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Jan Fritz, Benjamin Fritz, Jialu Zhang, Gaurav K Thawait, Dharmdev H Joshi, Li Pan, Dingxin Wang
PURPOSE: We prospectively quantified the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of integrated parallel acquisition technique (PAT) and simultaneous multislice (SMS) acceleration and various combinations thereof, and we further compared two 4-fold-accelerated (PAT2-SMS2) high-resolution turbo spin echo (TSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols of the knee against a clinical 2-fold-accelerated (PAT2-SMS1) TSE standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all subjects gave informed consent...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
Kirsten A Reimer, Martha R Stark, Lisbeth Carolina Aguilar, Sierra R Stark, Robert D Burke, Jack Moore, Richard P Fahlman, Calvin K Yip, Haruko Kuroiwa, Marlene Oeffinger, Stephen D Rader
Proteins of the Sm and Sm-like (LSm) families, referred to collectively as (L)Sm proteins, are found in all three domains of life, and are known to promote a variety of RNA processes such as base-pair formation, unwinding, RNA degradation, and RNA stabilization. In eukaryotes, (L)Sm proteins have been studied, inter alia, for their role in pre-mRNA splicing. In many organisms, the LSm proteins form two distinct complexes, one consisting of LSm1-7 that is involved in mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm, and the other consisting of LSm2-8 that binds spliceosomal U6 snRNA in the nucleus...
March 21, 2017: RNA
Liuqin He, Niu Huang, Huan Li, Junquan Tian, Xihong Zhou, Tiejun Li, Kang Yao, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
Water and ion absorption via sensitive aquaporins (AQPs) and ion channels is of critical importance in intestinal health. However, whether α-ketoglutarate (AKG) could improve intestinal water and ion homeostasis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets and whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary AKG supplementation on the small intestinal water and ion homeostasis through modulating the AMPK pathway in a piglet diarrhea model...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bryan Saunders, Vitor DE Salles Painelli, Luana Farias DE Oliveira, Vinicius DA Eira Silva, Rafael Pires DA Silva, Luiz Riani, Mariana Franchi, Lívia DE Souza Gonçalves, Roger Charles Harris, Hamilton Roschel, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Craig Sale, Bruno Gualano
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle carnosine content can be increased through β-alanine (BA) supplementation, but the maximum increase achievable with supplementation is unknown. No study has investigated the effects of prolonged supplementation on carnosine-related genes or exercise capacity. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 24 wk of BA supplementation on muscle carnosine content, gene expression, and high-intensity cycling capacity (CCT110%)...
May 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Chun-Yu Wang, Yi-Ting Wang, Wan-Yi Hsiao, Shao-Win Wang
In this study we identified Pdc2, the fission yeast ortholog of human Pat1b protein, which forms a complex with Lsm1-7 and plays a role in coupling deadenylation and decapping. The involvement of Pdc2 in RNA degradation and P-body function was also determined. We found that Pdc2 interacts with Dcp2 and is required for decapping in vivo. Although not absolutely essential for P-body assembly, overexpression of Pdc2 enhanced P-body formation even in the absence of Pdc1, the fission yeast functional homolog of human Edc4 protein, indicating that Pdc2 also plays a role in P-body formation...
April 2017: RNA
Jefri Heyman, Toon Cools, Balkan Canher, Sviatlana Shavialenka, Jan Traas, Ilse Vercauteren, Hilde Van den Daele, Geert Persiau, Geert De Jaeger, Keiko Sugimoto, Lieven De Veylder
Regeneration of a tissue damaged by injury represents a physiological response for organ recovery(1-3). Although this regeneration process is conserved across multicellular taxa, plants appear to display extremely high regenerative capacities, a feature widely used in tissue culture for clonal propagation and grafting(4,5). Regenerated cells arise predominantly from pre-existing populations of division-competent cells(6,7); however, the mechanisms by which these cells are triggered to divide in response to injury remain largely elusive(8)...
October 31, 2016: Nature Plants
Hua-Ying Fu, Sheng-Ren Sun, Jin-Da Wang, Kashif Ahmad, Heng-Bo Wang, Ru-Kai Chen, San-Ji Gao
Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx). A TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was established in this study for the quantification of Lxx detection in sugarcane stalk juice. A pair of PCR primers (Pat1-QF/Pat1-QR) and a fluorogenic probe (Pat1-QP) targeting the Part1 gene of Lxx were used for the qPCR assay...
2016: BioMed Research International
C J Yang, G Y Li, Y L Cui
The transcriptomes of salt-stressed and unstressed Betula kirghisorum plants were analyzed using high throughput sequencing technology. A total of 52,239,804 and 51,772,998 clean reads were obtained from the two libraries, respectively, and de novo assembled into 60,545 all-unigenes. A total of 39,997 unigenes were annotated using public databases. Overall, 7206 genes were differentially expressed in unigenes and were involved in 127 pathways. Thirteen transcription factor families were identified in B. kirghisorum, including GRAS proteins, which are plant-specific transcription factors...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Clément Charenton, Valerio Taverniti, Claudine Gaudon-Plesse, Régis Back, Bertrand Séraphin, Marc Graille
Elimination of the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNAs, known as decapping, is considered to be a crucial, irreversible and highly regulated step required for the rapid degradation of mRNA by Xrn1, the major cytoplasmic 5'-3' exonuclease. Decapping is accomplished by the recruitment of a protein complex formed by the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its Dcp1 cofactor. However, this complex has a low intrinsic enzymatic activity and requires several accessory proteins such as the Lsm1-7 complex, Pat1, Edc1-Edc2 and/or Edc3 to be fully active...
October 3, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Liufeng Zheng, Wei Zhang, Yuanfei Zhou, Fengna Li, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the central regulator of mammalian cell growth, and is essential for the formation of two structurally and functionally distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 can sense multiple cues such as nutrients, energy status, growth factors and hormones to control cell growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, autophagy, and metabolism. As one of the key environmental stimuli, amino acids (AAs), especially leucine, glutamine and arginine, play a crucial role in mTORC1 activation, but where and how AAs are sensed and signal to mTORC1 are not fully understood...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yu Wang, Shenglu Shi, Ying Zhou, Yu Zhou, Jie Yang, Xiaoqing Tang
The GRAS gene family is one of the most important plant-specific gene families, which encodes transcriptional regulators and plays an essential role in plant development and physiological processes. The GRAS gene family has been well characterized in many higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and tobacco. In this study, we identified 38 GRAS genes in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), analyzed their physical and chemical characteristics and performed phylogenetic analysis using the GRAS genes from eight representative plant species to show the evolution of GRAS genes in Planta...
2016: PeerJ
Ashis Chowdhury, Swathi Kalurupalle, Sundaresan Tharun
The Sm-like proteins (also known as Lsm proteins) are ubiquitous in nature and exist as hexa or heptameric RNA binding complexes. They are characterized by the presence of the Sm-domain. The Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes and they form a hetero-octameric complex together with the protein Pat1. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex plays a key role in mRNA decapping and 3'-end protection and therefore is required for normal mRNA decay rates in vivo. Lsm1 is a key subunit that is critical for the unique RNA binding properties of this complex...
2016: PloS One
Jan Philip Wurm, Jan Overbeck, Remco Sprangers
The removal of the 5' 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap structure (decapping) is a central step in the 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway and is performed by the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex. The activity of this complex is tightly regulated to prevent premature degradation of the transcript. Here, we establish that the aromatic groove of the EVH1 domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dcp1 can interact with proline-rich sequences in the exonuclease Xrn1, the scaffolding protein Pat1, the helicase Dhh1, and the C-terminal disordered region of Dcp2...
September 2016: RNA
Xiaochun Wu, Lingling Zhao, Zhi Chen, Xin Ji, Xianfeng Qiao, Yaping Jin, Wei Liu
The intracellular amino acid pool within lysosome is a signal that stimulates the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signalling pathway. The signal transduction cascade has garnered much attention, but little is known about the sequestration of the signalling molecules within the lysosome. Using human HEK293 cells as a model, we found that suppression of the BHD syndrome gene FLCN reduced the leucine level in lysosome, which correlated with decreased mTORC1 activity. Both consequences could be reversed by supplementation with high levels of leucine, but not other tested amino acids...
2016: PloS One
Mridula Muppavarapu, Susanne Huch, Tracy Nissan
Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates...
2016: RNA Biology
Yangyang Yuan, Linchuan Fang, Sospeter Karanja Karungo, Langlang Zhang, Yingying Gao, Shaohua Li, Haiping Xin
VaPAT1 functions as a stress-inducible GRAS gene and enhanced cold, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis via modulation of the expression of a series of stress-related genes. The plant-specific GRAS transcription factor family regulates diverse processes involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. In this study, VaPAT1, a GRAS gene from Vitis amurensis was isolated and functionally characterized. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that VaPAT1 has a high sequence identity to CmsGRAS and OsCIGR1, which belong to PAT1 branch of GRAS family and function in stress resistance...
March 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Sevim Ozgur, Jérôme Basquin, Anastasiia Kamenska, Witold Filipowicz, Nancy Standart, Elena Conti
The DEAD-box protein DDX6 is a central component of translational repression mechanisms in maternal mRNA storage in oocytes and microRNA-mediated silencing in somatic cells. DDX6 interacts with the CCR4-NOT complex and functions in concert with several post-transcriptional regulators, including Edc3, Pat1, and 4E-T. We show that the conserved CUP-homology domain (CHD) of human 4E-T interacts directly with DDX6 in both the presence and absence of the central MIF4G domain of CNOT1. The 2.1-Å resolution structure of the corresponding ternary complex reveals how 4E-T CHD wraps around the RecA2 domain of DDX6 and contacts CNOT1...
October 27, 2015: Cell Reports
Christian A Shively, Hye Kyong Kweon, Kaitlyn L Norman, Dattatreya Mellacheruvu, Tao Xu, Daniel T Sheidy, Craig J Dobry, Ivan Sabath, Eric E P Cosky, Elizabeth J Tran, Alexey Nesvizhskii, Philip C Andrews, Anuj Kumar
Yeast pseudohyphal filamentation is a stress-responsive growth transition relevant to processes required for virulence in pathogenic fungi. Pseudohyphal growth is controlled through a regulatory network encompassing conserved MAPK (Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Kss1p, and Fus3p), protein kinase A (Tpk2p), Elm1p, and Snf1p kinase pathways; however, the scope of these pathways is not fully understood. Here, we implemented quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify each of these signaling networks, generating a kinase-dead mutant in filamentous S...
October 2015: PLoS Genetics
Yehua Xie, Yongjun Hu, David E Smith
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been widely used in photodynamic therapy and immunofluorescence of tumours. In the present study, the intestinal permeability and oral pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA were evaluated to probe the contribution of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) to the oral absorption and systemic exposure of this substrate. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In situ single-pass intestinal perfusions and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed in wildtype and Pept1 knockout mice...
January 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sarine Sebastian Karot, Vasantharaju Gowdra Surenahalli, Anoop Kishore, Jayesh Mudgal, Krishnadas Nandakumar, Magith Thambi Chirayil, Geetha Mathew, Gopalan Kutty Nampurath
BACKGROUND: The replacement of the thiazolidinedione moiety with a thiazolidinone may yield antidiabetic compounds with similar pleiotropic effects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the dose-related antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of two synthesized novel thiazolidin-4-one derivatives, one with a nicotinamide and the other with a p-chlorophenoxyacetamide substitution at the N3 position of the thiazolidinone ring (NAT1 and PAT1, respectively), in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
September 2016: Journal of Diabetes
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