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Methodology, epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109251/prevalence-and-trends-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-in-the-asia-pacific-region-a-systematic-review
#1
P Ranasinghe, Y Mathangasinghe, R Jayawardena, A P Hills, A Misra
BACKGROUND: The Asia-Pacific region is home to nearly half of the world's population. The region has seen a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present systematic review summarizes the recent prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among adults in countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. METHODS: Data on MetS in Asia-Pacific countries were obtained using a stepwise process by searching the online Medline database using MeSH terms 'Metabolic Syndrome X' and 'Epidemiology/EP'...
January 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108914/recent-approaches-to-estimate-associations-between-source-specific-air-pollution-and-health
#2
REVIEW
Jenna R Krall, Matthew J Strickland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Estimating health effects associated with source-specific exposure is important for better understanding how pollution impacts health and for developing policies to better protect public health. Although epidemiologic studies of sources can be informative, these studies are challenging to conduct because source-specific exposures (e.g., particulate matter from vehicles) often are not directly observed and must be estimated. We reviewed recent studies that estimated associations between pollution sources and health to identify methodological developments designed to address important challenges...
January 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107447/a-software-tool-for-estimation-of-burden-of-infectious-diseases-in-europe-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years
#3
Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Cassini, Daniel Lewandowski, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Guido Maringhini, Alessandro Pini, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar
The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105068/overdiagnosis-of-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-in-developed-countries
#4
REVIEW
Eva Charlotte Merten, Jan Christopher Cwik, Jürgen Margraf, Silvia Schneider
During the past 50 years, health insurance providers and national registers of mental health regularly report significant increases in the number of mental disorder diagnoses in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological studies show mixed effects of time trends of prevalence of mental disorders. Overdiagnosis in clinical practice rather than an actual increase is assumed to be the cause for this situation. We conducted a systematic literature search on the topic of overdiagnosis of mental disorders in children and adolescents...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104048/mental-health-in-immigrants-versus-native-population-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Pilar Bas-Sarmiento, María José Saucedo-Moreno, Martina Fernández-Gutiérrez, Miriam Poza-Méndez
: The relationship between psychopathology and migration presents unresolved questions. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is a higher incidence of mental illness among immigrants, to describe the nosologic differences between immigrant and native populations, and to identify the risk factors involved of immigration. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Science Direct, ISI, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane, and Cuiden databases...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103940/methodological-choices-affect-cancer-incidence-rates-a-cohort-study
#6
Hannah L Brooke, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting, Rickard Ljung
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. METHODS: All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions of the study population: persons resident in Sweden 1) based on general population statistics; 2) with no previous subtype-specific cancer diagnosis; 3) with no previous cancer diagnosis except non-melanoma skin cancer; and 4) with no previous cancer diagnosis of any type...
January 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102560/the-epidemiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-from-west-to-east
#7
Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Peter Lakatos
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show considerable variation over time and across geographic regions. The first studies on the epidemiology of IBD were available mainly from traditionally high-incidence areas, as North America and Northern and Western Europe. In the last two decades, more and more data have been reported from Eastern European and Asian counties with increasing incidence rates from some regions. According to recent studies, the high incidence and prevalence of IBD in some Western countries is plateauing and in some Eastern countries increasing incidence rates have been reported...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101729/air-pollution-and-successful-aging-recent-evidence-and-new-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Gali Cohen, Yariv Gerber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide demographic changes occurring in a relatively short period have led to a growing interest in the determinants of aging "successfully" and how to promote a healthier old age. As environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution are believed to play a role in the process of aging, they might represent one of the pathways turning potential successful agers to unsuccessful agers. We aimed to critically review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and several key determinants of unsuccessful aging and to identify specific populations of unsuccessful agers that are potentially more vulnerable to air pollution's health effects...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100788/genomic-infectious-disease-epidemiology-in-partially-sampled-and-ongoing-outbreaks
#9
Xavier Didelot, Christophe Fraser, Jennifer Gardy, Caroline Colijn
Genomic data is increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom - a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by colouring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099462/acute-and-chronic-sustained-hypoxia-do-not-substantially-regulate-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-generation-in-vivo
#10
Alberto Serrano-Pozo, Manuel A Sánchez-García, Antonio Heras-Garvín, Rosana March-Díaz, Victoria Navarro, Marisa Vizuete, José López-Barneo, Javier Vitorica, Alberto Pascual
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological evidence has linked hypoxia with the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that hypoxia can induce amyloid-β peptide accumulation through various molecular mechanisms including the up-regulation of the amyloid-β precursor protein, the β-secretase Bace1, or the γγ-secretase complex components, as well as the down-regulation of Aβ-degrading enzymes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic sustained hypoxia in Aβ generation in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097842/in-hospital-capacity-building-in-research-and-management-for-pediatric-professionals
#11
Graciela Demirdjian, Susana Rodríguez, Juan C Vassallo, Vilma Irazola, Josefa Rodríguez
We describe an educational strategy aimed at capacity-building of hospital health care professionals in research and management initiated at a pediatric hospital in 2006, and the results obtained eight years after its implementation. Research and Management in Pediatrics (GIP) is an annual 250-hour course combining meetings and off-site assignments delivered through the Hospital's on-line campus. It provides students with practical tools for research (epidemiology, methodology, bibliographic search, evidencebased medicine, biostatistics) and management (strategic planning, management programs, health services research, quality improvement, health economics)...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#12
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095472/review-of-participatory-epidemiology-practices-in-animal-health-1980-2015-and-future-practice-directions
#13
Alberto Allepuz, Katinka de Balogh, Ryan Aguanno, Martin Heilmann, Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo
In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE) activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects. The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093712/multiple-sclerosis-epidemiology-in-europe
#14
Daiana Bezzini, Mario A Battaglia
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093577/epigenetic-research-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-the-tissue-issue
#15
Kelly M Bakulski, Alycia Halladay, Valerie W Hu, Jonathan Mill, M Daniele Fallin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence has linked neuropsychiatric disorders with epigenetic marks as either a biomarker of disease, biomarker of exposure, or mechanism of disease processes. Neuropsychiatric epidemiologic studies using either target brain tissue or surrogate blood tissue each have methodological challenges and distinct advantages. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain tissue studies are challenged by small sample sizes of cases and controls, incomplete phenotyping, post-mortem timing, and cellular heterogeneity, but the use of a primary disease relevant tissue is critical...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093045/exploring-urban-health-in-cape-town-south-africa-an-interdisciplinary-analysis-of-secondary-data
#16
Rebekka Mumm, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve, Eva Hänselmann, Johanna Freund, Michael Wirsching, Jan Gärtner, Richard Gminski, Katrin Vögtlin, Mirjam Körner, Lena Zirn, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Tolu Oni, Axel Kroeger
BACKGROUND: With modern information technology, an overwhelming amount of data is available on different aspects of societies. Our research investigated the feasibility of using secondary data sources to get an overview of determinants of health and health outcomes in different population strata of Cape Town, a large city of South Africa. METHODS: The methodological approach of secondary-data analysis was similar in the different disciplines: Biological Anthropology, Public Health, Environmental Health, Mental Health, Palliative Care, Medical Psychology and Sociology at the University of Freiburg and Public Health at the University of Cape Town...
January 17, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089343/assessment-of-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-type-1-diabetes-using-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#17
Alessandra S de M Matheus, Eliete Leão Silva Clemente, Maria de Lourdes Guimarães Rodrigues, Débora Cristina Torres Valença, Marília B Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To test whether laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) coupled with physiological post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and pharmacological iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) as local vasodilator stimuli could distinguish between cutaneous microvascular responses of Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)'s patients with endothelial dysfunction and that of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with T1DM aged ≥12years completed a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#18
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079614/the-role-of-gene-environment-interplay-in-occupational-and-environmental-diseases-current-concepts-and-knowledge-gaps
#19
Elizabeth Kwo, David Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074172/non-allergic-rhinitis-in-children-epidemiological-aspects-pathological-features-diagnostic-methodology-and-clinical-management
#20
REVIEW
Dimitri Poddighe, Matteo Gelardi, Amelia Licari, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Gian Luigi Marseglia
Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Methodology
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