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Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kang Zhan, MaoCheng Jiang, Xiaoxiao Gong, GuoQi Zhao
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fibers are utilized by intestinal epithelial cells to provide an energy source for the ruminant. Although the regulation of mRNA expression and inflammatory response involved in SCFAs is established in other animals and tissues, the underlying mechanisms of the inflammatory response by SCFAs in goat jejunum epithelial cells (GJECs) have not been understood. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of SCFAs on SCFA transporters and inflammatory response in GJECs...
March 12, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Tiphanie Cavé, Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Marc-André Brazeau, Guylain Boissonneault
In mammals, spermiogenesis is characterized by transient formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole population of haploid spermatids. DSB repair in such haploid context may represent a mutational transition. Using a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and specific labelling of DSBs at 3'OH DNA ends, we showed that post-meiotic, enzyme-induced DSBs are also observed in the synchronizable pat1-114 mutant of Shizosaccharomyces pombe as well as in a wild-type strain, while DNA repair is observed at later stages...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Tanvi Bhola, Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod
In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the regulatory network that controls the transition from mitosis to meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clément Charenton, Claudine Gaudon-Plesse, Zaineb Fourati, Valerio Taverniti, Régis Back, Olga Kolesnikova, Bertrand Séraphin, Marc Graille
The Pat1 protein is a central player of eukaryotic mRNA decay that has also been implicated in translational control. It is commonly considered a central platform responsible for the recruitment of several RNA decay factors. We demonstrate here that a yeast-specific C-terminal region from Pat1 interacts with several short motifs, named helical leucine-rich motifs (HLMs), spread in the long C-terminal region of yeast Dcp2 decapping enzyme. Structures of Pat1-HLM complexes reveal the basis for HLM recognition by Pat1...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carsten Uhd Nielsen, Maria Bjerg, Nithiya Ulaganathan, René Holm
Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10-997 mg/kg and 1-30 mg/kg for oral and intravenous administration, respectively. Oral absorption was measured in the presence of substrates for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, that is, 200 mg/kg proline (Pro) and sarcosine (Sar), and in the presence of 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) (200 mg/kg)...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bülow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Andreas Bornø, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Lars Holm
An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h of supine rest. After 2 1/2 h of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted (leg extensions, 10 sets of 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into groups that orally ingested 40 g of whey protein either as hourly drinks (4 g per drink) (PULSE, N = 10) or two boluses (28 g at 0 h and 12 g at 7 h) (BOLUS, N = 10), or hourly isocaloric maltodextrin drinks (placebo, N = 10)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
Yuyu Guo, Hongyu Wu, Xiang Li, Qi Li, Xinyan Zhao, Xueqing Duan, Yanrong An, Wei Lv, Hailong An
GRAS transcriptional factors have diverse functions in plant growth and development, and are named after the first three transcription factors, namely, GAI (GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE), RGA (REPRESSOR OF GAI) and SCR (SCARECROW) identified in this family. Knowledge of the GRAS gene family in maize remains was largely unknown, and their characterization is necessary to understand their importance in the maize life cycle. This study identified 86 GRAS genes in maize, and further characterized with phylogenetics, gene structural analysis, genomic loci, and expression patterns...
2017: PloS One
Kaifeng Yin, Michael L Paine
Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways...
August 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Caroline Vindry, Aline Marnef, Helen Broomhead, Laure Twyffels, Sevim Ozgur, Georg Stoecklin, Miriam Llorian, Christopher W Smith, Juan Mata, Dominique Weil, Nancy Standart
Pat1 RNA-binding proteins, enriched in processing bodies (P bodies), are key players in cytoplasmic 5' to 3' mRNA decay, activating decapping of mRNA in complex with the Lsm1-7 heptamer. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence approaches coupled with RNAi, we provide evidence for a nuclear complex of Pat1b with the Lsm2-8 heptamer, which binds to the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Furthermore, we establish the set of interactions connecting Pat1b/Lsm2-8/U6 snRNA/SART3 and additional U4/U6...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle that generates haploid gametes from diploid cells. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best model organisms for studying the regulatory mechanisms of meiosis. S. pombe cells, which normally grow in the haploid state, diploidize by conjugation and initiate meiosis when starved for nutrients, especially nitrogen. Following two rounds of chromosome segregation, spore formation takes place. The switch from mitosis to meiosis is controlled by a kinase, Pat1, and an RNA-binding protein, Mei2...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, initiation of meiosis is repressed by Pat1 kinase. This protocol describes how ectopic inactivation of the temperature-sensitive Pat1-114 kinase in G1-arrested h(-)/h(-) diploid cells carrying mat1-Pc induces a highly synchronized commitment to and execution of meiosis. Haploid or diploid pat1-114 mutants without mat1-Pc can also be used for convenience, although less synchrony may be attained compared with induction using true diploids. An essentially identical protocol can be used for induction via inhibition of genetically sensitized Pat1 kinase by ATP analogs...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Cameron J Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Kirsten Aasen, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The ileum is considered the primary site of inorganic sulfate ([Formula: see text]) absorption. In the present study, we explored the contributions of the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl-/[Formula: see text]) exchangers downregulated in adenoma (DRA; Slc26a3), and putative anion transporter 1 (PAT1; Slc26a6), to the underlying transport mechanism. Transepithelial 35[Formula: see text] and 36Cl- fluxes were determined across isolated, short-circuited segments of the distal ileum from wild-type (WT), DRA-knockout (KO), and PAT1-KO mice, together with measurements of urine and plasma sulfate...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Louise Weston, Jessica Greenwood, Paul Nurse
Cellular growth control is important for all living organisms, but experimental investigation into this problem is difficult because of the complex range of growth regulatory mechanisms. Here, we have used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to identify potential master regulators of growth. At the restrictive temperature, the S. pombe pat1(ts) mei4Δ strain enters the meiotic developmental program, but arrests in meiotic G2 phase as mei4(+) is essential for meiotic progression. These cells do not grow, even in an abundance of nutrients...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Jan Fritz, Benjamin Fritz, Jialu Zhang, Gaurav K Thawait, Dharmdev H Joshi, Li Pan, Dingxin Wang
PURPOSE: We prospectively quantified the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of integrated parallel acquisition technique (PAT) and simultaneous multislice (SMS) acceleration and various combinations thereof, and we further compared two 4-fold-accelerated (PAT2-SMS2) high-resolution turbo spin echo (TSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols of the knee against a clinical 2-fold-accelerated (PAT2-SMS1) TSE standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all subjects gave informed consent...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
Kirsten A Reimer, Martha R Stark, Lisbeth-Carolina Aguilar, Sierra R Stark, Robert D Burke, Jack Moore, Richard P Fahlman, Calvin K Yip, Haruko Kuroiwa, Marlene Oeffinger, Stephen D Rader
Proteins of the Sm and Sm-like (LSm) families, referred to collectively as (L)Sm proteins, are found in all three domains of life and are known to promote a variety of RNA processes such as base-pair formation, unwinding, RNA degradation, and RNA stabilization. In eukaryotes, (L)Sm proteins have been studied, inter alia, for their role in pre-mRNA splicing. In many organisms, the LSm proteins form two distinct complexes, one consisting of LSm1-7 that is involved in mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm, and the other consisting of LSm2-8 that binds spliceosomal U6 snRNA in the nucleus...
June 2017: RNA
Liuqin He, Niu Huang, Huan Li, Junquan Tian, Xihong Zhou, Tiejun Li, Kang Yao, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
Water and ion absorption via sensitive aquaporins (AQPs) and ion channels is of critical importance in intestinal health. However, whether α-ketoglutarate (AKG) could improve intestinal water and ion homeostasis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets and whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary AKG supplementation on the small intestinal water and ion homeostasis through modulating the AMPK pathway in a piglet diarrhea model...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bryan Saunders, Vitor DE Salles Painelli, Luana Farias DE Oliveira, Vinicius DA Eira Silva, Rafael Pires DA Silva, Luiz Riani, Mariana Franchi, Lívia DE Souza Gonçalves, Roger Charles Harris, Hamilton Roschel, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Craig Sale, Bruno Gualano
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle carnosine content can be increased through β-alanine (BA) supplementation, but the maximum increase achievable with supplementation is unknown. No study has investigated the effects of prolonged supplementation on carnosine-related genes or exercise capacity. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 24 wk of BA supplementation on muscle carnosine content, gene expression, and high-intensity cycling capacity (CCT110%)...
May 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Chun-Yu Wang, Yi-Ting Wang, Wan-Yi Hsiao, Shao-Win Wang
In this study we identified Pdc2, the fission yeast ortholog of human Pat1b protein, which forms a complex with Lsm1-7 and plays a role in coupling deadenylation and decapping. The involvement of Pdc2 in RNA degradation and P-body function was also determined. We found that Pdc2 interacts with Dcp2 and is required for decapping in vivo. Although not absolutely essential for P-body assembly, overexpression of Pdc2 enhanced P-body formation even in the absence of Pdc1, the fission yeast functional homolog of human Edc4 protein, indicating that Pdc2 also plays a role in P-body formation...
April 2017: RNA
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