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A Didier, R Dietrich, E Märtlbauer
The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex (Nhe) is supposed to be the main virulence factor of B. cereus causing a diarrheal outcome of food poisoning. This tripartite toxin consists of the single components NheA, -B and -C all of them being necessary for maximum toxicity. In the past, research activities aiming to elucidate the mode-of-action of Nhe were mostly focused on the B- and C-component. In this study the generation of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their thorough characterization enabled the determination of key features for NheA...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoye Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Peijie Shi, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes foodborne infectious diseases and food poisoning. Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) is the major toxin found in almost all enteropathogenic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. However, little is known about the cellular response after Nhe triggered pore formation on cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that Nhe induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase and provoked apoptosis in Vero cells, most likely associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and death receptor pathways...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Bera Rammohan, Karmakar Samit, Das Chinmoy, Saha Arup, Kundu Amit, Sarkar Ratul, Karmakar Sanmoy, Adhikari Dipan, Sen Tuhinadri
BACKGROUND: Traditionally GS is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Drug-herb interaction of GS via cytochrome P450 enzyme system by substrate cocktail method using HLM has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in-vitro modulatory effects of GS extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) and deacylgymnemic acid (DGA) on human CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities in HLM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Probe substrate-based LCMS/MS method was established for all CYPs...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Antonius Baartscheer, Cees A Schumacher, Rob C I Wüst, Jan W T Fiolet, Ger J M Stienen, Ruben Coronel, Coert J Zuurbier
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Empagliflozin (EMPA), an inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2, reduces the risk of cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism of this effect is unknown. Elevated cardiac cytoplasmic Na(+) ([Na(+)]c) and Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) are drivers of heart failure and cardiac death. We therefore hypothesised that EMPA would directly modify [Na(+)]c, [Ca(2+)]c and [Ca(2+)]m in cardiomyocytes...
October 17, 2016: Diabetologia
Dhandeep Singh, Om Silakari
Series of benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their Sodium hydrogen exchanger-1 inhibitory potential. All compounds inhibit Sodium hydrogen exchanger-1 in the in-vitro platelet swelling assay. This is perhaps the first report of NHE-1 inhibitory activity of benzotriazole. The 1-alkyl benzotriazole derivatives were found to be more active than the 2-alkyl isomers. The activity increases with increase in chain length of alkyl moiety. Potency increased from that of benzotriazole (IC50 = 192...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Cian McGinley, David John Bishop
This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid/base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 weeks of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid/base transport protein abundance, non-bicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Thomas J P Hersbach, Vladislav A Mints, Federico Calle-Vallejo, Alexei I Yanson, Marc T M Koper
Cathodic corrosion is a phenomenon in which negatively polarized metal electrodes are degraded by cathodic etching and nanoparticle formation. Though these changes are dramatic and sometimes even visible by eye, the exact mechanisms underlying cathodic corrosion are still unclear. This work aims to improve the understanding of cathodic corrosion by studying its onset on rhodium and gold electrodes, which are subjected to various constant cathodic potentials in 10 M NaOH. After this polarization, the electrodes are studied using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy, allowing a corrosion onset potential of -1...
September 15, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Ling Zhang, Jens Ulstrup, Jingdong Zhang
DNA quadruplexes (qs) are a class of "non-canonical" oligonucleotides (OGNs) composed of stacked guanine (G) quartets stabilized by specific cations. Metal porphyrins selectively bind to G-qs complexes to form what is known as DNAzyme, which can exhibit peroxidase and other catalytic activity similar to heme group metalloenzymes. In the present study we investigate the electrochemical properties and the structure of DNAzyme monolayers on single-crystal Au(111)-electrode surfaces using cyclic voltammetry and scanning tunnelling microscopy under electrochemical potential control (in situ STM)...
September 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Zhongxue Yang, Huying Wang, Weijie Song, Wei Wei, Qingping Mu, Bo Kong, Peiqiang Li, Hongzong Yin
The hydrothermal method was explored to prepare SnO2 nanorods (SnO2 NRs) with the special faces of (110) and (101) on the surface of Fe2O3 nanotubes (Fe2O3 NTs). According to the SEM and XRD results, the formation process of the hierarchically assembled SnO2 NRs was deduced. The SnO2 NRs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst that had reached for 120 mins behaved the best photoelectrocatalytic properties. From the view of photocatalytic reduction, the conduction band (-0.75eV vs NHE) is negative enough to drive CO2 reduction, and the valence band (1...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
To better understand training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle pH regulation, this study measured protein and mRNA kinetics of proton (H(+) ) transporters for 72 h following a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), conducted after 4 weeks of similar training. We also assayed muscle buffer capacity (βm) by titration technique (βmin vitro ) over the same period. Sixteen active men cycled for 7 × 2 min at ∼80% of peak aerobic power, interspersed with 1 min rest. Compared to the first 9 h post-exercise, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 protein content was ∼1...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Caleb Sutherland, Yunxi Cui, Hanbin Mao, Laurence H Hurley
MYC is overexpressed in many different cancer types and is an intensively studied oncogene because of its contributions to tumorigenesis. The regulation of MYC is complex, and the NHE III1 and FUSE elements rely upon noncanonical DNA structures and transcriptionally induced negative superhelicity. In the NHE III1 only the G-quadruplex has been extensively studied, whereas the role of the i-motif, formed on the opposite C-rich strand, is much less understood. We demonstrate here that the i-motif is formed within the 4CT element and is recognized by hnRNP K, which leads to a low level of transcription activation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
José H Zagal, Marc T M Koper
Similarities are established between well-known reactivity descriptors of metal electrodes for their activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the reactivity of molecular catalysts, in particular macrocyclic MN4 metal complexes confined to electrode surfaces. We show that there is a correlation between the M(III) /M(II) redox potential of MN4 chelates and the M-O2 binding energies. Specifically, the binding energy of O2 (and other O species) follows the M(III) -OH/M(II) redox transition for MnN4 and FeN4 chelates...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Matthew N Bourne, Steven J Duhig, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K Kerr, Anthony J Shield
BACKGROUND: The architectural and morphological adaptations of the hamstrings in response to training with different exercises have not been explored. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length and hamstring muscle size following 10-weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) or hip extension (HE) training. METHODS: 30 recreationally active male athletes (age, 22.0±3.6 years; height, 180.4±7 cm; weight, 80...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Marek Petr, Robert Helma, Alena Polášková, Aneta Krejčí, Zuzana Dvořáková, Iva Kejnovská, Lucie Navrátilová, Matej Adámik, Michaela Vorlíčková, Marie Brázdová
G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures that are implicated in the regulation of transcription, translation and replication. Genome regions enriched in putative G-quadruplex motifs include telomeres and gene promoters. Tumour suppressor p53 plays a critical role in regulatory pathways leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. In addition to transcriptional regulation mediated via sequence-specific DNA binding, p53 can selectively bind various non-B DNA structures. In the present study, wild-type p53 (wtp53) binding to G-quadruplex formed by MYC promoter nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 region was investigated...
October 2016: Bioscience Reports
Lorissa Lamoureux, Jeejabai Radhakrishnan, Thomas G Mason, Jeffrey A Kraut, Raul J Gazmuri
Major myocardial abnormalities occur during cardiac resuscitation including intracellular acidosis - partly caused by CO2 accumulation - and activation of the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoform-1 (NHE-1). We hypothesized that a favorable interaction may result from NHE-1 inhibition during cardiac resuscitation followed by administration of a CO2-consuming buffer upon return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced in 24 male rats and left untreated for 8 minutes followed by defibrillation after 8 minutes of CPR...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gonu Kim, Misol Oh, Yiseul Park
As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a "solar water battery". The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bin-Peng Xu, Dan-Dan Tu, Mao-Cang Yan, Miao-An Shu, Qing-Jun Shao
Although iono-regulatory processes are critical for survival of crustaceans during the molt cycle, the mechanisms involved are still not clear. The Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), a SLC12A family protein that transports Na(+), K(+) and 2Cl(-) into cells, is essential for cell ionic and osmotic regulation. To better understand the role of NKCC in the molt osmoregulation, we cloned and characterized a NKCC gene from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain (designated as SpNKCC). The predicted SpNKCC protein is well conserved, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this protein was clustered with crustacean NKCC...
September 1, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Francine Rezzoug, Shelia D Thomas, Eric C Rouchka, Donald M Miller
G-quadruplex forming sequences are particularly enriched in the promoter regions of eukaryotic genes, especially of oncogenes. One of the most well studied G-quadruplex forming sequences is located in the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 of the c-MYC promoter region. The oncoprotein c-MYC regulates a large array of genes which play important roles in growth regulation and metabolism. It is dysregulated in >70% of human cancers. The silencer NHEIII1 located upstream of the P1 promoter regulates up-to 80% of c-MYC transcription and includes a G-quadruplex structure (Pu27) that is required for promoter inhibition...
2016: PloS One
Sian-Tai Liu, Jiun-Lin Horng, Po-Yen Chen, Pung-Pung Hwang, Li-Yih Lin
Ionocytes in the skin and gills of seawater (SW) teleosts are responsible for both salt and acid secretion. However, the mechanism through which ionocytes secrete acid is still unclear. Here, we hypothesized that apical Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE2/3), carbonic anhydrase (CA2-like), and basolateral HCO3(-)/Cl(-) exchanger (AE1) are involved in acid secretion. In addition, the hypothesized involvement of basolateral AE1 suggested that acid secretion may be linked to Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes. The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was used to measure H(+) and Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes in the skin of medaka larvae acclimated to SW...
2016: Scientific Reports
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