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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944090/rapid-identification-of-buprenorphine-in-patient-saliva
#1
Stuart Farquharson, Kathryn Dana, Chetan Shende, Zachary Gladding, Jenelle Newcomb, Jessica Dascher, Ismene L Petrakis, Albert J Arias
Buprenorphine is becoming the medication of choice to help patients withdraw from opioid addiction. However, treatment is compromised by the inability of physicians to assess patient usage during scheduled examinations. Here we describe the development of a point-of-care (POC) analyzer that can rapidly measure both illicit and treatment drugs in patient saliva, ideally in the physician's office, and with a degree of accuracy similar to chromatography. The analyzer employs a relatively simple supported liquid extraction to isolate the drugs from the saliva and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect the drugs...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942704/why-people-who-inject-drugs-voluntarily-transition-off-methadone-in-ukraine
#2
Julia Rozanova, Ruthanne Marcus, Faye S Taxman, Martha J Bojko, Lynn Madden, Scott O Farnum, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sergii Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) treats opioid use disorder among people who inject drugs (PWID). To understand why PWID may voluntarily discontinue MMT, we analyzed data from 25 focus groups conducted in five Ukrainian cities from February to April 2013 with 199 participants who were currently, previously, or never on MMT. Using constant comparison method, we uncovered three themes explaining why PWID transition off MMT: (a) purposeful resistance to rigid social control associated with how MMT is delivered and to power asymmetries in provider-patient relationships, (b) self-management of a PWID's "wounded identity" that is common in socially stigmatized and physically sick persons-MMT serves as a reminder of their illness, and (c) the quest for a "normal life" uninterrupted by daily MMT site visits, harassment, and time inefficiencies, resources, and social capital...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942596/the-multidimensional-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-brain-oxytocin-system-for-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#3
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
The neuropeptide oxytocin is released both into the blood and within the brain in response to reproductive stimuli, such as birth, suckling and sex, but also in response to social interaction and stressors. Substance use disorders, or addictions, are chronic, relapsing brain disorders and are one of the major causes of global burden of disease. Unfortunately, current treatment options for substance use disorders are extremely limited and a treatment breakthrough is sorely needed. There is mounting preclinical evidence that targeting the brain oxytocin system may provide that breakthrough...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942287/the-costs-of-crime-associated-with-stimulant-use-in-a-canadian-setting
#4
Benjamin Enns, Emanuel Krebs, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Lindsey Richardson, Evan Wood, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Costs attributable to criminal activity are a major component of the economic burden of substance use disorders, yet there is a paucity of empirical evidence on this topic. Our aim was to estimate the costs of crime associated with different forms and intensities of stimulant use. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, including individuals from three prospective cohorts in Vancouver, Canada, measured biannually (2011-2015), reporting stimulant use at baseline assessment...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942032/post-mortem-review-of-fentanyl-related-overdose-deaths-among-identified-drug-users-in-southern-bavaria-germany-2005-2014
#5
Inga Sinicina, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Keil
BACKGROUND: Two decades ago, there were only single case reports on deaths in Europe following the consumption of illicitly manufactured fentanyl by problem drug users. Today, lethal fentanyl intoxication is now no longer a rarity. Since 2005, a rapid increase of lethal fentanyl-related intoxications in the drug scene has been observed at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich. We hypothesized that this rise is the result of the launch of fentanyl matrix patches in Germany in 2004, their broad acceptance, their diversion from the regulated supply chain, and incautious prescription by medical care providers...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941850/meso-level-multi-disciplinary-approach-for-reduction-of-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-in-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-delhi-india
#6
Nandini Sharma, Shivani Chandra, Meera Dhuria, Charu Kohli, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Nishi Aggarwal, Kuldeep Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: Universal access to tuberculosis (TB) care services emphasizes early detection and initiation of treatment for all pulmonary TB patients. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up patients needs to be actively tracked and treated to break the chain of transmission in the community. OBJECTIVES: MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional study of a sample of 340 patients who were pre-treatment loss to follow-up was conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 in Delhi...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940732/association-of-contextual-cues-with-morphine-reward-increases-neural-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-of-rats
#7
Mina Sadighi Alvandi, Maria Bourmpoula, Judith R Homberg, Yaghoub Fathollahi
Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939767/dopamine-transporter-phosphorylation-site-threonine-53-is-stimulated-by-amphetamines-and-regulates-dopamine-transport-efflux-and-cocaine-analog-binding
#8
Sathya Challasivakanaka, Juan Zhen, Margaret E Smith, Maarten E A Reith, James D Foster, Roxanne A Vaughan
The dopamine transporter (DAT) controls the spatial and temporal dynamics of dopamine neurotransmission through reuptake of extracellular transmitter and is a target for addictive compounds such as cocaine, amphetamine (AMPH), and methamphetamine (METH). Reuptake is regulated by kinase pathways and drug exposure, allowing for fine-tuning of clearance in response to specific conditions, and here we examine the impact of transporter ligands on DAT residue Thr53, a proline-directed phosphorylation site previously implicated in AMPH-stimulated efflux mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939573/does-psychedelic-drug-use-reduce-risk-of-suicidality-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-community-based-cohort-of-marginalised-women-in-a-canadian-setting
#9
Elena Argento, Steffanie A Strathdee, Kenneth Tupper, Melissa Braschel, Evan Wood, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to longitudinally investigate whether ever having used a psychedelic drug can have a protective effect on incidence of suicidality among marginalised women. DESIGN: Longitudinal community-based cohort study. SETTING: Data were drawn from a prospective, community-based cohort of marginalised women in Metro Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 766 women completed the baseline questionnaire between January 2010 and August 2014...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#10
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#11
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, and leading to lifelong changes. A common substrate of these changes lies in alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors including impulsivity, response to antidepressants and to psychostimulants pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933931/legacies-of-1917-in-contemporary-russian-public-health-addiction-hiv-and-abortion
#12
Michele Rivkin-Fish
I examine the legacies of Soviet public health policy and the socialist health care system and trace how the Soviet past figures in contemporary Russian policymaking and debates about drug use, HIV, and abortion. Drug policies and mainstream views of HIV reflect continuities with key aspects of Soviet-era policies, although political leaders do not acknowledge these continuities in justifying their policies. In abortion policy, by contrast, which is highly debated in the public realm, advocates represent themselves as differing from Soviet-era policies to justify their positions...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933310/socialization-alleviates-burden-of-oxidative-stress-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-morphine-addiction-period-in-male-rats
#13
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Reduction of high-risk behaviors can reduce the burden of addiction in society and can improve the overall prognosis of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to show that reduction of oxidative stress with socialization will reduce occurrence of high-risk behavior during addiction period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: socialized, isolated, addicted socialized and addicted isolated...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932934/using-the-multiple-choice-procedure-to-measure-the-relative-reinforcing-efficacy-of-gambling-initial-validity-evidence-among-college-students
#14
Leon H Butler, Jessica G Irons, Drew T Bassett, Christopher J Correia
The multiple choice procedure (MCP) is used to assess the relative reinforcing value of concurrently available stimuli. The MCP was originally developed to assess the reinforcing value of drugs; the current within-subjects study employed the MCP to assess the reinforcing value of gambling behavior. Participants (N = 323) completed six versions of the MCP that presented hypothetical choices between money to be used while gambling ($10 or $25) versus escalating amounts of guaranteed money available immediately or after delays of either 1 week or 1 month...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#15
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#16
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#17
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923912/exploiting-drug-addiction-mechanisms-to-select-against-mapki-resistant-melanoma
#18
Aayoung Hong, Gatien Moriceau, Lu Sun, Shirley Lomeli, Marco Piva, Robert Damoiseaux, Sheri L Holmen, Norman E Sharpless, Willy Hugo, Roger S Lo
Melanoma resistant to MAPK inhibitor(s) (MAPKi) displays loss-of-fitness upon experimental MAPKi withdrawal and, clinically, may be re-sensitized to MAPKi therapy after a drug holiday. Here, we uncovered and therapeutically exploited the mechanisms of MAPKi-addiction in MAPKi-resistant MUTBRAF or MUTNRAS melanoma. MAPKi-addiction phenotypes evident upon drug-withdrawal spanned transient cell-cycle slow-down to cell-death responses, the latter of which required a robust p-ERK rebound. Generally, drug withdrawal-induced p-ERK rebound up-regulated p38-FRA1-JUNB-CDKN1A and down-regulated proliferation, but only a robust p-ERK rebound resulted in DNA damage and parthanatos-related cell death...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#19
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#20
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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