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Dusan Kolar
Treatment-resistant mood disorders and anxiety disorders require intensive treatment, but treatment options should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects on patients, including the risk of developing prescription medication addiction. Some of the newer treatment modalities for mood and anxiety disorders may have similar properties to benzodiazepines. The goal of this review was to identify the potential for developing dependence on the novel treatment approaches to treatment-resistant depression and refractory anxiety disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jesse J DiCello, Ayame Saito, Pradeep Rajasekhar, Emily M Eriksson, Rachel M McQuade, Cameron J Nowell, Benjamin W Sebastian, Jakub Fichna, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Meritxell Canals, Nigel W Bunnett, Simona Elisa Carbone, Daniel P Poole
Endogenous opioids activate opioid receptors (ORs) in the enteric nervous system to control intestinal motility and secretion. The mu OR mediates the deleterious side effects of opioid analgesics, including constipation, respiratory depression and addiction. Although the delta OR (DOR) is a promising target for analgesia, the function and regulation of DOR in the colon are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that endogenous opioids activate DOR in myenteric neurons which may regulate colonic motility...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Robert Ross MacLean, Andrew J Waters, Emily Brede, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVE: Drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission have demonstrated promise treating addictive disorders. Galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, may reduce cigarette smoking in otherwise healthy treatment-seeking smokers. METHODS: The current study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, study that randomized daily smokers (n = 60) to receive one of two doses of galantamine extended release (8 or 16 mg/day), or a placebo treatment. Participants completed a smoking choice task as well as study measures and cognitive tasks in the laboratory and daily life using ecological momentary assessment...
June 21, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The study and use of punishment in behavioral treatments has been constrained by ethical concerns. However, there remains a need to reduce harmful behavior unable to be reduced by differential-reinforcement procedures. We investigated whether response-contingent presentation of a negative discriminative stimulus previously correlated with an absence of reinforcers would punish behavior maintained by positive reinforcers. Across four conditions, pigeons were trained to discriminate between a positive discriminative stimulus (S+) signaling the presence of food, and a negative discriminative stimulus (S-) signaling the absence of food...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Shuzhi Zhao, Yangding Li, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoqi Lu, Dahua Yu, Likun Yang, Kai Yuan
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM)...
June 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Victor M Karpyak, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular changes in cortical areas of addicted brain may underlie cognitive impairment and loss of control over intake of addictive substances and alcohol. Prodynorphin (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin (DYNs) opioid peptides which target kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). DYNs mediate alcohol-induced impairment of learning and memory, while KOR antagonists block excessive, compulsive-like drug and alcohol self-administration in animal models. In human brain, the DYN/KOR system may undergo adaptive changes, which along with neuronal loss, may contribute to alcohol-associated cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Youwei Zhu, Haifeng Jiang, Hang Su, Na Zhong, Runji Li, Xiaotong Li, Tianzhen Chen, Haoye Tan, Jiang Du, Ding Xu, Huan Yan, Dawen Xu, Min Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been found to improve cognitive deficits and impulse control problems in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, there is limited research regarding this therapy's feasibility when using mobile-based health technologies in supporting recovery from MUD in China. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to test whether 4 weeks of a newly designed computerized cognitive addiction therapy (CCAT) app can improve cognitive impairments, eliminate drug-related attention bias, and attenuate risk decision-making behaviors in participants with MUD...
June 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
David Kotz, Sarah E Lord, A James O'Malley, Luke Stark, Lisa A Marsch
Wearable and portable digital devices can support self-monitoring for patients with chronic medical conditions, individuals seeking to reduce stress, and people seeking to modify health-related behaviors such as substance use or overeating. The resulting data may be used directly by a consumer, or shared with a clinician for treatment, a caregiver for assistance, or a health coach for support. The data can also be used by researchers to develop and evaluate just-in-time interventions that leverage mobile technology to help individuals manage their symptoms and behavior in real time and as needed...
June 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Johannes Maximilian Just, Linda Bingener, Markus Bleckwenn, Rieke Schnakenberg, Klaus Weckbecker
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve treatment of pain using opioids have to adequately take into account their therapeutic shortcomings which involve addictiveness. While there are no signs of an "opioid epidemic" in Germany similar to that in the US, there is little data on the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse and addiction. Therefore, our objective was to screen primary care patients on long-term opioid therapy for signs of misuse of prescription opioids. METHODS: We recruited 15 GPs practices and asked all patients on long-term opioid therapy (> 6 months) to fill out a questionnaire including the "Current Opioid Misuse Measure" (COMM®), a self-report questionnaire...
June 20, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Mark D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Claire E Kendall, Esther Susanna Shoemaker, Lisa Boucher, Danielle E Rolfe, Lois Crowe, Marissa Becker, Shabnam Asghari, Sean B Rourke, Ron Rosenes, Christine Bibeau, Philip Lundrigan, Clare Liddy
HIV treatment in Canada has rapidly progressed with the advent of new drug therapies and approaches to care. With this evolution, there is increasing interest in Canada in understanding the current delivery of HIV care, specifically where care is delivered, how, and by whom, to inform the design of care models required to meet the evolving needs of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian care settings identified as delivering HIV care between June 2015 and January 2016. Given known potential differences in delivery approaches, we stratified settings as primary care or specialist settings, and described their structure, geographic location, populations served, health human resources, technological resources, and available clinical services...
2018: PloS One
Shouquan Wu, Weiwei Huang, Dan Wang, Yu Wang, Minggui Wang, Miaomiao Zhang, Jian-Qing He
Previous studies indicated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes coding for toll-like receptors (TLRs) and toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study was designed to investigate potential associations between the polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4, and TOLLIP and susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or subsequent PTB in a Chinese Han population. A total of 209 PTB and 201 LTBI patients and 204 healthy control subjects (HCS) were enrolled in our study...
June 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Suzanne E Decker, Kristen P Morie, Bo Malin-Mayo, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for substance use disorder is empirically supported, and may be associated with change in affect over time. OBJECTIVES: Understanding the role of affect in cocaine use disorder could help to improve CBT outcomes. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 140 adults with cocaine use disorder, 57.9% female, drawn from two randomized controlled studies of web-based cognitive-behavior therapy who completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) before and during treatment...
June 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
C Holly A Andrilla, Tessa E Moore, Davis G Patterson, Eric H Larson
PURPOSE: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substantial public health problem. Buprenorphine is an effective medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for OUD, but access is difficult for patients, especially in rural locations. To improve access, the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 extended the ability to get a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) waiver to prescribe buprenorphine to treat OUD to nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs). This study summarizes the geographic distribution of waivered physicians, NPs, and PAs at the end of 2017 and compares it to the distribution of waivered physicians 5 years earlier...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Ahmed Elkashef, James Robert Brašić, Louis R Cantelina, Roberta Kahn, Nora Chiang, Weiguo Ye, Yun Zhou, Jurij Mojsiak, Kimberly R Warren, Andrew Crabb, John Hilton, Dean F Wong, Frank Vocci
AIMS: RPR 102681, a cholecystokinin-B antagonist, increased dopamine (DA) release and reduced cocaine self-administration in animals. This pilot study sought to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of co-administration of RPR 102681 and cocaine, and to confirm the DA release mechanism of RPR 102681. METHODS: Sixteen cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to either placebo or RPR102681 at 3 ascending doses; cocaine was co-administered at steady state of RPR 102681...
June 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jeffrey G Snodgrass, H J François Dengah Ii, Michael G Lacy, Robert J Else, Evan R Polzer, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steven W Cole
OBJECTIVES: To combine social genomics with cultural approaches to expand understandings of the somatic health dynamics of online gaming, including in the controversial nosological construct of internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: In blood samples from 56 U.S. gamers, we examined expression of the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), a leukocyte gene expression profile activated by chronic stress. We compared positively engaged and problem gamers, as identified by an ethnographically developed measure, the Positive and Negative Gaming Experiences Scale (PNGE-42), and also by a clinically derived IGD scale (IGDS-SF9)...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Jumi Hayaki, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unprotected sex has been linked independently to alcohol and marijuana use, but few studies have examined associations with dual use or gender differences in these associations. METHODS: This study examined day-level associations between unprotected sex, defined as condomless vaginal sex with an opposite-sex partner, and use of alcohol, marijuana, neither, or both substances among 290 young adults (18-25 years, 52.3% female) who reported either alcohol or marijuana use...
June 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Lisa Franzén, Matilda Bäckberg, Olof Beck, Anders Helander
INTRODUCTION: Many new psychoactive substances (NPS) introduced as recreational drugs have been associated with severe intoxication and death. METHODS: Blood and/or urine samples were collected from intoxicated patients treated at Swedish hospitals that participated in the STRIDA project, a nationawide effort to address the growing problem of NPS. In patients undergoing evaluation for drug overdose, α-PBP was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Tim Ramczykowski, Christiane Kruppa, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Marcel Dudda
BACKGROUND: The role of illicit drug abuse in total joint arthroplasty is largely unknown and is likely underestimated. Patients with drug addictions often suffer from septic osteoarthritis or a necrosis of the femoral head. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the operative management and clinical outcome of total hip replacement in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. METHODS: This retrospective study included 15 patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse who underwent total hip arthroplasty...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Donna M Klingspohn
Indigenous women in Canada face a range of health and social issues including domestic violence. Indigenous women (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are six times more likely to be killed than non-Aboriginal women (Homicide in Canada, 2014; Miladinovic and Mulligan, 2015). Aboriginal women are 2.5 times more likely to be victims of violence than non-Aboriginal women (Robertson, 2010). These and other statistics highlight a significant difference in the level of violence experienced by Indigenous women to that experienced by women in the mainstream population in Canada...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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