David Pittrow, Jens Klotsche, Eberhard Rabe
OBJECTIVE: Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common disease in clinical practice. In terms of pathophysiology and outcomes, the condition is related to venous thromboembolism, bearing a potential for severe thromboembolic complications if it is not treated adequately. A wide range of treatment approaches (including oral and injectable anticoagulants, pain medication, nondrug therapy including compression therapy, and no treatment at all) are applied in clinical practice, but there is sparse information about selection of patients for therapies, current treatment pathways, and drug use as well as outcomes...
July 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621697/innovation-systemic-appropriation-and-prevention-in-the-granite-mining-sector-the-case-of-humidification
#10
R W B Mendes, V Pueyo, P Béguin, F J C M Duarte
BACKGROUND: This research was conducted in the Brazilian granite mining sector. After epidemiological studies, it was established that professional pneumoconiosis is related to the inhalation of dust. Therefore, the Brazilian mining health and safety regulatory standard made it compulsory to provide humidification throughout the extraction and mineral treatment processes. OBJECTIVE: To develop the concept of systemic appropriation of the technological innovations that aim to protect the worker's health...
June 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611015/too-far-to-care-measuring-public-attention-and-fear-for-ebola-using-twitter
#11
Liza Gg van Lent, Hande Sungur, Florian A Kunneman, Bob van de Velde, Enny Das
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the world was startled by a sudden outbreak of Ebola. Although Ebola infections and deaths occurred almost exclusively in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, few potential Western cases, in particular, caused a great stir among the public in Western countries. OBJECTIVE: This study builds on the construal level theory to examine the relationship between psychological distance to an epidemic and public attention and sentiment expressed on Twitter...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610787/spolsimilaritysearch-a-web-tool-to-compare-and-search-similarities-between-spoligotypes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#12
David Couvin, Thierry Zozio, Nalin Rastogi
Spoligotyping is one of the most commonly used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for identification and study of genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Despite its known limitations if used alone, the methodology is particularly useful when used in combination with other methods such as mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number of tandem DNA repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). At a worldwide scale, spoligotyping has allowed identification of information on 103,856 MTBC isolates (corresponding to 98049 clustered strains plus 5807 unique isolates from 169 countries of patient origin) contained within the SITVIT2 proprietary database of the Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607755/access-and-barriers-to-ms-care-in-latin-america
#13
REVIEW
Víctor M Rivera, Miguel Angel Macias
Multiple sclerosis (MS), an epidemiologically emergent disorder in Latin America (LATAM), poses substantial socioeconomic challenges to a region where most countries remain as economies in development. MS is not health priority despite its economic and communitarian impact with a relatively low prevalence. MS treatments in LATAM have evolved from earlier long-term oral steroids and immunosuppression protocols, to platform disease modifying therapies (DMTs), to the current landscape with more advanced therapeutic molecules...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607669/risk-factors-for-adverse-drug-reactions-in-pediatric-inpatients-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Paulo Henrique Santos Andrade, Adriano da Silva Santos, Carlos Adriano Santos Souza, Iza Maria Fraga Lobo, Wellington Barros da Silva
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify potential risk factors for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through prospective cohort studies in pediatric inpatients. METHODS: The data search was done in the following electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus; LILACS and Web of Science from the earliest record until 31 May 2015. Two reviewers independently screened each study and one of them assessed the methodological quality according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605424/identification-of-homophily-and-preferential-recruitment-in-respondent-driven-sampling
#15
Forrest W Crawford, Peter M Aronow, Li Zeng, Jianghong Li
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing procedure used in epidemiological research on hidden or hard-to-reach populations in which subjects recruit others via their social network. Estimates from RDS studies may have poor statistical properties due to statistical dependence in sampled subjects' traits. Two distinct mechanisms account for dependence in an RDS study: homophily, the tendency for individuals to share social ties with others exhibiting similar characteristics, and preferential recruitment, in which recruiters do not recruit uniformly at random from their network alters...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604791/challenges-in-developing-methods-for-quantifying-the-effects-of-weather-and-climate-on-water-associated-diseases-a-systematic-review
#16
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Ben Armstrong, Lora E Fleming, Richard Elson, Sari Kovats, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Gordon L Nichols
Infectious diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. Cholera, Leptospirosis, Giardiasis) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Climate and weather factors are known to affect the transmission and distribution of infectious diseases and statistical and mathematical modelling are continuously developing to investigate the impact of weather and climate on water-associated diseases. There have been little critical analyses of the methodological approaches...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602558/public-health-information-in-crisis-affected-populations-a-review-of-methods-and-their-use-for-advocacy-and-action
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Checchi, Abdihamid Warsame, Victoria Treacy-Wong, Jonathan Polonsky, Mark van Ommeren, Claudine Prudhon
Valid and timely information about various domains of public health underpins the effectiveness of humanitarian public health interventions in crises. However, obstacles including insecurity, insufficient resources and skills for data collection and analysis, and absence of validated methods combine to hamper the quantity and quality of public health information available to humanitarian responders. This paper, the second in a Series of four papers, reviews available methods to collect public health data pertaining to different domains of health and health services in crisis settings, including population size and composition, exposure to armed attacks, sexual and gender-based violence, food security and feeding practices, nutritional status, physical and mental health outcomes, public health service availability, coverage and effectiveness, and mortality...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599983/validity-of-the-berlin-questionnaire-in-detecting-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Chamara V Senaratna, Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Caroline J Lodge, Adrian J Lowe, Raisa Cassim, Melissa A Russell, John A Burgess, Garun S Hamilton, Shyamali C Dharmage
We aimed to systematically review the Berlin questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases, reviewed articles reporting the Berlin questionnaire's diagnostic utility as measured against type-1 polysomnography, and performed meta-analyses where possible. Thirty five eligible articles showed that the Berlin questionnaire's diagnostic utility varied by study population, definition of hypopnea used, and apnea-hypopnea index threshold used...
April 8, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599657/comparison-of-methods-for-calculating-the-health-costs-of-endocrine-disrupters-a-case-study-on-triclosan
#19
Radka Prichystalova, Jean-Baptiste Fini, Leonardo Trasande, Martine Bellanger, Barbara Demeneix, Laura Maxim
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic analysis is currently used in the Europe Union as part of the regulatory process in Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH), with the aim of assessing and managing risks from dangerous chemicals. The political impact of the socio-economic analysis is potentially high in the authorisation and restriction procedures, however, current socio-economic analysis dossiers submitted under REACH are very heterogeneous in terms of methodology used and quality...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594593/critical-issues-in-als-case-control-studies-the-case-of-the-euro-motor-study
#20
Fabrizio D'Ovidio, James P K Rooney, Anne E Visser, Roel C H Vermeulen, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H Van Den Berg, Orla Hardiman, Giancarlo Logroscino, Adriano Chiò, Ettore Beghi
Backround: Political and sociocultural differences between countries can affect the outcome of clinical and epidemiological studies in ALS. Cross-national studies represent the ideal process by which risk factors can be assessed using the same methodology in different geographical areas. METHODS: A survey of three European countries (The Netherlands, Ireland and Italy) has been conducted in which incident ALS patients and matched controls were recruited in a population-based study based on age, gender and area of residency, under the Euro-MOTOR systems biology programme of research...
February 10, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
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