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Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Yoshiro Okubo, Johan Lundberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The serotonin hypothesis may be the model of MDD pathophysiology with the most support. The majority of antidepressants enhance synaptic serotonin levels quickly, while it usually takes weeks to discern MDD treatment effect. It has been hypothesized that the time lag between serotonin increase and reduction of MDD symptoms is due to downregulation of inhibitory receptors such as the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). The research on 5-HT1BR has previously been hampered by a lack of selective ligands for the receptor...
March 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Gen Murakami, Mitsuhiro Edamura, Tomonori Furukawa, Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Atsuo Fukuda, Toshihide Iwashita, Daiichiro Nakahara
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) is an important immune protein that is expressed in various brain regions, with its deficiency leading to extensive synaptic transmission that results in learning and memory deficits. Although MHCI is highly expressed in dopaminergic neurons, its role in these neurons has not been examined. We show that MHCI expressed in dopaminergic neurons plays a key role in suppressing reward-seeking behavior. In wild-type mice, cocaine self-administration caused persistent reduction of MHCI specifically in dopaminergic neurons, which was accompanied by enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and relapse to cocaine seeking...
March 2018: Science Advances
Mohamed A Mohamed, Rohit Abraham, Tareq I Maraqa, Samir Elian
Aortic dissection is a rare and fatal complication of cocaine-induced hypertension. The injury mechanism is through shear stress that penetrates the intimal vessel layer, allowing blood flow to separate intimal and medial layers. Due to its scarcity and the paucity of related literature, our knowledge of this condition is limited. We present a rare case of a cocaine-induced aortic dissection, which extended continuously from the aortic root to the common iliacs, along with a literature review of similar cases...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Philippe A Melas, Johanna S Qvist, Matteo Deidda, Chirag Upreti, Ya Bin Wei, Fabrizio Sanna, Walter Fratta, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Denise B Kandel, Eric R Kandel
Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2)α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors. However, p-eIF2α has not been examined with regard to psychoactive cannabinoids and cross-sensitization. Here, we find that a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2 mesylate [WIN]) reduced p-eIF2α in vitro by upregulating GADD34 (PPP1R15A), the recruiter of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was linked to ERK/CREB signaling and to CREB-binding protein (CBP)-mediated histone hyperacetylation at the Gadd34 locus...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Kelly Oliva Jorge, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira, Ichiro Kawachi, Patrícia Maria Zarzar, Isabela Almeida Pordeus
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: "Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?"...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Michelle Tuten, Heather Fitzsimons, Martin Hochheimer, Hendree E Jones, Margaret S Chisolm
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the impact of early patient response on treatment utilization and substance use among pregnant participants enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. METHODS: Treatment responders (TRs) and treatment nonresponders (TNRs) were compared on pretreatment and treatment measures. Regression models predicted treatment utilization and substance use. RESULTS: TR participants attended more treatment and had lower rates of substance use relative to TNR participants...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Marcela Martínez-Busi, Martín Galvalisi, Manuel Minteguiaga, José Pedro Prieto, María Cecilia Scorza
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ersilia M DeFilippis, Avinainder Singh, Sanjay Divakaran, Ankur Gupta, Bradley L Collins, David Biery, Arman Qamar, Amber Fatima, Mattheus Ramsis, Daniel Pipilas, Roxanna Rajabi, Monica Eng, Jon Hainer, Josh Klein, James L Januzzi, Khurram Nasir, Marcelo F Di Carli, Deepak L Bhatt, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is increasingly prevalent among young adults but data on cardiovascular outcomes remain limited. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use in adults with their first myocardial infarction (MI) at ≤50 years and determine its association with long-term outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records of patients presenting with a Type 1 MI at ≤50 years at two academic hospitals from 2000-2016...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Aya Sasaki, Patrick O McGowan, Suzanne Erb
Building on previous work in the field, we examined the effect of maternal high fat diet (HFD) during gestation and lactation on the sensitivity of male and female adult offspring to acute and repeated cocaine exposures, and to the expression of cocaine-induced anxiety in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In both male and female offspring, acute injections of cocaine induced a strong locomotor-activating effect; repeated injections produced a robust conditioned locomotor response to the context in which they were given cocaine, and heightened activity in response to a subsequent acute challenge of cocaine...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Raza M Alvi, Noor Tariq, Atul Malhotra, Magid Awadalla, Virginia Triant, Markella V Zanni, Tomas G Neilan
Background: Sleep apnea (SA) is common and has prognostic significance among broad groups of patients with heart failure (HF). Among persons living with HIV (PLHIV), both SA and HF are reported. However, there are no data characterizing the presence, associations and prognostic significance of SA among PLHIV with HF. Methods: We conducted a single center study of PLHIV admitted with HFrEF (LVEF of <50%) and analyzed the relationship of SA with 30-day HF hospital readmission rate, cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Aitor Sorribes-Soriano, Francesc Albert Esteve-Turrillas, Sergio Armenta, Ana Montoya, José Manuel Herrero-Martínez, Miguel de la Guardia
Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were prepared for cocaine recognition by bulk polymerization in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Two reagents (polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (V)) were used for MNPs modification. MMIPs were characterized and compared in terms of loading capacity, reusability, accuracy and precision for the extraction of cocaine from saliva samples. It was observed that V-MMIPs gave higher physical stability than PEG-MMIPs. Thus, V-MMIP were used for the analysis of cocaine users saliva...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Courtney D Nordeck, Christopher Welsh, Robert P Schwartz, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Art Cohen, Kevin E O'Grady, Jan Gryczynski
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with non-adherence to medical care and high utilization of hospital services. This study characterized patterns and correlates of rehospitalization among patients seen by a hospital-based SUD consultation-liaison (CL) team. METHODS: This study was a retrospective medical record review of patients in a large urban academic hospital who received SUD consultation and were diagnosed with opioid, cocaine, and/or alcohol use disorder (N = 267)...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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