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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445429/exploring-the-behavioral-and-metabolic-phenotype-generated-by-re-introduction-of-the-ghrelin-receptor-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#1
Louise J Skov, Morten Jensen, Søren H Christiansen, Cecilia Ratner, David P D Woldbye, Birgitte Holst
Ghrelin receptor (Ghr-R) signaling in neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can modulate dopaminergic function and the reward-related effects of both palatable foods and drugs of abuse. In this study, we re-introduced the Ghr-R in VTA neurons in Ghr-R knockout mice (Ghr-R(VTA) mice) to specifically study the importance of the constitutively active Ghr-R for VTA neuronal signaling. Our results showed that re-introduction of the Ghr-R in the VTA had no impact on body weight or food intake under basal conditions...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445191/evaluation-of-horner-syndrome-in-the-mri-era
#2
Ama Sadaka, Samantha L Schockman, Karl C Golnik
BACKGROUND: To identify the etiologies of adult Horner syndrome (HS) in the MRI era using a targeted evaluation approach and to assess the value and yield of targeted imaging. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 adult outpatients with HS, confirmed with cocaine eyedrop testing. Patients were divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of symptoms and those who did or did not receive additional testing with hydroxyamphetamine drops...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444326/preclinical-evidence-that-5-ht1b-receptor-agonists-show-promise-as-medications-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#3
Raul Garcia, Austin R Cotter, Kenneth Leslie, M Foster Olive, Janet L Neisewander
Background: 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonists enhance cocaine intake during daily self-administration sessions, but decrease cocaine intake when tested after prolonged abstinence. We examined if 5-HT1BR agonists produce similar abstinence-dependent effects on methamphetamine intake. Methods: Male rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) on low (FR5 and VR5) and high (progressive ratio; PR) effort schedules of reinforcement until intake was stable...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443703/psychedelics-personality-and-political-perspectives
#4
Matthew M Nour, Lisa Evans, Robin L Carhart-Harris
The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443614/cocaine-cue-induced-dopamine-release-in-recreational-cocaine-users
#5
Sylvia M L Cox, Yvonne Yau, Kevin Larcher, France Durand, Theodore Kolivakis, J Scott Delaney, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
It has been proposed that the acquisition of drug seeking is related to the development of conditioned dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. As drug use continues and becomes habit-like, conditioned responses have been shown to shift to the dorsal striatum. Here, using the PET [(11)C]raclopride method and highly personalized cocaine cues, we report the first evidence in humans of the dorsal dopamine response prior to the onset of addiction.
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442581/sigma-receptor-effects-of-n-substituted-benztropine-analogs-implications-for-antagonism-of-cocaine-self-administration
#6
Takato Hiranita, Weimin C Hong, Theresa Kopajtic, Jonathan L Katz
Several N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs are atypical dopamine transport inhibitors as they have affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but have minimal cocaine-like pharmacological effects and can block numerous effects of cocaine including its self-administration. Among these compounds, N-methyl (AHN1-055), N-allyl (AHN2-005), and N-butyl (JHW007) analogs of 3α-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropane were more potent in antagonizing self-administration of cocaine and d-methamphetamine than in decreasing food-maintained responding...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442370/modulation-of-drug-choice-by-extended-drug-access-and-withdrawal-in-rhesus-monkeys-implications-for-negative-reinforcement-as-a-driver-of-addiction-and-target-for-medications-development
#7
REVIEW
S Stevens Negus, Matthew L Banks
Chronic drug exposure is hypothesized to recruit negative reinforcement processes that increase the magnitude and alter the mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Candidate substrates of negative reinforcement include increased signaling via stress-related neurotransmitters such as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF, acting at CRF receptors) or dynorphin (acting at kappa opioid receptors) and/or decreased signaling via reward-related neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Determinants of drug reinforcement can be examined with choice procedures, in which subjects choose between a drug of interest (e...
April 22, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442364/effects-of-repeated-cocaine-exposure-and-withdrawal-on-voluntary-ethanol-drinking-and-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-p-rats
#8
Alaa M Hammad, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Sujan C Das, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuits plays a major role in the reinforcing properties of both ethanol and cocaine. Glutamate homeostasis is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Cocaine exposure has been shown to induce a dysregulation in glutamate homeostasis and a decrease in the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, alcohol preferring (P) rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) and/or water for five weeks...
April 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442355/effects-of-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-on-cocaine-discrimination-in-wild-type-mice-and-in-muscarinic-receptor-m1-m2-and-m4-receptor-knockout-mice
#9
Lauren Joseph, Morgane Thomsen
Muscarinic M1/M4 stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1(-/-), M2(-/-), M4(-/-)), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442345/characterization-of-a-recombinant-humanized-anti-cocaine-antibody-produced-from-multiple-clones-for-the-selection-of-a-master-cell-bank-candidate
#10
Hanna N Wetzel, Rose P Webster, Fatima Saeed, Terence L Kirley, William J Ball, Andrew B Norman
We have generated a humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb), which is at an advanced stage of pre-clinical development. We report here in vitro binding affinity studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of the recombinant mAb. The overall aim was to characterize the recombinant antibody from each of the three highest producing transfected clones and to select one to establish a master cell bank. In mAb pharmacokinetic studies, after injection with h2E2 (120 mg/kg iv) blood was collected from the tail tip of mice over 28 days...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442257/cocaine-use-is-associated-with-a-higher-prevalence-of-elevated-st2-concentrations
#11
Xander M R van Wijk, Eric Vittinghoff, Alan H B Wu, Kara L Lynch, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiac events, but the effects in users outside of acute events are less clear. We investigated a possible association between cocaine use and the concentration of a novel biomarker for cardiac stress and heart failure, ST2. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare ST2 concentrations by the presence of cocaine in patients presenting for care, but not cardiac care, at an urban safety net hospital...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441975/seek-test-treat-substance-using-women-in-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-south-africa
#12
Wendee M Wechsberg, Charles van der Horst, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Irene A Doherty, Tracy Kline, Felicia A Browne, Jennifer M Belus, Robin Nance, William A Zule
BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441549/plain-radiography-may-underestimate-the-burden-of-body-packer-ingestion-a-case-report
#13
Yonah B Esterson, Vihas Patel, Jeffrey Nicastro, Barak Friedman
Body packing refers to the intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs. Here we report the case of a 55-year-old body packer who presented with palpitations, visual hallucinations, and a sense of impending death. Abdominal radiography demonstrated five ovoid foreign bodies overlying the rectum. At subsequent gastrotomy and cecotomy, thirty-eight cocaine-containing packets were retrieved from the stomach and ascending colon as well as from the rectum. As the contraband market evolves new techniques to evade detection, evaluation of the burden of body packer ingestion has become increasingly challenging...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441487/the-isomeric-preference-of-an-atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor-contributes-to-its-selection-of-the-transporter-conformation
#14
Ara M Abramyan, Sebastian Stolzenberg, Zheng Li, Claus J Loland, Frank Noé, Lei Shi
Cocaine, a widely abused psychostimulant, inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT) by trapping the protein in an outward-open conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors such as benztropine have low abuse liability and prefer less outward-open conformations. Here, we use a spectrum of computational modeling and simulation approaches to obtain the underlying molecular mechanism in atomistic detail. Interestingly, our quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that a benztropine derivative JHW007 prefers a different stereoisomeric conformation of tropane in binding to DAT compared to that of a cocaine derivative, CFT...
April 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441431/correction-maternal-separation-impairs-cocaine-induced-behavioural-sensitization-in-adolescent-mice
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167483.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441119/comparable-efficacy-of-behavioral-and-pharmacological-treatments-among-african-american-and-white-cocaine-users
#16
LaTrice Montgomery, Kathleen M Carroll
Multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated a range of treatments for cocaine dependence, but few of these have focused specifically on the racial diversity observed among cocaine-dependent patients. The present analyses evaluated racial variation in cocaine use and addiction-related psychosocial outcomes at baseline and follow-up among 388 African American and White adults participating in 1 of 5 RCTs evaluating a range of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for cocaine use disorders. General linear modeling (GLM) indicated significant racial variation in cocaine and psychosocial indicators at baseline...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439943/botryoid-nuclei-resulting-from-cocaine-abuse
#17
Maurizio Fumi, Ylenia Pancione, Silvia Sale, Vincenzo Rocco, Barbara J Bain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439922/illicit-drug-use-among-new-zealand-gay-and-bisexual-men-prevalence-and-association-with-sexual-health-behaviours
#18
Peter Saxton, David Newcombe, Arslan Ahmed, Nigel Dickson, Anthony Hughes
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Data are lacking on drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand. We establish a baseline estimate of drug use and investigate associations with sexual health and HIV risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of GBM was conducted in gay community settings and online. Participants were asked their frequency of using nine drugs (poppers, cannabis, ecstasy, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, gamma hydroxybutyrate and ketamine) in the previous 6 months...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434975/protection-of-pc12%C3%A2-cells-from-cocaine-induced-cell-death-by-inhibiting-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#19
Frederic Lamarche, Cecile Cottet-Rousselle, Luc Barret, Eric Fontaine
Cocaine abuse induces brain injury and neurodegeneration by a mechanism that has not yet been fully elucidated. Mitochondria play a key role in cell death processes, notably through the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). In this work, we examined the involvement of the PTP in cocaine-induced toxicity in PC12 cell lines. We used two different PTP inhibitors -i.e. cyclosporin A (CsA) and metformin-to assess their ability to counteract the cocaine induced effects. We first observed that a 48 h exposure to cocaine strongly sensitized cells to calcium overload, as measured by the calcium retention capacity...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434890/brain-lipidomic-changes-after-morphine-cocaine-and-amphetamine-administration-desi-ms-imaging-study
#20
Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna Antolak, Anna Drabik, Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Jolanta Kotlińska, Piotr Suder
Drug addiction is a complex disorder, evoking significant changes in the proteome of the central nervous system. To check if there are also changes in the lipidomic profiles we used desorption electrospray-MS technique for imaging of the brain slices of rats exposed to morphine, cocaine and amphetamine. Our investigations showed alternative regulation of selected lipid's levels in the central nervous system structures, under the influence of applied drugs. Results of our investigations can show changes in the brain treated with drugs of abuse in the new light, indicating role of the lipids in the addiction development...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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