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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921312/the-prevalence-of-paraphernalia-found-at-the-scene-of-drug-related-deaths
#1
Jason G Lozano, Nicole L Healy, D Kimberley Molina
Many illicit drugs involve the use of paraphernalia, and the presence of paraphernalia found at the scene of death may suggest that the death is drug-related. Few sources of objective data are available regarding the prevalence of drug paraphernalia found at the scene of drug-related deaths or the likelihood of a death with drug paraphernalia found at the scene to be drug-related. This study reviews the deaths which were investigated by the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in an attempt to provide objective data...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921140/cocaine-administration-dose-dependently-increases-sexual-desire-and-decreases-condom-use-likelihood-the-role-of-delay-and-probability-discounting-in-connecting-cocaine-with-hiv
#2
Matthew W Johnson, Evan S Herrmann, Mary M Sweeney, Robert S LeComte, Patrick S Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Although cocaine use has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior for decades, the direct effects of cocaine on sexual desire and sexual decision-making are unexamined. Research suggests delay discounting (devaluation of future outcomes) and probability discounting (devaluation of uncertain outcomes) play roles in condom use decisions. This study examined the effect of cocaine administration on sexual desire, hypothetical condom use, and discounting tasks. METHODS: This double-blind, within-subjects study compared the effects of 0, 125, and 250 mg/70 kg oral cocaine HCl in 12 cocaine users...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920946/insights-in-public-health-substance-use-in-pregnant-women-in-hawai-i-extending-our-capacity-and-compassion
#3
Rebecca Delafield, Tricia E Wright
Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai'i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#4
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918282/conditioned-object-preference-an-alternative-approach-to-measuring-reward-learning-in-rats
#5
Bruce C Kennedy, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Paulina S Marell, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior can be directed as much toward discrete cues as it is toward the environmental contexts in which those cues are encountered. The current experiments characterized a tendency of rats to approach object cues whose prior exposure had been paired with reward (conditioned object preference, COP). To demonstrate the phenomenon, rats were conditioned to associate cocaine or saline with two different objects. Rats acquired a preference, assessed using investigation times directed toward each object, for the cocaine-paired object following conditioning...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917260/integrative-bayesian-analysis-of-neuroimaging-genetic-data-through-hierarchical-dimension-reduction
#6
S Azadeh, B P Hobbs, L Ma, D A Nielsen, F G Moeller, V Baladandayuthapani
Advances in neuromedicine have emerged from endeavors to elucidate the distinct genetic factors that influence the changes in brain structure that underlie various neurological conditions. We present a framework for examining the extent to which genetic factors impact imaging phenotypes described by voxel-wise measurements organized into collections of functionally relevant regions of interest (ROIs) that span the entire brain. Statistically, the integration of neuroimaging and genetic data is challenging. Because genetic variants are expected to impact different regions of the brain, an appropriate method of inference must simultaneously account for spatial dependence and model uncertainty...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914279/identification-and-quantification-of-4-methylethcathinone-4-mec-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-hair-by-lc-ms-ms-after-chronic-administration
#7
Jean Claude Alvarez, Isabelle Etting, Emuri Abe, Antoine Villa, Nicolas Fabresse
4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are synthetic cathinones. The objective of this study was to develop a method in order to measure these compounds in hair of a patient. After decontamination, 20mg of hair were grinded and incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0 in presence of 100ng of MDMA-d5 used as internal standard. Double basic liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Samples were separated on a 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100×2.1mm) using gradient elution. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911908/uptake-of-community-based-peer-administered-hiv-point-of-care-testing-findings-from-the-proud-study
#8
Lisa Lazarus, Sheetal Patel, Ashley Shaw, Sean Leblanc, Christine Lalonde, Manisha Hladio, Kira Mandryk, Cynthia Horvath, William Petrcich, Claire Kendall, Mark W Tyndall
OBJECTIVES: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. METHODS: PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#9
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#10
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909321/impact-on-cortical-function-of-cocaine-abuse-co-occurring-with-hiv
#11
T Celeste Napier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#12
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908658/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-and-calcium-binding-proteins-immunoreactivity-in-the-superficial-layers-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-guinea-pig-implications-for-visual-sensory-processing
#13
Janusz Najdzion
The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin) in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SCs) in the guinea pig. The CART immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the solitary fibers and neuropil, which formed various CART-ir tiers, that corresponded partially or entirely to anatomically defined layers of the SCs. The CART-ir structures exhibited a characteristic morphology with bundles of densely intermingled neuronal fibers and terminals...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#14
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#15
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899881/transcriptomics-of-environmental-enrichment-reveals-a-role-for-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-addiction
#16
Yafang Zhang, Fanping Kong, Elizabeth J Crofton, Steven N Dragosljvich, Mala Sinha, Dingge Li, Xiuzhen Fan, Shyny Koshy, Jonathan D Hommel, Heidi M Spratt, Bruce A Luxon, Thomas A Green
There exists much variability in susceptibility/resilience to addiction in humans. The environmental enrichment paradigm is a rat model of resilience to addiction-like behavior, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective phenotype may lead to novel targets for pharmacotherapeutics to treat cocaine addiction. We investigated the differential regulation of transcript levels using RNA sequencing of the rat nucleus accumbens after environmental enrichment/isolation and cocaine/saline self-administration...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898577/decline-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-among-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-users-in-new-york-city-2005-to-2014-prospects-for-avoiding-a-resurgence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Holly Hagan, Hannah L F Cooper
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. METHODS: Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#18
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
November 30, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894020/the-anatomical-mummies-of-mombello-detection-of-cocaine-nicotine-and-caffeine-in-the-hair-of-psychiatric-patients-of-the-early-20th-century
#19
Frank Musshoff, Helena Fels, Alberto Carli, Dario Piombino-Mascali
The Mombello Psychiatric Hospital in Limbiate, near Milan, replaced the old Senavra Hospital as the Psychiatric Hospital for the Province of Milan in the 19th century. During the early 20th century, bodies of several Mombello patients were dissected and preserved by Giuseppe Paravicini, an anatomist who operated within the asylum. The aim of the present study was to examine and memorialize this important assemblage. To this end, we were allowed to sample the head hair of six such preparations for toxicological analysis...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#20
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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