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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166482/abortion-and-sex-related-conditions-in-substance-dependent-brazilian-patients
#1
Alessandra Diehl, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Ronaldo Laranjeira
Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165617/selective-activation-of-striatal-ngf-trka-p75ntr-mapk-intracellular-signaling-in-rats-that-show-suppression-of-methamphetamine-intake-30-days-following-drug-abstinence
#2
Oscar V Torres, Subramanian Jayanthi, Michael T McCoy, Jean Lud Cadet
Background: The continuing epidemic of methamphetamine (METH) addiction has prompted research aimed at understanding striatal dysfunctions potentially associated with long-term METH use. Methods: Here, we investigated transcriptional and translational alterations in the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat striatum at 30 days following METH SA and footshock punishment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer METH (0.1 mg/kg/injection, i...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#3
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163237/-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-rats-with-prolonged-cocaine-self-administration-suggests-potential-brain-biomarkers-for-addictive-behavior
#4
Nazzareno Cannella, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Mareike Roscher, Tatiane T Takahashi, Nils Vogler, Björn Wängler, Rainer Spanagel
The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163080/behavioral-and-neurochemical-phenotyping-of-mice-incapable-of-homer1a-induction
#5
Michael C Datko, Jia-Hua Hu, Melanie Williams, Cindy M Reyes, Kevin D Lominac, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Paul F Worley, Karen K Szumlinski
Immediate early and constitutively expressed products of the Homer1 gene regulate the functional assembly of post-synaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses to influence excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Earlier studies of Homer1 gene knock-out (KO) mice indicated active, but distinct, roles for IEG and constitutively expressed Homer1 gene products in regulating cognitive, emotional, motivational and sensorimotor processing, as well as behavioral and neurochemical sensitivity to cocaine...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162499/metabolic-strategies-for-the-degradation-of-the-neuromodulator-agmatine-in-mammals
#6
REVIEW
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#7
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#8
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
December 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160596/chronic-pain-and-opioid-abuse-factors-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life
#9
Jermaine D Jones, Jonathan S Vogelman, Rachel Luba, Mudassir Mumtaz, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While research on the separate relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic pain, and HRQOL and opioid abuse has been sparse, even less work has investigated the factors associated with HRQOL in individuals who have both chronic pain and meet criteria for opioid use disorder. The data presented in this analysis should allow a better understanding the factors important to quality of life among this dual-diagnosed population. METHODS: Individuals with dual diagnoses of chronic pain and opioid use disorder were recruited for clinical research studies at Columbia University Medical Center...
November 21, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158376/leukemia-specific-delivery-of-mutant-notch1-targeted-therapy
#10
Giovanni Roti, Jun Qi, Samuel Kitara, Marta Sanchez-Martin, Amy Saur Conway, Anthony C Varca, Angela Su, Lei Wu, Andrew L Kung, Adolfo A Ferrando, James E Bradner, Kimberly Stegmaier
On-target drug delivery remains a challenge in cancer precision medicine; it is difficult to deliver a targeted therapy to cancer cells without incurring toxicity to normal tissues. The SERCA (sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase) inhibitor thapsigargin inhibits mutant NOTCH1 receptors compared with wild type in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but its administration is predicted to be toxic in humans. Leveraging the addiction of ALL to folic acid, we conjugated folate to an alcohol derivative of thapsigargin via a cleavable ester linkage...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158359/are-cocaine-seeking-habits-necessary-for-the-development-of-addiction-like-behavior-in-rats
#11
Bryan F Singer, Monica Fadanelli, Alex B Kawa, Terry E Robinson
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit", and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, often requires considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158252/food-addiction-high-glycemic-index-carbohydrates-and-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Belinda Lennerz, Jochen K Lennerz
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus. CONTENT: Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158248/pregnancy-increases-norbuprenorphine-clearance-in-mice-by-induction-of-hepatic-glucuronidation
#13
Michael Z Liao, Chunying Gao, Brian R Phillips, Naveen K Neradugomma, Lyrialle W Han, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Danny D Shen, Qingcheng Mao
Norbuprenorphine (NBUP) is the major active metabolite of buprenorphine (BUP) which is commonly used to treat opiate addiction during pregnancy; it possesses 25% of BUP's analgesic activity and 10 times BUP's respiratory depression effect. To optimize BUP's dosing regimen during pregnancy with better efficacy and safety, it is important to understand how pregnancy affects NBUP disposition. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetics of NBUP in pregnant and non-pregnant mice by administering the same amount of NBUP through retro-orbital injection...
November 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#14
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154365/is-neural-processing-of-negative-stimuli-altered-in-addiction-independent-of-drug-effects-findings-from-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#15
Sarah W Yip, James J Gross, Megha Chawla, Shan-Shan Ma, Xing-Hui Shi, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Lei Zhu, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jintao Zhang
Difficulties in emotion regulation are commonly reported among individuals with alcohol and drug addictions and contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Alterations in neural processing of negative affective stimuli have further been demonstrated among individuals with addictions. However, it is unclear whether these alterations are a general feature of addictions or are a result of prolonged exposure to drugs-of-abuse. To test the hypothesis of altered negative affect processing independent of drug effects, this study assessed neural function among drug-naïve youth with a behavioral addiction-Internet gaming disorder (IGD)...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#16
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153631/human-abuse-potential-of-brivaracetam-in-healthy-recreational-central-nervous-system-depressant-users
#17
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
November 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152855/kinase-interest-you-in-treating-incubated-cocaine-craving-a-hypothetical-model-for-treatment-intervention-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-cocaine
#18
REVIEW
Karen K Szumlinski, Christina B Shin
A diagnostic criterion for drug addiction, persistent drug-craving continues to be the most treatment-resistant aspect of addiction that maintains the chronic, relapsing, nature of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of psychomotor stimulant addiction, there currently exists no FDA-approved medication for craving reduction. In good part, this reflects our lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug-craving. In humans, cue-elicited drug-craving is associated with the hyper-excitability of prefrontal cortical regions...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152692/left-frontoparietal-network-activity-is-modulated-by-drug-stimuli-in-cocaine-addiction
#19
Víctor Costumero, Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Juan José Llopis, Cesar Ávila, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
Cocaine addicts present reduced activity in the left frontoparietal network, a brain network associated with cognitive control, during the processing of non-drug reward related stimuli (Costumero et al., Addiction Biology 22:479-489, 2015). However, the involvement of this network in drug-related stimuli processing remains unclear. Here, fifteen cocaine-dependent men and fifteen healthy matched controls viewed cocaine-related, erotic, aversive, and neutral pictures during an fMRI session. Group independent component analysis was then performed to investigate how functional networks were modulated by the different emotional images...
November 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150865/enhanced-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-opioidergic-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-transmission-in-dyt1-dystonia
#20
Giulia Ponterio, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Valentina Vanni, Maria Meringolo, Massimo Santoro, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Paola Bonsi, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor activation modulates acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum, an area deeply involved in motor function, habit formation, and reinforcement learning as well as in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders, such as dystonia. Although the role of opioids in drug reward and addiction is well established, their involvement in motor dysfunction remains largely unexplored. METHODS: We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the responses to mu activation in 2 mouse models of DYT1 dystonia (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice, Tor1a(+/-) torsinA null mice, and their respective wild-types)...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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