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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228472/the-epidemiology-of-stroke-in-africa-a-systematic-review-of-existing-methods-and-new-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Mayowa Owolabi, Paul Olowoyo, Femi Popoola, Daniel Lackland, Carolyn Jenkins, Oyedunni Arulogun, Rufus Akinyemi, Odunayo Akinyemi, Onoja Akpa, Olanrewaju Olaniyan, Ezinne Uvere, Issa Kehinde, Anbesaw Selassie, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Raelle Tagge, Bruce Ovbiagele
Accurate epidemiological surveillance of the burden of stroke is direly needed to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions in Africa. The authors therefore conducted a systematic review of the methodology of stroke epidemiological studies conducted in Africa from 1970 to 2017 using gold standard criteria obtained from landmark epidemiological publications. Of 1330 articles extracted, only 50 articles were eligible for review grouped under incidence, prevalence, case-fatality, health-related quality of life, and disability-adjusted life-years studies...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226352/tutorial-on-kernel-estimation-of-continuous-spatial-and-spatiotemporal-relative-risk
#2
Tilman M Davies, Jonathan C Marshall, Martin L Hazelton
Kernel smoothing is a highly flexible and popular approach for estimation of probability density and intensity functions of continuous spatial data. In this role, it also forms an integral part of estimation of functionals such as the density-ratio or "relative risk" surface. Originally developed with the epidemiological motivation of examining fluctuations in disease risk based on samples of cases and controls collected over a given geographical region, such functions have also been successfully used across a diverse range of disciplines where a relative comparison of spatial density functions has been of interest...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226067/recent-developments-in-mendelian-randomization-studies
#3
REVIEW
Jie Zheng, Denis Baird, Maria-Carolina Borges, Jack Bowden, Gibran Hemani, Philip Haycock, David M Evans, George Davey Smith
Purpose of Review: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a strategy for evaluating causality in observational epidemiological studies. MR exploits the fact that genotypes are not generally susceptible to reverse causation and confounding, due to their fixed nature and Mendel's First and Second Laws of Inheritance. MR has the potential to provide information on causality in many situations where randomized controlled trials are not possible, but the results of MR studies must be interpreted carefully to avoid drawing erroneous conclusions...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224135/serum-ferritin-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiological-study
#4
Elin H Thorarinsdottir, Erna S Arnardottir, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Christer Janson, Isleifur Olafsson, Allan I Pack, Thorarinn Gislason, Brendan T Keenan
PURPOSE: Ferritin is an intracellular iron storage protein and a marker of inflammation. Studies have shown that subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have higher levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, but little is known about the association between ferritin and OSA. The aims of the study were to evaluate serum ferritin (S-Ferritin) levels in OSA patients compared to levels in the general population and also examine the effect of obesity level and treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) on S-Ferritin levels...
December 9, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221480/prevalence-and-etiologies-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Jean Joel Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and Africa Index Medicus. Published observational studies until September 20, 2017, including adult participants residing in Africa were considered...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214181/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-why-should-cardiologists-care-about-that
#6
REVIEW
Andrzej Bissinger
Background: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent but underdiagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. It has a strong influence on various cardiac disorders including myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, orthostatic hypotonia, heart failure, and arrhythmias. CAN can lead to severe morbidity and mortality and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Methods: This review article summarizes the latest evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, influence on the cardiovascular system, and diagnostic methods for CAN...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211170/-environmental-influence-on-physical-disability-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
Filipe Athayde, Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa
People with physical disabilities may, in interaction with facilitators and barriers, modify their participation in society. The environment, in the panorama of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), plays a relevant role in health and in the expression of functioning. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental factors on physical disability, based on the theoretical framework of the ICF. A systematic review of the literature was performed based on the recommendations of the following documents: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement (STROBE)...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203525/methodological-political-and-legal-issues-in-the-assessment-of-the-effects-of-nanotechnology-on-human-health
#8
Irina Guseva Canu, Paul A Schulte, Michael Riediker, Liliya Fatkhutdinova, Enrico Bergamaschi
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raise questions among the scientific community and public health authorities about their potential risks to human health. Studying a prospective cohort of workers exposed to ENMs would be considered the gold standard for identifying potential health effects of nanotechnology and confirming the 'no effect' levels derived from cellular and animal models. However, because only small, cross-sectional studies have been conducted in the past 5 years, questions remain about the health risks of ENMs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197417/simulation-modeling-for-stratified-breast-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review-of-cost-and-quality-of-life-assumptions
#9
Matthias Arnold
BACKGROUND: The economic evaluation of stratified breast cancer screening gains momentum, but produces also very diverse results. Systematic reviews so far focused on modeling techniques and epidemiologic assumptions. However, cost and utility parameters received only little attention. This systematic review assesses simulation models for stratified breast cancer screening based on their cost and utility parameters in each phase of breast cancer screening and care. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to compare economic evaluations with simulation models of personalized breast cancer screening...
December 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194569/cohort-studies-in-the-context-of-obstetric-and-gynecologic-research-a-methodologic-overview
#10
Carmen Messerlian, Olga Basso
Observational cohort studies represent one of the most powerful designs in epidemiology. They are also the basis of evidence in many areas of obstetric and gynecologic research, given that randomization of women, couples or pregnancies is often impossible or unethical. Indeed, well-conceived cohort studies have led to a better understanding of many important clinical and public health questions over time, including the impact of different exposures on perinatal and pediatric outcomes in pregnant women and their children...
December 1, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194400/evidence-of-biomass-smoke-exposure-as-a-causative-factor-for-the-development-of-copd
#11
REVIEW
Sarah J Capistrano, David van Reyk, Hui Chen, Brian G Oliver
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema). These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD...
December 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188905/review-and-meta-analysis-of-epidemiologic-studies-of-adult-bipolar-disorder
#12
Ana Lúcia R Moreira, Anna Van Meter, Jacquelynne Genzlinger, Eric A Youngstrom
OBJECTIVE: To test whether rates of bipolar disorder (BD) have changed over time or vary across geographic regions after adjusting for design features meta-analyzing epidemiologic studies reporting BD prevalence in adults worldwide. DATA SOURCES: Searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the terms (epidemiology OR community OR prevalence) AND (mania OR "bipolar disorder" OR cyclothymi*) AND adult and backward searches from published reviews were conducted. STUDY SELECTION: Eighty-five epidemiologic studies published in English from 1980 onward that reported prevalence rates for BD or mania for subjects ≥ 18 years old were included...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186246/severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions-of-chinese-inpatients-a-meta-analysis
#13
Qiancheng Deng, Xia Fang, Qinghai Zeng, Jianyun Lu, Chen Jing, Jinhua Huang
BACKGROUND: The rate of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions is low, and these reactions can result in death or disability. An evidence-based epidemiological study of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in China has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiology and characteristics of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients during the recent 15 years with meta-analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed Chinese literature reporting severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and collecting data from 2000 to 2015, which were in accordance with our inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185594/simple-protocol-for-population-sanger-sequencing-for-zika-virus-genomic-regions
#14
Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro de Paula Ferreira, Renato Pereira de Souza, Mariana Sequetin Cunha, Adriana Luchs, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido
BACKGROUND: A number of Zika virus (ZIKV) sequences were obtained using Next-generation sequencing (NGS), a methodology widely applied in genetic diversity studies and virome discovery. However Sanger method is still a robust, affordable, rapid and specific tool to obtain valuable sequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and robust Sanger sequencing protocol targeting ZIKV relevant genetic regions, as envelope protein and nonstructural protein 5 (NS5)...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180218/a-high-throughput-solid-phase-microextraction-and-post-loop-mixing-large-volume-injection-method-for-water-samples
#15
J A Baz-Lomba, Arndís Sue-Ching Löve, Malcolm J Reid, Kristín Ólafsdóttir, Kevin V Thomas
This article presents a novel approach for the analysis of 13 drugs in wastewater for use in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) studies. Sample preparation remains one of the principal bottlenecks in modern high-throughput analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed methodology is based on the micro-extraction of small volumes (1 ml) of wastewater using a HLB 96-well microplate and both large volume injection (LVI) and post-loop mixing injection (PLM)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178360/multifactorial-disease-risk-calculator-risk-prediction-for-multifactorial-disease-pedigrees
#16
Desmond D Campbell, Yiming Li, Pak C Sham
Construction of multifactorial disease models from epidemiological findings and their application to disease pedigrees for risk prediction is nontrivial for all but the simplest of cases. Multifactorial Disease Risk Calculator is a web tool facilitating this. It provides a user-friendly interface, extending a reported methodology based on a liability-threshold model. Multifactorial disease models incorporating all the following features in combination are handled: quantitative risk factors (including polygenic scores), categorical risk factors (including major genetic risk loci), stratified age of onset curves, and the partition of the population variance in disease liability into genetic, shared, and unique environment effects...
November 26, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177963/the-associations-between-air-pollution-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-china
#17
Yafei Tan, Rong Yang, Jinzhu Zhao, Zhongqiang Cao, Yawen Chen, Bin Zhang
Research on the potential impact of air pollution on the human's health has increased rapidly in recent years. Several studies have suggested that exposure to air pollutants during period of pregnancy which is a crucial time point of mother-fetus development may have long-term and serious impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is lack of review to evaluate the existed epidemiologic evidence on the associations between air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in China, so we conducted a review to explore the current epidemiological evidence on the effects of air pollutants to pregnancy outcomes and possible mechanisms during the pregnancy process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177168/le-fort-fractures-a-collective-review
#18
REVIEW
Bradley J Phillips, Lauren M Turco
Le Fort fractures constitute a pattern of complex facial injury that occurs secondary to blunt facial trauma.  The most common mechanisms of injury for these fractures, which are frequently associated with drug and alcohol use, include motor vehicle collisions, assault, and falls. A thorough search of the world's literature following PRISMA guidelines was conducted through PubMed and EBSCO databases. Search terms included "Le Fort fracture", "facial", "craniofacial", and "intracranial."  Articles were selected based on relevance and examined regarding etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and outcomes in adults...
October 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176960/from-sea-to-shining-sea-and-the-great-plains-to-patagonia-a-review-on-current-knowledge-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-hispanics-latinos-in-the-us-and-latin-america
#19
REVIEW
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Nangel M Lindberg, Josiemer Mattei, Francisco J Pasquel, Cynthia M Pérez
The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175368/active-surveillance-in-small-renal-masses-in-the-elderly-a-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Douglas C Cheung, Antonio Finelli
CONTEXT: Small renal masses have become increasingly common due to widespread imaging; however, optimal management of these lesions in the elderly can be complex due to the competing risks of intervention, natural history of disease, patient comorbidities, and expectations. In the properly selected elderly patient, active surveillance remains an accepted and attractive treatment approach. OBJECTIVE: We completed a literature review of small renal masses (enhancing, <4cm, T1aN0M0 disease) in the elderly, aged ≥70 yr, aimed at identifying the utility of active surveillance in this population...
November 23, 2017: European Urology Focus
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