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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333880/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-dose-and-dropout-rate
#1
Richard C Crist, James Li, Glenn A Doyle, Alex Gilbert, Bryan M Dechairo, Wade H Berrettini
BACKGROUND: Currently, no pharmacogenetic tests for selecting an opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effects of variants in 11 genes on dropout rate and dose in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315341). METHODS: Variants in six pharmacokinetic genes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) and five pharmacodynamic genes (HTR2A, OPRM1, ADRA2A, COMT, SLC6A4) were genotyped in samples from a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence (n = 764; 68...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332567/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-nop-receptor-modulators-an-update-in-structure-activity-relationships
#2
Carlo Mustazza, Stefano Pieretti, Francesca Marzoli
Nociceptin /Orphanin FQ Peptide" receptor (NOPr) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) as endogenous agonist. It is expressed in the nervous system as well as in some non-neural tissues. Its activation has pronociceptive effect at the supraspinal level, whereas at the spinal level it produces nociceptive effects at low doses and antinociceptive effects at higher doses. NOPr is also involved in mood and blood pressure regulation, immunoregulation, airway constriction, feeding, urination, bowel motility, learning and memory...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332099/association-between-the-intron-8-vntr-polymorphism-of-the-dat1-gene-and-crack-cocaine-addiction
#3
Anderson R Stolf, Diana Müller, Jaqueline B Schuch, Gláucia C Akutagava-Martins, Luciano S P Guimaraes, Claudia M Szobot, Ricardo Halpern, Felix H P Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Tatiana Roman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare allele and genotype frequencies of a 30-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, located at intron 8, between adult crack cocaine users and nonaddicted individuals. Due to its involvement in drug addiction, this gene is a good candidate for molecular studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 239 current adult crack abusers or dependents from in- and outpatient clinics and 211 control individuals was collected in Brazil...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331646/progress-in-the-management-of-advanced-thoracic-malignancies-in-2017
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331188/-care-pathway-and-life-course-of-drug-addicted-patients
#5
Franck Warembourg, Victoria Varin
Placing drug addicts, notably heroin addicts, at the centre of their care project, itself part of a life project, is the objective of the Le Lac d'Argent association in Annecy. Caregivers have been able to reflect on their practices and help to fight against preconceived ideas. This article presents the experience of a global support approach.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331187/-nursing-role-and-risk-reduction-for-drug-users
#6
Yann Denize, Sophie Humbert, Adrien Laborde, Aurélie Kreiss, Gauthier Waeckerlé
The Ithaque association is a drop-in and risk reduction centre for drug users. It caters for anyone 'overwhelmed' by an addiction with a view to supporting them in the treatment approach they wish to undertake. Nurses play a key role throughout the user's care pathway.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331186/-addictology-promoting-users-power-to-act
#7
Alain Morel
The notion of risk reduction applies to all uses, drinking of alcohol and smoking including, addictions without drugs likewise. With regard to drugs, mentalities change. We now talk more of risks than fault or deviance. Following, collaboration between health professionals and users, sharing and cooperation are the conditions necessary to develop a modern humanist and social addictology approach.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331185/-patients-and-caregivers-in-the-treatment-of-addictions
#8
Anne Coppel
Since the 1980s, risk and harm reduction has been a public health issue in the area of addictions. A new approach has been adopted with drug users, who are considered as patients like any other and players in their own health care. The therapeutic alliance with the caregiver is therefore essential.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330143/breast-cancer-targeting-through-inhibition-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-based-apoptosis-regulator-nrh-bcl2l10
#9
Adrien Nougarede, Nikolay Popgeorgiev, Loay Kassem, Soleilmane Omarjee, Stephane Borel, Ivan Mikaelian, Jonathan Lopez, Rudy Gadet, Olivier Marcillat, Isabelle Treilleux, Bruno O Villoutreix, Ruth Rimokh, Germain Gillet
Drug resistance and metastatic relapse remain a top challenge in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we present preclinical evidence for a strategy to eradicate advanced breast cancers by targeting the BCL2 homolog Nrh/BCL2L10, which we discovered to be overexpressed in >45% of a large cohort of breast invasive carcinomas. Nrh expression in these tumors correlated with reduced metastasis-free survival and we determined it to be an independent marker of poor prognosis. Nrh protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329423/development-and-early-validation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-to-assess-sleep-amongst-people-experiencing-problems-with-alcohol-or-other-drugs
#11
Joanne Neale, Silia Vitoratou, Paul Lennon, Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Daria Panebianco, John Strang, John Marsden
Study Objectives: To develop a patient reported outcome measure to assess sleep amongst people experiencing problems with alcohol or other drugs. Methods: Item development included secondary analyses of qualitative interviews with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, a review of validated sleep measures, focus groups with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, and feedback from drug/alcohol users recruited from community and residential settings. An initial version of the measure was completed by 549 current and former drug/alcohol users (442 in person [IP] and 107 online [OL])...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#12
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#13
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#14
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320313/acute-radiologic-manifestations-of-america-s-opioid-epidemic
#16
David D B Bates, Katherine Gallagher, HeiShun Yu, Jennifer Uyeda, Akira M Murakami, Bindu N Setty, Stephan W Anderson, Mariza O Clement
The United States is in the midst of an opioid use epidemic, which has severe medical, social, and economic consequences. Addictions to and abuse of prescription and illicit opioids are increasing, and emergency department radiologists are increasingly being faced with the task of examining patients who present with opioid-related complications. These complications may be the result of direct drug toxicity or nonsterile injection of the drugs. Neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal complications may be evident at diagnostic imaging in emergent settings...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318747/the-caudal-part-of-the-posterior-insula-of-rats-participates-in-the-maintenance-but-not-the-acquisition-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference
#17
Yong-Mei Sun, Rong-Xiang Chen, Zhi-Fei Li, Sabine Spijker, Rong-Wei Zhai, Shang-Chuan Yang
The heterogeneous insular cortex plays an interoceptive role in drug addiction by signaling the availability of drugs of abuse. Here, we tested whether the caudal part of the multisensory posterior insula (PI) stores somatosensory-associated rewarding memories. Using Sprague Dawley rats as subjects, we first established a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, mainly based on somatic cues. Secondly, an electrolytic lesion of the caudal portion of the PI was carried out before and after the establishment of CPP, respectively...
January 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317777/a-kinase-anchoring-protein-150-akap150-promotes-cocaine-reinstatement-by-increasing-ampa-receptor-transmission-in-the-accumbens-shell
#18
Leonardo A Guercio, Mackenzie E Hofmann, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Julia S Sigman, Mathieu E Wimmer, Mark L Dell'Acqua, Heath D Schmidt, R Christopher Pierce
Previous work indicated that activation of D1-like dopamine receptors (D1DRs) in the nucleus accumbens shell promoted cocaine seeking through a process involving the activation of PKA and GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize PKA to AMPARs leading to enhanced phosphorylation of GluA1. AKAP150, the most well-characterized isoform, plays an important role in several forms of neuronal plasticity. However, its involvement in drug addiction has been minimally explored...
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317519/%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-promotes-extinction-learning-of-cocaine-reward-memory
#19
Bing Huang, Youxing Li, Deqin Cheng, Guanhong He, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Extinction learning of cocaine-associated contextual cues can help prevent cocaine addicts from relapsing. Pharmacological manipulation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) during extinction learning is being developed as a potential strategy to treat drug addiction. We demonstrated that the extinction learning of cocaine-associated memory was mediated by β-arrestin2-biased but not heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-dependent β-adrenergic signaling. We found that administration of the nonbiased β-AR antagonist propranolol, but not the G protein-biased β-AR antagonist carvedilol, blocked extinction learning of cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated ERK activation in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex...
January 9, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315577/bidirectional-variation-in-glutamate-efflux-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-selective-positive-and-negative-allosteric-mglur5-modulators
#20
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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