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Xue Yang, Yong Wang, Qiyan Li, Yaxian Zhong, Liangpei Chen, Yajun Du, Jing He, Lvshuang Liao, Kun Xiong, Chun-Xia Yi, Jie Yan
Methamphetamine (METH) is a popular new-type psychostimulant drug with complicated neurotoxicity. In spite of mounting evidence on METH-induced damage of neural cell, the accurate mechanism of toxic effect of the drug on central nervous system (CNS) has not yet been completely deciphered. Besides, effective treatment strategies toward METH neurotoxicity remain scarce and more efficacious drugs are to be developed. In this review, we summarize cellular and molecular bases that might contribute to METH-elicited neurotoxicity, which mainly include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
David J Wagner, Laura M Shireman, Sojung Ahn, Danny D Shen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs. While human intoxication and multiple tissue toxicities frequently occur in abusers, little is known about the distribution of methamphetamine or its primary metabolites, amphetamine and para -hydroxymethamphetamine ( p -OHMA), to their sites of toxicity. This study determined the pharmacokinetics, tissue exposure, and partition ratios of methamphetamine and major metabolites in various mouse tissues and investigated the impact of organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) following intravenous injection of methamphetamine to male Oct3 +/+ and Oct3 -/- mice...
June 18, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Luca Gabrielli, Daniele Rosa-Gastaldo, Marie-Virginie Salvia, Sara Springhetti, Federico Rastrelli, Fabrizio Mancin
Properly designed monolayer-protected nanoparticles (2 nm core diameter) can be used as nanoreceptors for selective detection and identification of phenethylamine derivatives (designer drugs) in water. The molecular recognition mechanism is driven by the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions within the coating monolayer. Each nanoparticle can bind up to 30-40 analyte molecules. The affinity constants range from 105 to 106 M-1 and are modulated by the hydrophobicity of the aromatic moiety in the substrate...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Sean B Dolan, Ritu A Shetty, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
BACKGROUND: Substituted piperazines comprise a substantial proportion of the novel psychoactive substance market. Among the most widely abused piperazine compounds are meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), tri-fluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and, especially, benzylpiperazine (BZP), which are commonly incorporated, either alone or in combination, in illicit "party pills" or "ecstasy" formulations. Illicit synthesis of BZP often results in production of an impure by-product dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP), which frequently appears alongside BZP in these formulations; however, despite its ubiquity, little information exists regarding the abuse liability of DBZP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Adiba Hassan, Jill S Blumenthal, Michael P Dube, Eric Ellorin, Katya Corado, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing...
June 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Stefan Dhein, Katrin Schmelmer, Julika Guenther, Aida Salameh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Drug abuse is an increasing problem among young adults in European countries. We wanted to assess the prevalence of methamphetamine and cannabis use in young people and to ask for their socioeconomic, parental and emotional background. METHODS: All pupils (n = 1,087) in the final class of 3 school types (-general school [in Germany: Hauptschule/Regelschule mit Hauptschulabschluss] class 9, regular school [in Germany: Regelschule] class 10, high school [in Germany: Gymnasium] class 10) and the first 2 classes of the vocational school (in Germany: Berufsschule) in the entire rural district of Altenburger Land, a Thuringian county in Germany with a total of 92,344 inhabitants were asked to fill out a 2-page questionnaire...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
Chitra D Mandyam, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Robert J Oliver, Yoshio Takashima
Addictive drugs effect the brain reward circuitry by altering functional plasticity of neurons governing the circuits. Relapse is an inherent problem in addicted subjects and is associated with neuroplasticity changes in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Recent studies have begun to determine the functional significance of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where new neurons in the granule cell layer are continuously generated to replace dying or diseased cells. One of the many negative consequences of chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse and METH addiction in rodent and nonhuman primate models is a decrease in neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and reduced neurogenesis in the granule cell layer during METH exposure...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Shengyu Zhang, Qiang Hu, Tao Tang, Chao Liu, Chengchong Li, Yin-Yin Zang, Wei-Xiong Cai
BACKGROUND Using regional homogeneity (ReHo) blood oxygen level-dependent functional MR (BOLD-fMRI), we investigated the structural and functional alterations of brain regions among patients with methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP). MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 17 MAP patients, 16 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, and 18 healthy controls. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before the clinical assessment, the severity of clinical symptoms was evaluated prior to the fMRI scanning, and then images were acquired and preprocessed after each participant received 6-min fRMI scanning...
June 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Omid Massah, Afsaneh Moradi
Objective: To date, there has been no specific survey of the prevalence of methamphetamine (MA) dependence among Iranian women in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The current study aimed at addressing this critical gap in the literature. Method : This study was part of a larger cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in 36 MMT clinics in Tehran during 2015 and 2016. A researcher-designed questionnaire was devised to collect data on demographics and drug and treatment characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 19...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Madeline C Frost, Emily C Williams, Susan Kingston, Caleb J Banta-Green
OBJECTIVES: Opioid use is a growing problem in the United States. Despite existence of effective treatments (eg, opioid agonist medication), most people with opioid use disorder do not receive treatment. Increasing treatment receipt is an essential component of the response to the opioid crisis. We examined factors associated with interest in getting help to reduce or stop substance use among syringe exchange program (SEP) clients who reported using opioids. METHODS: Surveys were administered at 17 SEPs across Washington State during 2015; 436 respondents who reported recent opioid use and not receiving current treatment were eligible for this analysis...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Amanda B Bruening, Marisol Perez, Tara K Ohrt
OBJECTIVE: Research has highlighted a growing trend among young, adult women to initiate drug use for weight loss. With known suppressive effects on appetite, illicit stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy) may be particularly attractive to college women, who are at elevated risk for increased body dissatisfaction and experimenting with extreme weight loss techniques. The current study examines the association between risk factors and symptomatology of eating disorders and illicit stimulant use (ISU)...
June 5, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Thaís Gomes de Carvalho, Vinícius Barreto Garcia, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Luiz Henrique da Silva Gasparotto, Heloiza Silva, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo Guerra, Emilio de Castro Miguel, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho Leitão, Deiziane Viana da Silva Costa, Luis J Cruz, Alan B Chan, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior
This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in rats subjected to liver injury with ethanol and Methamphetamine (METH).The liver injury was induced by gavage administrations of 30% alcoholic solution (7 g/kg) once a day during 28 days, followed by METH (10 mg/kg) on the 20th and 28th days of treatment. GNPs treatment (724.96 µg/kg) during the ethanol and METH exposure was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jessica A Boyette-Davis, Heather R Rice, Roanne I Shoubaki, Chantal M F Gonzalez, Marcela N Kunkel, Devon A Lucero, Paige D Womble, Fay A Guarraci
Methylphenidate (MPH) and methamphetamine (METH) are two commonly abused psychomotor stimulants that impact anxiety, but in a manner that is currently unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing the effects of MPH and METH on anxiety in adult female rats, which has not previously been studied. In Experiment1, changes in anxiety-like behavior were determined using the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) following either an acute injection of saline, METH (1 mg/kg), or MPH (10 mg/kg). Changes in general locomotion were measured using the open field test...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Takaaki Kawano, Hidehiro Oshibuchi, Masahiko Kawano, Hiroyuki Muraoka, Takahiro Tsutsumi, Makiko Yamada, Jun Ishigooka, Katsuji Nishimura, Ken Inada
Although the benzodiazepine class of drugs has proven useful in treating anxiety symptoms, recent studies yield no consistent empirical support for their use in treating psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies using a fear conditioning paradigm have suggested that benzodiazepines facilitate fear memory extinction, dependent on treatment timing and subject conditions. However, we have no data on the effect of subject conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effect of benzodiazepines depends on hypersensitivity to fear-memory processing...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jennifer Lorvick, Erica N Browne, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort
BACKGROUND: The use of multiple illicit drugs (polydrug use) is associated with health-related harms and elevated risk of drug overdose. Polydrug use in common among women who use 'hard' drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine. METHODS: Quantitative data collection was conducted with a community-recruited sample of 624 women who used heroin, methamphetamine or cocaine in Oakland, CA during 2014-2015. We conducted latent class analysis to classify polydrug use patterns...
May 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Neda Valian, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Methamphetamine (MA), a highly addictive psychostimulant, produces long-lasting neurotoxic effects well proven in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Considering the similarities between pathological profile of MA neurotoxicity and Parkinson's disease (PD), some reports show that previous MA abusers will be at greater risk of PD-like motor deficits. To answer the question if repeated MA exposure causes parkinsonian-like behavior in rats, we used three regimens of MA administration and assessed the motor performance parameters immediately and over a long period after MA discontinuation...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Garth L Maker, Tobias Green, Ian Mullaney, Robert D Trengove
Methamphetamine is an illicit psychostimulant drug that is linked to a number of diseases of the nervous system. The downstream biochemical effects of its primary mechanisms are not well understood, and the objective of this study was to investigate whether untargeted metabolomic analysis of an in vitro model could generate data relevant to what is already known about this drug. Rat B50 neuroblastoma cells were treated with 1 mM methamphetamine for 48 h, and both intracellular and extracellular metabolites were profiled using gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry...
June 7, 2018: Metabolites
Joshua D Bundy, Lydia A Bazzano, Dawei Xie, Janet Cohan, Jacqueline Dolata, Jeffrey C Fink, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Kenneth Jamerson, James Lash, Gail Makos, Susan Steigerwalt, Xue Wang, Katherine T Mills, Jing Chen, Jiang He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest that tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is associated with CKD. We examined the associations of substance use with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among 3939 participants with CKD in the United States. Self-reported tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, marijuana use, and hard illicit drug (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine) use were obtained at baseline and annual follow-up visits...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Frederic Been, Jake O'Brien, Foon Yin Lai, Marie Morelato, Peter Vallely, Jenny McGowan, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F Mueller
The increased availability of high purity crystalline methamphetamine (MA) in Australia raised concerns because of high dosages and its potential consumption through inhalation. The present work investigates the possibility of using wastewater levels of N,N-dimethylamphetamine (DMA), a pyrolysis by-product formed during smoking, as an indirect indicator of MA smoking. A dedicated liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method was setup to detect and quantify DMA in the wastewater samples...
June 6, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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