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Shabnam Nohesara, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi, Mahmood Barati, Mohammad-Reza Ghasemzadeh, Samira Narimani, Zohreh Mousavi-Behbahani, Mohammadtaghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mozhgan Taban, Soraya Mehrabi, Sam Thiagalingam, Hamid Mostafavi Abdolmaleky
Methamphetamine, one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide, can induce psychosis in a large fraction of abusers and it is becoming a major problem for the health care institutions. There is some evidence that genetic and epigenetic factors may play roles in methamphetamine psychosis. In this study, we examined methamphetamine-induced epigenetic and expression changes of several key genes involved in psychosis. RNA and DNA extracted from the saliva samples of patients with methamphetamine dependency with and without psychosis as well as control subjects (each group 25) were analyzed for expression and promoter DNA methylation status of DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, MB-COMT, GAD1, and AKT1 using qRT-PCR and q-MSP, respectively...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Mark Galizio, Brooke April, Melissa Deal, Andrew Hawkey, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Katherine Bruce
The Odor Span Task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure that permits the study of behavior under the control of multiple stimuli. Rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli and selection of new stimuli is reinforced. Successful performance thus requires remembering which stimuli have previously been presented during a given session. This procedure has been frequently used in neurobiological studies as a rodent model of working memory; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of drugs on performance in this task...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Lorraine Mazerolle, Ingrid McGuffog, Jason Ferris, Mitchell B Chamlin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic Tracking Systems (ETS) are used extensively in pharmacies across the US and Australia to control suspicious sales of pseudoephedrine. This study measures the impact of one ETS - Project STOP - on the capacity of police to reduce production, supply and possession of methamphetamine. DESIGN: Using official police data of incidents of production, supply and possession from January 1996 to December 2011 (N = 192 data points/months over 16 years), we used a quasi-experimental, time series approach...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Craig Cumming, Lakkhina Troeung, Jesse T Young, Erin Kelty, David B Preen
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use is associated with a range of poor health, social and justice outcomes. In many parts of the world increased methamphetamine use has been identified as a major public health concern. Methamphetamine treatment programmes have been effective in reducing and ceasing use, however a range of barriers have prevented these programmes being widely adopted by methamphetamine users. This review examines the barriers to accessing meth/amphetamine treatment identified in the literature...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Oliver Rawashdeh, Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-often referred to as the master circadian clock-is essential in generating physiologic rhythms and orchestrating synchrony among circadian clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that periodic motivation induced by rhythmically pairing 2 reinforcing stimuli [methamphetamine (METH) and running wheel (RW)] restores autonomous circadian activity in arrhythmic SCN-lesioned (SCNX) C3H/HeN mice. Sham-operated and SCNX mice were treated with either METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle in association, dissociation, or absence of an RW...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Hun Joo Lee, Eunyoung Han, Jaesin Lee, Heesun Chung, Sung-Gi Min
The aim of this study is to improve resolution of impurity peaks using a newly devised normalization algorithm for multi-internal standards (ISs) and to describe a visual peak selection system (VPSS) for efficient support of impurity profiling. Drug trafficking routes, location of manufacture, or synthetic route can be identified from impurities in seized drugs. In the analysis of impurities, different chromatogram profiles are obtained from gas chromatography and used to examine similarities between drug samples...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Stefania Salvatore, Emma Gracia-Lor, Richard Bade, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Felix Hernandez, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Malcolm Reid, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Pim de Voogt, Jorgen Bramness, Kevin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information...
October 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
Neal D Kline, Ashish Tripathi, Rustin Yavar Mirsafavi, Ian J Pardoe, Martin Moskovits, Carl D Meinhart, Jason A Guicheteau, Steven D Christesen, Augustus W Fountain
A microfluidic device is being developed by University of California Santa Barbara as part of a joint effort with the United States Army to develop a portable, rapid drug detection device. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is used to provide a sensitive, selective detection technique within the microfluidic platform employing metallic nanoparticles as the SERS medium. Using a number of illicit drugs as analytes, the work presented here describes the efforts of the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to optimize the microfluidic platform by investigating the role of nanoparticle material, nanoparticle size, excitation wavelength, and capping agents on the performance, and drug concentration detection limits achievable with Ag and Au nanoparticles that will ultimately be incorporated into the final design...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Fahad S Alshehri, Atiah H Almalki, Youssef Sari
Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Martha K Berg, Andréa L Hobkirk, John A Joska, Christina S Meade
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical global health issue associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Individuals with CSA histories are at risk for drug use, which is a growing problem in the Western Cape of South Africa. The present study of methamphetamine users in this region examined whether substance use coping, a contextually relevant type of avoidance-based coping, mediates the relation between CSA and depressive symptoms. Method: Participants included 161 men and 108 women seeking treatment for methamphetamine use...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Devesh Mishra, Jose Ignacio Pena-Bravo, Kah-Chung Leong, Antonieta Lavin, Carmela M Reichel
World-wide methamphetamine (meth) use is increasing at a rapid rate; therefore, it has become increasingly important to understand the synaptic changes and neural mechanisms affected by drug exposure. In rodents, 6-h access to contingent meth results in an escalation of drug intake and impaired cognitive sequelae typically associated with changes within the corticostriatal circuitry. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the underlying physiological changes within this circuit following meth self-administration...
October 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Douglas A Smith, Bruce E Blough, Matthew L Banks
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have emerged as the newest class of abused monoamine transporter substrates. Structurally, these compounds are all beta-ketone amphetamine (cathinone) analogs. Whether synthetic cathinone analogs produce differential behavioral effects from their amphetamine analog counterparts has not been systematically examined. Preclinical drug discrimination procedures have been useful for determining the structure activity relationships (SARs) of abused drugs; however, direct comparisons between amphetamine and cathinone analogs are lacking and, in particular, in non-human primate models...
October 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
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