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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926441/paine-s-celery-compound-celery-seed-bracer-or-cocaine-elixir
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923416/cocaine-modulates-allosteric-d2-%C3%AF-1-receptor-receptor-interactions-on-dopamine-and-glutamate-nerve-terminals-from-rat-striatum
#2
Sarah Beggiato, Andrea Celeste Borelli, Dasiel Borroto-Escuela, Ilaria Corbucci, Maria Cristina Tomasini, Matteo Marti, Tiziana Antonelli, Sergio Tanganelli, Kjell Fuxe, Luca Ferraro
The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D2-σ1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ1 receptors (σ1Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D2 receptor (D2R)-induced reduction of K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D2-likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes...
September 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922652/a-pilot-study-of-loss-aversion-for-drug-and-non-drug-commodities-in-cocaine-users
#3
Justin C Strickland, Joshua S Beckmann, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users...
September 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921654/influence-of-cocaine-related-images-and-alcohol-administration-on-inhibitory-control-in-cocaine-users
#4
Erika Pike, Katherine R Marks, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and impulsivity, including decreased inhibitory control, predict poor treatment outcomes for individuals with cocaine use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of alcohol administration on inhibitory control following cocaine-related and neutral cues on the Attentional Bias-Behavioral Activation (ABBA) task in cocaine users. We hypothesized that the proportion of inhibitory failures would increase following cocaine cues compared to neutral cues...
September 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921596/single-cocaine-exposure-does-not-alter-striatal-presynaptic-dopamine-function-in-mice-an-18-f-fdopa-pet-study
#5
D R Bonsall, M Kokkinou, M Veronese, C Coello, L A Wells, O D Howes
Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), preventing reuptake of dopamine into presynaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on presynaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have revealed impaired presynaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#6
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920083/differential-alterations-of-intracellular-ca-2-dynamics-induced-by-cocaine-and-methylphenidate-in-thalamocortical-ventrobasal-neurons
#7
José L Rozas, Belén Goitia, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
The ventrobasal (VB) thalamus relay nucleus processes information from rodents' whiskers, projecting to somatosensory cortex. Cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) have been described to differentially alter intrinsic properties of, and spontaneous GABAergic input to, VB neurons. Here we studied using bis-fura 2 ratiometric fluorescence the effects of cocaine and MPH on intracellular [Ca(2+)] dynamics at the soma and dendrites of VB neurons. Cocaine increased baseline fluorescence in VB somatic and dendritic compartments...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920034/the-use-of-intraoperative-transesophageal-echocardiography-in-thoracic-aortic-dissection-due-to-chronic-cocaine-abuse
#8
Ali Dabbagh, Mohammad Kazem Arabnia, Mahnoosh Foroughi, Mehran Shahzamani, Hassan Rahmian
INTRODUCTION: Aortic dissection is a life threatening disease and is usually accompanied by a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Here we present a case report in which intraoperative tranesophageal echocardiography was used for intraoperative assessments of thoracic aortic dissection due to cocaine abuse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45- year- old male was admitted to a university hospital due to severe chest pain. He was suffering from severe excruciating chest pain that had started after a psychological stress, leading to heavy cocaine abuse...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919080/regulation-of-glutamate-transporter-1-glt-1-gene-expression-by-cocaine-self-administration-and-withdrawal
#9
Ronald Kim, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kati L Healey, Emily A Williams, Kathryn J Reissner
Downregulation of the astroglial glutamate transporter GLT-1 is observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following administration of multiple drugs of abuse. The decrease in GLT-1 protein expression following cocaine self-administration is dependent on both the amount of cocaine self-administered and the length of withdrawal, with longer access to cocaine and longer withdrawal periods leading to greater decreases in GLT-1 protein. However, the mechanism(s) by which cocaine downregulates GLT-1 protein remains unknown...
September 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#10
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918240/contingency-management-treatment-in-cocaine-using-methadone-maintained-patients-with-and-without-legal-problems
#11
Meredith K Ginley, Carla J Rash, Todd A Olmstead, Nancy M Petry
BACKGROUND: Legal difficulties and cocaine use are prevalent in methadone maintenance patients, and they are related to one another, as well as to poor response to methadone treatment. Contingency management (CM) is efficacious for decreasing cocaine use, but the relation of CM treatment to criminal activities has rarely been studied. METHODS: This study evaluated whether baseline legal problems are related to subsequent substance use and illegal activities for cocaine using methadone maintained patients and whether CM differentially improves outcomes depending on baseline legal problems...
September 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917806/portable-and-low-cost-colorimetric-office-paper-based-device-for-phenacetin-detection-in-seized-cocaine-samples
#12
Gabriela O da Silva, William R de Araujo, Thiago R L C Paixão
An office paper-based colorimetric device is proposed as a portable, rapid, and low-cost sensor for forensic applications aiming to detect phenacetin used as adulterant in illicit seized materials such as cocaine. The proposed method uses white office paper as the substrate and wax printing technology to fabricate the detection zones. Based on the optimum conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for phenacetin concentrations ranging from 0 to 64.52µgmL(‒1), and the straight line was in accordance with the following equation: (Magenta percentage color) = 1...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#13
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916898/a-strengths-based-case-management-intervention-to-reduce-hiv-viral-load-among-people-who-use-drugs
#14
Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort, Christina Powers, Helen Cheng, Andrea M Lopez, Robert O Murdoch, Torsten B Neilands, Jennifer Lorvick
Engaging highly marginalized HIV positive people in sustained medical care is vital for optimized health and prevention efforts. Prior studies have found that strengths-based case management helps link people who use drugs to HIV care. We conducted a pilot to assess whether a strengths-based case management intervention may help people who use injection drugs (PWID) or smoke crack cocaine (PWSC) achieve undetectable HIV viral load. PWID and PWSC were recruited in Oakland, California using targeted sampling methods and referral from jails and were tested for HIV...
September 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916405/love-death-a-retrospective-and-prospective-follow-up-mortality-study-over-45-years
#15
Lena Lange, Barbra Zedler, Marcel A Verhoff, Markus Parzeller
BACKGROUND: Although sexual activity can cause moderate stress, it can cause natural death in individuals with pre-existing illness. The aim of this study was to identify additional pre-existing health problems, sexual practices, and potential circumstances that may trigger fatal events. METHODS: This medicolegal postmortem, retrospective, and prospective study is based on data of autopsies performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University hospital, Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915073/internalized-homonegativity-and-substance-use-among-u-s-men-who-have-sex-with-men-only-msmo-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-women-msmw
#16
William L Jeffries, Oshea D Johnson
BACKGROUND: Internalized homonegativity may promote substance use among U.S. men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). However, studies have produced mixed findings, used non-representative samples, and not adequately examined MSMW. OBJECTIVES: We investigated (1) internalized homonegativity in relation to substance use and (2) the extent of temporal change in internalized homonegativity among MSMO and MSMW. METHODS: Using merged 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth-a nationally representative U...
September 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914428/anhydroecgonine-methyl-ester-aeme-a-product-of-cocaine-pyrolysis-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-induces-striatal-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#17
Elisa Fraga Gomes, Ingryd Fortes Souza Lipaus, Cleciane Waldetário Martins, Andrezza Menezes Araújo, Josidéia Barreto Mendonça, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Evandro Carlos Lebarch, Lívia Carla de Melo Rodrigues, Ester Miyuki Nakamura-Palacios
When burning crack cocaine, the pyrolysis of cocaine generates anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME has been shown to be highly neurotoxic but its effects on cognitive function and oxidative stress are still unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effects of AEME on spatial working memory and on parameters of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. First, 18 well-trained rats in 8-arm radial maze (8-RM) procedures received acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of AEME at doses of 10, 32, or 100 μg or saline (SAL) in a counterbalanced order and were tested 5 min later in 1-h delayed tasks in the 8-RM...
September 15, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913613/risk-factor-analysis-between-newly-screened-and-established-hepatitis-c-in-gi-and-hepatology-clinics
#18
Newaz Hossain, Bharat Puchakayala, Pushpjeet Kanwar, Siddharth Verma, George Abraham, Zhanna Ivanov, Muhammad Obaid Niaz, Smruti R Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Several studies show inconsistencies in the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection among baby boomers (born 1945-1965). We conducted a cross-sectional HCV screening followed by a case-controlled comparison of the newly screened population with established HCV subjects. METHOD: Enrollment was offered to subjects aged 40-75 at our gastroenterology and hepatology clinics. Demographic data and potential risk factors were obtained, and HCV antibody test was offered to those who had never been screened and compared with a group with established HCV...
September 14, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913001/methamphetamine-use-and-emergency-department-utilization-20-years-later
#19
John R Richards, Sheiva Hamidi, Connor D Grant, Colin G Wang, Nabil Tabish, Samuel D Turnipseed, Robert W Derlet
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MAP) users present to the emergency department (ED) for myriad reasons, including trauma, chest pain, and psychosis. The purpose of this study is to determine how their prevalence, demographics, and resource utilization have changed. METHODS: Retrospective review of MAP patients over 3 months in 2016. Demographics, mode of arrival, presenting complaints, disposition, and concomitant cocaine/ethanol use were compared to a 1996 study at the same ED...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912606/profiling-of-cocaine-using-ratios-of-gc-ms-peaks
#20
Palle Villesen, Louise Stride Nielsen
Illicit cocaine seizures are often compared to each other by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data from cocaine alkaloid compounds to determine whether two specimens originate from the same production batch or not. This can provide intelligence or investigative information at the early stages of an investigation or evidence in court. Traditional classification methods assume high stability of all alkaloids, use all of them to calculate the correlation between two profiles and use a threshold to classify samples...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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