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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205337/prevention-of-the-development-of-problem-behavior-a-laboratory-model
#1
Tara A Fahmie, Anne C Macaskill, Ellie Kazemi, Uilani C Elmer
Few studies have isolated the preventive efficacy of common behavioral strategies like noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a laboratory model of these two problem behavior prevention strategies. Undergraduate students participated in a computer simulation, in which clicks to a designated area of the computer screen were analogous to the emergence of problem behavior. The responding of participants in a control group, who experienced a percentile schedule used to mimic the shaping of problem behavior, was compared to that of participants in two experimental groups, each with a history of either DRA or NCR...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201661/occurrence-of-clostridium-perfringens-in-sausages-sold-in-meknes-city-morocco
#2
Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Abdellah El Allaoui, Anis Sfendla
In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different factors affecting it contamination with this bacterium. To this end, 156 samples of sausages were taken in various shopping sites during one year from March 2014 to February 2015. The microbiological analysis was carried out using the specific medium for isolation and identification of C...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199960/update-on-the-genetic-basis-of-drug-hypersensitivity-reactions
#3
REVIEW
R Jurado-Escobar, J R Perkins, E García-Martín, M Isidoro-García, I Doña, M J Torres, J A Cornejo-García
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are unpredictable, complex responses to medicines in predisposed individuals. They represent a major health problem owing to the number of patients affected and the severity of the clinical conditions they can induce. In addition to environmental factors, the underlying mechanisms of DHRs are also influenced by genetic factors, although considerable gaps remain in our knowledge. Therefore, further study of the genetics of DHRs is necessary to shed light on their underlying mechanisms...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195217/effects-of-posture-and-anatomical-location-on-inter-recti-distance-measured-using-ultrasound-imaging-in-parous-women
#4
S Gillard, C G Ryan, M Stokes, M Warner, J Dixon
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional repeated measures. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of posture and measurement site on the inter-recti distance (IRD) and investigate the reliability of IRD measurement using ultrasound imaging in different postures. BACKGROUND: The linea alba connects the rectus abdominis muscles anteriorly and the width is known as the IRD. The IRD is usually measured in crook-lying and is the primary outcome measure to assess for a divarication of recti abdominis (DRA)...
November 22, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156840/association-between-cyp2e1-genetic-polymorphisms-and-urinary-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis
#5
Zhiqing Fang, Yun Wu, Ning Zhang
Objective: Studies investigating the contribution of Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) polymorphisms to the etiology of urinary cancer draw inconsistent conclusions. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I and Dra I polymorphisms and urinary cancer susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis based on the eligible case-control studies that assess the association of CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I and Dra I polymorphisms with urinary cancer was conducted...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104321/the-role-of-contingencies-and-stimuli-in-a-human-laboratory-model-of-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#6
William V Dube, Brooks Thompson, Marcelo V Silveira, John A Nevin
Behavioral momentum theory posits a paradoxical implication for behavioral interventions in clinical situations using Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): When alternative reinforcers are presented within the same context as the problem behavior, the added reinforcers may decrease the frequency of the behavior but also increase its persistence when the intervention ends. Providing alternative reinforcers in a setting that is distinctively different from that in which the target behavior occurs may avoid or reduce this increase in persistence...
December 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093719/interaction-of-thp-1-monocytes-with-conidia-and-hyphae-of-different-curvularia-strains
#7
Eszter Judit Tóth, Éva Boros, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csilla Szebenyi, Mónika Homa, Gábor Nagy, Csaba Vágvölgyi, István Nagy, Tamás Papp
Interaction of the human monocytic cell line, THP-1 with clinical isolates of three Curvularia species were examined. Members of this filamentous fungal genus can cause deep mycoses emerging in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It was found that monocytes reacted only to the hyphal form of Curvularia lunata. Cells attached to the germ tubes and hyphae and production of elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 and a low level of TNF-α were measured. At the same time, monocytes failed to produce IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055777/characterization-of-classical-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-class-ii-genes-in-northern-pig-tailed-macaques-macaca-leonina
#8
Xiao-Dong Lian, Xi-He Zhang, Zheng-Xi Dai, Yong-Tang Zheng
The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. The species is a promising animal model for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to susceptibility to HIV-1. However, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics in northern pig-tailed macaques remains poorly understood. We have previously studied the MHC class I genes in northern pig-tailed macaques and identified 39 novel alleles. Here, we describe the MHC class II alleles in all six classical loci (DPA, DPB, DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB) from northern pig-tailed macaques using a sequence-based typing method for the first time...
October 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047519/dbpsk-and-dqpsk-crosstalk-in-single-span-wdm-systems-using-dra
#9
Emadeldeen Morsy, Heba A Fayed, Ahmed Abd El-Aziz, Moustafa H Aly
A closed-loop formula is derived for the nonlinear crosstalk degradation due to self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation in a wavelength-division multiplexing system. The crosstalk is investigated in differential binary phase-shift keying (DBPSK) and differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) schemes. The system under consideration is standard single-mode fiber with a single-span distributed Raman amplifier. The backward DBPSK shows a better performance with minimum crosstalk performance of 71%, as compared to backward DQPSK...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993279/anti-scorpion-venom-activity-of-thapsia-garganica-methanolic-extract-histopathological-and-biochemical-evidences
#10
Btissam Bouimeja, Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan, Oulaid Touloun, Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Loubna Ait Dra, Noureddine El Khoudri, Abderrahman Chait, Ali Boumezzough
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thapsia garganica, is a herbal medicine traditionally used as diuretic, emetic and purgative. It is also used as anti-scorpion venom in Morocco; however, its protective effects against scorpion venom remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-venom activity of T. garganica in vivo through histological and biochemical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanolic leaves extract of T...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991483/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-nanomedicine-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Dulari Jayawardena, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Grace Guzman, Pradeep K Dudeja, Hayat Onyuksel
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disorder of the intestine, with increasing incidence worldwide. At present, the management of IBD is an unmet medical need due to the ineffectiveness of currently available drugs in treating all patients, and there is strong demand for novel therapeutics. In this regard, vasoactive intestinal peptide, a potent anti-inflammatory endogenous hormone, has shown promise in managing multiple immune disorders in animal models. However, when administered in the free form, VIP undergoes rapid degradation in vivo, and with continuous infusion, it causes severe dose limiting side effects...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960840/selection-of-dna-aptamer-that-blocks-the-fibrillogenesis-of-a-proteolytic-amyloidogenic-fragment-of-%C3%AE-2-m
#12
Kanon Fukasawa, Yuichiro Higashimoto, Yukio Ando, Yoshihiro Motomiya
Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) is a severe complication of hemodialysis that results in progressive destruction of bones and joints. Elevated concentrations of the β2 -microglobulin (β2 m) level in the serum of subjects on hemodialysis promote the formation of amyloid fibrils in osteoarticular tissues. β2 m lacking the N-terminal six residues of the mature protein (ΔN6β2 m) constitutes 25-30% of β2 m in ex vivo DRA amyloid. Unlike full-length wild-type β2 m, ΔN6β2 m forms amyloid fibrils at neutral pH in vitro...
September 28, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946525/diastasis-of-rectus-abdominis-muscles-in-low-back-pain-patients
#13
Lucie Doubkova, Ross Andel, Ingrid Palascakova-Springrova, Pavel Kolar, Jiri Kriz, Alena Kobesova
BACKGROUND: Abdominal muscles are important spinal stabilizers and its poor coordination, as seen in diastasis of rectus abdominis (DRA), may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP). However, this has not yet been studied directly. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a pilot study to examine the association between DRA and LBP. METHODS: Using a digital caliper, standard clinical DRA measurement was performed in 55 participants with and 54 without chronic LBP...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934241/hla-dr7-and-hla-dq2-transgenic-mouse-strains-tested-as-a-model-system-for-ximelagatran-hepatotoxicity
#14
Hanna Lundgren, Klara Martinsson, Karin Cederbrant, Johan Jirholt, Daniel Mucs, Katja Madeyski-Bengtson, Said Havarinasab, Per Hultman
The oral thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran was withdrawn in the late clinical trial phase because it adversely affected the liver. In approximately 8% of treated patients, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was expressed as transient alanine transaminase (ALT) elevations. No evidence of DILI had been revealed in the pre-clinical in vivo studies. A whole genome scan study performed on the clinical study material identified a strong genetic association between the major histocompatibility complex alleles for human leucocyte antigens (HLA) (HLA-DR7 and HLA-DQ2) and elevated ALT levels in treated patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929275/current-pesticide-dietary-risk-assessment-in-light-of-comparable-animal-study-noaels-after-chronic-and-short-termed-exposure-durations
#15
Jürg A Zarn, Caitlyn D O'Brien
Dietary risk assessment (DRA) of pesticides includes the estimation of chronic and acute exposures from crop residues, but assesses acute exposures only for pesticides with an acute reference dose (ARfD). Acute estimation uses high percentiles of food consumption surveys which are considerably higher than per capita lifetime averaged food consumption values which are used for chronic estimations. Assessing acute risks only for pesticides with an ARfD tacitly assumes that chronic risk assessment covers also intermittent occurring exposures which could significantly exceed chronic estimates...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889256/structural-and-functional-diversity-arising-from-intra-and-inter-haplotype-combinations-of-duplicated-dqa-and-b-loci-within-the-ovine-mhc
#16
Keith T Ballingall, Isabelle Lantier, Helen Todd, Frederic Lantier, Mara Rocchi
In sheep, the A and B loci encoding the α and β chains of the classical class II MHC molecules are DRA and DRB and DQA and DQB. Previous analyses described the duplication of the DQA and DQB genes. The majority of haplotypes include DQA1 and DQA2 loci, however, in a number of haplotypes, DQA1 appears absent and these haplotypes have been described as DQA1 null. In these haplotypes, the DQA2 locus is found in combination with a second locus which appeared more closely related to DQA2 than DQA1, hence the description of this locus as DQA2-like...
September 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881265/new-variants-near-rhoj-and-c2-hla-dra-region-and-susceptibility-to-endometriosis-in-the-polish-population-the-genome-wide-association-study
#17
Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Beata Smolarz, Marcin Słomka, Tomasz Szaflik, Ewa Kępka, Bartosz Kulig, Anna Siewierska-Górska, Grzegorz Polak, Hanna Romanowicz, Dominik Strapagiel, Krzysztof Szyłło
OBJECTIVE: Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease, associated with severe pelvic pain and reduced fertility; however, molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are able to identify genetic loci, which can play significant role during endometriosis development. AIM: The study aimed at localisation of new genes and chromosomal loci, the nucleotide variants of which determine the level of susceptibility to endometriosis...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862321/expression-of-hla-dra-and-cd74-mrna-in-whole-blood-during-the-course-of-complicated-and-uncomplicated-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#18
Gunlög Rasmussen, Sara Cajander, Anders Bäckman, Jan Källman, Bo Söderquist, Kristoffer Strålin
To improve management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is needed. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus bacteria induce dose-dependent immunosuppression that is evidenced by reduced expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II on antigen presenting cells. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether expression of the MHC class II-related genes HLA-DRA and CD74 is more greatly reduced in complicated SAB, with its probable higher loads of S...
October 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831346/donor-site-morbidity-after-dieap-flap-breast-reconstruction-a-2-year-postoperative-computed-tomography-comparison
#19
Christoffer Aam Ingvaldsen, Gerhard Bosse, Georg Karl Mynarek, Thomas Berg, Tyge Tind Tindholdt, Kim Alexander Tønseth
The study was undertaken to provide a more complete picture of donor-site morbidity following the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap harvest in breast reconstruction. Most studies evaluating this subject have been performed using ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) might provide valuable information. METHODS: In 14 patients who were reconstructed with a DIEAP flap, donor-site morbidity was assessed by comparing routine preoperative CT abdomen with CT abdomen performed 2 years postoperatively...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815047/whole-blood-rna-transcript-based-models-can-predict-clinical-response-in-two-large-independent-clinical-studies-of-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-treated-with-the-checkpoint-inhibitor-tremelimumab
#20
Philip Friedlander, Karl Wassmann, Alan M Christenfeld, David Fisher, Chrisann Kyi, John M Kirkwood, Nina Bhardwaj, William K Oh
BACKGROUND: Tremelimumab is an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 and demonstrates clinical efficacy in a subset of advanced melanoma patients. An unmet clinical need exists for blood-based response-predictive gene signatures to facilitate clinically effective and cost-efficient use of such immunotherapeutic interventions. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected in PAXgene® tubes from 210 treatment-naïve melanoma patients receiving tremelimumab in a worldwide, multicenter phase III study (discovery dataset)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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