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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058369/association-of-the-alcohol-dehydrogenase-gene-polymorphism-rs1789891-with-gray-matter-brain-volume-alcohol-consumption-alcohol-craving-and-relapse-risk
#1
Patrick Bach, Vagelis Zois, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Martina Kirsch, Sabine Hoffmann, Anne Jorde, Josef Frank, Katrin Charlet, Jens Treutlein, Anne Beck, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Marcella Rietschel, Falk Kiefer
Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058168/cognitive-deficits-in-executive-functions-and-decision-making-impairments-cluster-gambling-disorder-sub-types
#2
Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Iris Tolosa-Sola, Fernándo Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, Ana Beatriz Fagundo, María Lozano-Madrid, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Neus Aymamí, Indira Borrás-González, Jessica Sánchez-González, Marta Baño, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
To identify Gambling Disorder (GD) subtypes, in a population of men seeking treatment for GD, according to specific executive function domains (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition and working memory as well as decision making) which are usually impaired in addictive behaviors. A total of 145 males ranging from 18 to 65 years diagnosed with GD were included in this study. All participants completed: (a) a set of questionnaires to assess psychopathological symptoms, personality and impulsivity traits, and (b) a battery of neuropsychological measures to test different executive functioning domains...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058167/a-meta-analytical-synthesis-and-examination-of-pathological-and-problem-gambling-rates-and-associated-moderators-among-college-students-1987-2016
#3
Donald E Nowak
The problem of gambling addiction is especially noteworthy among college students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been three published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. The research presented is the largest and most comprehensive, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students worldwide exhibiting gambling pathology as assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and is the first to include estimates of sub-clinical problem gambling...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057722/excessive-bodybuilding-as-pathology-a-first-neurophysiological-classification
#4
Moritz Julian Maier, Florian Benedikt Haeussinger, Martin Hautzinger, Andreas Jochen Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVES: Excessive Bodybuilding as a pathological syndrome has been classified based on two different theories: Bodybuilding as dependency or as muscle dysmorphic disorder (MDD). This study is a first attempt to find psychophysiological data supporting one of these classifications. METHODS: 24 participants (bodybuilders vs. healthy controls) were presented with pictures of bodies, exercise equipment or general reward stimuli in a control or experimental condition, and were measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
October 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057665/medications-for-substance-use-disorders-sud-emerging-approaches
#5
Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Substance use disorders are a group of chronic relapsing disorders of the brain, which have massive public health and societal impact. In some disorders (e.g., heroin/prescription opioid addictions) approved medications have a major long-term benefit. For other substances (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis) there are no approved medications, and for alcohol there are approved treatments, which are not in wide usage. Approved treatments for tobacco use disorders are available, and novel medications are also under study...
October 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057579/orbitofrontal-gray-matter-deficits-as-marker-of-internet-gaming-disorder-converging-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-and-prospective-longitudinal-design
#6
Feng Zhou, Christian Montag, Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Martin Reuter, Bernd Weber, Peter Trautner, Keith M Kendrick, Sebastian Markett, Benjamin Becker
Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in individuals with excessive Internet use. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of these studies, it remains unknown whether the observed brain structural deficits preceded the onset of excessive Internet use...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057277/a-method-for-evaluating-cocaine-induced-social-preference-in-rats
#7
P M Dingess, M J Deters, R A Darling, E A Yarborough, T E Brown
Drug addicts are extremely sensitive to cues that predict drug availability and exposure to these cues can facilitate drug relapse. Cues vary in their nature but can include drug-associated paraphernalia, environmental contexts, and discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., advertisements). One cue that has recently been heavily investigated is that of social interaction. To date, it has been demonstrated that when cocaine is conditioned with social interaction, place preference for cocaine significantly increases, suggesting that the presence of social interaction during a drug-associated "high" enhances the magnitude of drug reward...
2017: Journal of Biological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057199/neural-correlates-of-social-influence-among-cannabis-users
#8
Jodi M Gilman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although peer influence is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of peer influence among cannabis users. The current review summarizes research on the neuroscience of social influence in cannabis users, with the goal of highlighting gaps in the literature and the need for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain regions underlying peer influence may function differently in cannabis users...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057191/small-town-america-s-despair-infected-substance-users-needing-outpatient-parenteral-therapy-and-risk-stratification
#9
Ulas M Camsari, Claudia R Libertin
Background  An active intravenous substance use disorder is often the primary cause of infectious diseases in this population of users and creates a barrier to successful parenteral antimicrobial management. The dilemma is compounded by dramatically limited resources in small US towns. Methods This retrospective review from January 2014 through July 2016 aimed to develop a risk stratification approach to aid rural healthcare providers in determining who among patients with addictive disorders could safely be discharged for outpatient antimicrobial therapy with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)...
August 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057032/decreased-drinking-and-alcoholics-anonymous-are-associated-with-different-dimensions-of-spirituality
#10
Amy R Krentzman, Stephen Strobbe, J Irene Harris, Jennifer M Jester, Elizabeth A R Robinson
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a spiritual program and involvement in it has been associated with increases in spirituality. Some who pursue recovery outside AA also use spirituality for support. Decreasing drinking without AA involvement might result in spiritual change, but this has not been explored in previous research. This study investigates drinking and AA behavior to determine their association with seven dimensions of subsequent spirituality. METHODS: A 30-month panel study recruited 364 individuals with alcohol dependence...
September 2017: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056984/housing-instability-and-concurrent-substance-use-and-mental-health-concerns-an-examination-of-canadian-youth
#11
Tayla Smith, Lisa Hawke, Gloria Chaim, Joanna Henderson
OBJECTIVE: Though previous research has identified the high burden of mental health and addiction (MHA) concerns among precariously housed youth, earlier studies have not examined differences in MHA concerns among housing insecure Canadian youth across sectors. This study examines this issue using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GAIN-SS) in a cross-sectoral sample of Canadian youth. METHOD: A total of 2605 youth ages 12 to 24 seeking services across sectors completed the GAIN-SS and a sociodemographic form...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056980/youth-mental-health-family-practice-and-knowledge-translation-video-games-about-psychosis-family-physicians-perspectives
#12
Manuela Ferrari, Archie Suzanne
OBJECTIVE: Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians' perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. METHOD: As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056433/perceptions-of-the-harm-and-addictiveness-of-conventional-cigarette-smoking-among-adolescent-e-cigarette-users
#13
Olusegun Owotomo, Julie Maslowsky, Alexandra Loukas
PURPOSE: Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056157/the-role-of-the-ghrelin-system-in-drug-addiction
#14
Lia J Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J Tunstall, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio
In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while the research on opioids and cannabis is scarce. In general, upregulation of the ghrelin system seems to enhance craving for drugs as well as substances use...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056156/dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-preclinical-models-of-alcohol-drug-and-food-addiction
#15
Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, Sara R Jones
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056155/corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-and-addictive-behaviors
#16
Marisa Roberto, Samantha R Spierling, Dean Kirson, Eric P Zorrilla
Drug addiction is a complex disorder that is characterized by compulsivity to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake of the drug, and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome in the absence of the drug. The transition from casual drug use to dependence is mediated by changes in reward and brain stress functions and has been linked to a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement. The recruitment of brain stress systems mediates the negative emotional state produced by dependence that drives drug seeking through negative reinforcement mechanisms, defined as the "dark side" of addiction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056153/oxytocin-tolerance-and-the-dark-side-of-addiction
#17
Cort A Pedersen
Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route, which produces some neuropeptide penetration into the CNS, potently blocked withdrawal and reduced alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056150/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-the-new-crf
#18
Jesse R Schank, Markus Heilig
Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R influences the activity of the brain stem emesis centers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056148/neuropeptides-and-addiction-an-introduction
#19
Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptides are short sequences of amino acids that are coexpressed with neurotransmitters and which are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. There is a large database of data pointing to critical roles for neuropeptides in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol and drugs of abuse. Continued alcohol and drug use promote allostatic alterations in neuropeptide systems, and these changes contribute to excessive and uncontrolled intake that emerges with dependence. The neuropeptides that are reviewed in this chapter represent some of the most well-studied targets in the current drug and alcohol abuse literature...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055971/luck-come-here-automatic-approach-tendencies-toward-gambling-cues-in-moderate-to-high-risk-gamblers
#20
Marilisa Boffo, Ruby Smits, Joshua P Salmon, Megan E Cowie, David T H A de Jong, Elske Salemink, Pam Collins, Sherry H Stewart, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate-to-high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was prospectively related to gambling behaviour and problems...
October 22, 2017: Addiction
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