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Luckson Dullie, Eivind Meland, Øystein Hetlevik, Thomas Mildestvedt, Sturla Gjesdal
BACKGROUND: Malawi does not have validated tools for assessing primary care performance from patients' experience. The aim of this study was to develop a Malawian version of Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT-Mw) and to evaluate its reliability and validity in the assessment of the core primary care dimensions from adult patients' perspective in Malawi. METHODS: A team of experts assessed the South African version of the primary care assessment tool (ZA-PCAT) for face and content validity...
May 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Chen Song, Maria Andrea Mroginski, Christina Lang, Jakub Kopycki, Wolfgang Gärtner, Jörg Matysik, Jon Hughes
We present structural information for oat phyA3 in the far-red-light-absorbing (Pfr) signaling state, to our knowledge the first three-dimensional (3D) information for a plant phytochrome as Pfr. Solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to detect interatomic contacts in the complete photosensory module [residues 1-595, including the NTE (N-terminal extension), PAS ( P er/ A rnt/ S im), GAF (c G MP phosphodiesterase/ a denylyl cyclase/ F hlA) and PHY ( phy tochrome-specific) domains but with the C-terminal PAS repeat and transmitter-like module deleted] auto-assembled in vitro with 13 C- and 15 N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shinichiro Kuroshima, Muneteru Sasaki, Kazunori Nakajima, Saki Tamaki, Hiroki Hayano, Takashi Sawase
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) worsens oral health-related quality of life. Most BRONJ occurs in multiple myeloma or metastatic breast cancer patients treated with bisphosphonate/chemotherapeutic combination therapies. Cyclophosphamide (CY), an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug, is used to treat multiple myeloma, although its use has been recently reduced. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of CY dose on tooth extraction socket healing when CY is used with or without bisphosphonate in mice...
May 2, 2018: Bone
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Sunil Misra
AIMS: Zoledronic acid (ZA), a FDA approved drug has used widely in the treatment of bone metastasis complications, has been linked to renal toxicity with unclear mechanism. The present study is aimed at investigating genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ZA in renal epithelial cells. MAIN METHODS: The genotoxic effect of ZA in Vero and MDCK cells determined by cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The cytotoxic effect assessed by analysing cell cycle profile, cell death and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using propidium iodide, AnnexinV-FITC/PI and JC1 dye staining, respectively, BAX and Bcl-2 expression by Western blotting and caspase activity by spectrofluorimetry...
May 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Qianhua Cao, Xingyu Chen, Xuebiao Wu, Ruocen Liao, Panpan Huang, Yanjia Tan, Li Wang, Guoping Ren, Jian Huang, Chenfang Dong
Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is associated with a poor clinical outcome as a result of the few treatment options and poor therapeutic response. Here, we report that elevated expression of urine diphosphate-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) specifically occurs in BLBC and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. UGT8 expression is transcriptionally up-regulated by Sox10, triggering the sulfatide biosynthetic pathway; increased sulfatide activates integrin αVβ5-mediated signaling that contributes to BLBC progression...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
C Cattò, G James, F Villa, S Villa, F Cappitelli
The active moieties of the anti-biofilm natural compounds zosteric (ZA) and salicylic (SA) acids have been covalently immobilized on a low density polyethylene (LDPE) surface. The grafting procedure provided new non-toxic eco-friendly materials (LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA) with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches and with features suitable for applications in challenging fields where the use of antimicrobial agents is limited. Microbiological investigation proved that LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA: (1) reduced Escherichia coli biofilm biomass by up to 61% with a mechanism that did not affect bacterial viability; (2) significantly affected biofilm morphology, decreasing biofilm thickness, roughness, substratum coverage, cell and matrix polysaccharide bio-volumes by >80% and increasing the surface to bio-volume ratio; (3) made the biofilm more susceptible to ampicillin and ethanol...
May 4, 2018: Biofouling
Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Krzysztof Skowron, Agata Śniegowska, Jana Przekwas, Maciej Balcerek, Daniel Załuski, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Alcoholic propolis extracts may be used to eliminate microbes in mucous membranes and skin inflammations and in wound infections. The aim of this study was an assessment of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) activity against biofilm formation by P. mirabilis. Six clinical strains of P. mirabilis isolated from patients with chronic wound infection, and one reference strain of P. mirabilis ATCC 29906 were used. Biofilm was formed in 96-well plate. In order to evaluate the effect of EEP at a concentration range of 1...
May 4, 2018: Natural Product Research
Frederick Johannes Clasen, Rian Ewald Pierneef, Bernard Slippers, Oleg Reva
BACKGROUND: Genomic islands (GIs) are inserts of foreign DNA that have potentially arisen through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). There are evidences that GIs can contribute significantly to the evolution of prokaryotes. The acquisition of GIs through HGT in eukaryotes has, however, been largely unexplored. In this study, the previously developed GI prediction tool, SeqWord Gene Island Sniffer (SWGIS), is modified to predict GIs in eukaryotic chromosomes. Artificial simulations are used to estimate ratios of predicting false positive and false negative GIs by inserting GIs into different test chromosomes and performing the SWGIS v2...
May 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Laura Cesini, Agostina Siniscalchi, Sara Grammatico, Alessandro Andriani, Alessia Fiorini, Luca De Rosa, Tommaso Za, Angela Rago, Tommaso Caravita, Maria Teresa Petrucci
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of Cyclophosphamide in relapsed-refractory Multiple Myeloma patients (RRMM) who experienced biochemical relapse or progression without CRAB, during treatment with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone (Rd), to slow down the progression in active relapse. METHODS: This analysis included 31 patients with RRMM treated with Rd who received cyclophosphamide (CRd) at biochemical relapse. The CRd regimen was continued until disease progression...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Marianna De Colli, Paolo Tortorella, Mariangela Agamennone, Cristina Campestre, Fulvio Loiodice, Amelia Cataldi, Susi Zara
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by anaerobic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated persistent inflammation is responsible for an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, resulting in periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of the present study was to investigate synthesized bisphosphonic MMP inhibitors, in an in vitro model consisting of human gingival fibroblasts exposed to LPS, and to compare the biological responses to those induced by zoledronate (ZA), a commercial bisphosphonate...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Daniel Załuski, Rafał Kuźniewski, Zbigniew Janeczko
Human body is constantly generating free radicals, which causes oxidative stress. Despite naturally occurring antioxidant systems in human body, free radicals cause lipid, proteins and DNA oxidation. New antioxidants are still urgent as well as their mechanisms of action should be explained. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which eleutherosides B, E and E1 may act as antioxidants, identified eleutherosides in Eleutherococcus lasiogyne and Eleutherococcus giraldii , and explained in vitro the absorption of eleutheroside E1 based on passive transport...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
David James Jackson Muckart, Timothy Craig Hardcastle, David Lee Skinner
PURPOSE: Pneumomediastinum is the hallmark of intrathoracic aerodigestive trauma, but rare following blunt injury. AIM: review of blunt thoracic trauma (BTC) for the incidence and outcome of patients with pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium (PM/PC) on Computerised Tomographic scanning. METHODS: Admissions to the level I trauma ICU at IALCH, Durban, ZA following BTC from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with Chest-CT-scan were analysed...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Gabriel Costa de Andrade, João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, André Maia, Michel Eid Farah, Carsten H Meyer, Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (IVI-ZA) (Zaltrap; Sanofi-Aventis and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) during a period of 48 weeks in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with DME were enrolled and submitted to 12 consecutive IVI-ZA with a 4-week interval. The safety parameters included changes in full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and systemic or ocular complications, and the efficacy parameters were the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT)...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Franck Pichaud
The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ramakrishna Dasari, Sunil Misra
This study mainly focuses on the cytogenetic toxicity induction by zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen containing bisphosphonate (N-BPs) in the male germline cells of Swiss albino mice. A single intraperitoneal exposure with three different doses of ZA (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight), toxicity was assessed by analyzing spermatogonial metaphase chromosome aberrations at 24 h, aberrant primary spermatocytes at week 4, and abnormal spermatozoa at week 8 posttreatment. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg) and 0.9% NaCl were used as positive and vehicle controls respectively in the study...
April 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mariana Quirino Silveira Soares, Jeroen Van Dessel, Reinhilde Jacobs, Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos, Tania Mary Cestari, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Thaís Sumie Nozu Imada, Ivo Lambrichts, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess the effect of a relevant regimen of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment for the study of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw on alveolar bone microstructure and vasculature. A sub-objective was to use 3-dimensional imaging to describe site-specific changes induced by ZA in the alveolar bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Wistar rats received ZA (0.6 mg/kg) and five (controls) received saline solution in the same volume. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally in 5 doses every 28 days...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Nagakumar Bharatham, Peter J Slavish, Brandon M Young, Anang A Shelat
The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) family of proteins are involved in the regulation of gene transcription, and their dysregulation is implicated in several diseases including cancer. BET proteins contain two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2) that independently recognize acetylated-lysine residues and appear to have distinct biological roles. We compared several published co-crystal structures and found five positions near the substrate binding pocket that vary between BET bromodomains. One position located in the ZA loop has unique properties...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Pramod S Sankar, S A Thilak, P Nayak, J P Tripathy, B Satheesan, A V Rajitha
Purpose: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare but complicated side effect of antiresorptive medications. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dental and drug-related factors related to ONJ among patients on these drugs at a tertiary cancer center, India. Methodology: A retrospective record review of patients who received antiresorptive medication at our center from 2011 to 2014 was done. The demographic factors, type, dosage, and duration of the medication and dental history were collected, and the data were entered an analyzed using Epidata software...
January 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
İbrahim Unal Sert, Ozcan Kilic, Murat Akand, Lutfi Saglik, Mustafa Cihat Avunduk, Esra Erdemli
Introduction: Bisphosphonates are widely used in metastatic cancer such as prostate and breast cancer, and their nephrotoxic effects have been established previously. In this study we aimed to evaluate both the nephrotoxic effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) and the protective effects of vitamin E (Vit-E) on this process under light and electron microscopy. Material and methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group constituted the control group...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Tomoko Higuchi, Yoshihiko Soga, Misato Muro, Makoto Kajizono, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Toshiaki Sendo, Akira Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: Intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA) is often replaced with subcutaneous denosumab in patients with bone metastatic cancer. Despite their different pharmacologic mechanisms of action, both denosumab and ZA are effective in bone metastasis but cause osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) as a side effect. ZA persists in the body almost indefinitely, whereas denosumab does not persist for long periods. This study evaluated the risks of developing ONJ when replacing ZA with denosumab. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 161 Japanese patients administered ZA for bone metastatic cancer were enrolled in this single-center, retrospective, observational study...
March 6, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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