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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888869/latest-advances-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#1
J Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz
This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed...
September 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881573/intestinal-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-2-plays-a-crucial-role-in-hyperosmotic-transitions-of-a-euryhaline-teleost
#2
Andrew J Esbaugh, Brett Cutler
Euryhaline fishes, such as the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), must quickly transition between hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic physiological strategies. When freshwater individuals transition to seawater they are exposed to increased diffusive water loss and ion gain. To maintain osmoregulatory balance these animals must drink and absorb seawater through the intestine, followed by ion excretion at the gills. The ability of fishes to transition between strategies can limit the magnitude of osmotic shock that can be tolerated...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865855/intestinal-response-to-salinity-challenge-in-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis
#3
I Ruiz-Jarabo, A Barany, I Jerez-Cepa, J M Mancera, J Fuentes
Fish are continuously forced to actively absorb or expel water and ions through epithelia. Most studies have focused on the gill due to its role in Na(+) and Cl(-) trafficking. However, comparatively few studies have focused on the changing function of the intestine in response to external salinity. Therefore, the present study investigated the main intestinal changes of long-term acclimation of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to 5, 15, 38 and 55ppt. Through the measurement of short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chambers and biochemical approaches, we described a clear anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in response to salinity...
November 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818697/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-natural-remedy-for-the-treatment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-study
#4
Umberto Alecci, Francesco Bonina, Andrea Bonina, Luisa Rizza, Santi Inferrera, Carmen Mannucci, Gioacchino Calapai
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786259/goblet-cell-hyperplasia-requires-high-bicarbonate-transport-to-support-mucin-release
#5
Giulia Gorrieri, Paolo Scudieri, Emanuela Caci, Marco Schiavon, Valeria Tomati, Francesco Sirci, Francesco Napolitano, Diego Carrella, Ambra Gianotti, Ilaria Musante, Maria Favia, Valeria Casavola, Lorenzo Guerra, Federico Rea, Roberto Ravazzolo, Diego Di Bernardo, Luis J V Galietta
Goblet cell hyperplasia, a feature of asthma and other respiratory diseases, is driven by the Th-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. In human bronchial epithelial cells, we find that IL-4 induces the expression of many genes coding for ion channels and transporters, including TMEM16A, SLC26A4, SLC12A2, and ATP12A. At the functional level, we find that IL-4 enhances calcium- and cAMP-activated chloride/bicarbonate secretion, resulting in high bicarbonate concentration and alkaline pH in the fluid covering the apical surface of epithelia...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754215/os-31-08-inhibitory-effects-of-simvastatin-on-catecholamine-secretion-from-the-adrenal-medulla
#6
Young Youp Koh, Dong Yoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of simvastatin, one of statins, on the catecholamine (CA) secretion from the perfused model of the isolated rat adrenal gland, and also to clarify its mechanism of action. DESIGN AND METHOD: The adrenal gland was isolated and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate. CA was measured directly by using the fluorospectrophotometer. RESULTS: Simvastatin inhibited ACh-evoked CA secretory response in a dose- and time-dependent fashion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704174/cftr-pharmacology
#7
Olga Zegarra-Moran, Luis J V Galietta
CFTR protein is an ion channel regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and expressed in many types of epithelial cells. CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate secretion play an important role in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Pharmacological modulators of CFTR represent promising drugs for a variety of diseases. In particular, correctors and potentiators may restore the activity of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients. Potentiators are also potentially useful to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699454/from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-the-plasma-membrane-mechanisms-of-cftr-folding-and-trafficking
#8
Carlos M Farinha, Sara Canato
CFTR biogenesis starts with its co-translational insertion into the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum and folding of the cytosolic domains, towards the acquisition of a fully folded compact native structure. Efficiency of this process is assessed by the ER quality control system that allows the exit of folded proteins but targets unfolded/misfolded CFTR to degradation. If allowed to leave the ER, CFTR is modified at the Golgi and reaches the post-Golgi compartments to be delivered to the plasma membrane where it functions as a cAMP- and phosphorylation-regulated chloride/bicarbonate channel...
October 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643172/os-31-08-inhibitory-effects-of-simvastatin-on-catecholamine-secretion-from-the-adrenal-medulla
#9
Young Youp Koh, Dong Yoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of simvastatin, one of statins, on the catecholamine (CA) secretion from the perfused model of the isolated rat adrenal gland, and also to clarify its mechanism of action. DESIGN AND METHOD: The adrenal gland was isolated and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate. CA was measured directly by using the fluorospectrophotometer. RESULTS: Simvastatin inhibited ACh-evoked CA secretory response in a dose- and time-dependent fashion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615377/estrogen-upregulates-the-expression-levels-and-functional-activities-of-duodenal-mucosal-cftr-and-slc26a6
#10
Hai Jin, Guorong Wen, Shili Deng, Shuo Wan, Jingyu Xu, Xuemei Liu, Rui Xie, Hui Dong, Biguang Tuo
The incidence of duodenal ulcer is markedly lower in women than men, but the cause of the gender difference is not clear. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins to mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion which is an important protective factor against acid-induced duodenal injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of estrogen on the expressions and functional activities of CFTR and SLC26A6 in duodenal mucosa...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532891/does-the-healing-of-the-esophageal-mucosa-improve-the-function-of-the-esophageal-submucosal-and-salivary-glands
#11
Jerzy Sarosiek
The esophageal pre-epithelial barrier encompasses components of secretions from both the esophageal submucosal and salivary glands. We demonstrated, in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE), significantly diminished luminal release of esophageal epidermal growth factor (EGF). The rate of luminal release of esophageal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) was significantly higher compared with controls and significantly declined after healing of RE. Patients with RE also exhibited significant declines in esophageal mucin secretion; however, after healing of RE with rabeprazole, this rate increased significantly...
August 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501174/primary-pancreatic-secretinoma-further-evidence-supporting-secretin-as-a-diarrheogenic-hormone
#12
William Y Chey, Wendy L Frankel, Sashwati Roy, Soma Datta, Chandan K Sen, Mary Dillhoff, Peter Muscarella, Konrad H Soergel, Ronald K Tompkins, Ta-Min Chang, Edward L Bradley, Edwin Christopher Ellison
OBJECTIVES: To document the existence of primary pancreatic secretinoma in patients with watery diarrhea syndrome (WDS) and achlorhydria and establish secretin as a diarrheogenic hormone. BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been widely accepted as the main mediator of WDS. However, in 1968, Zollinger et al reported 2 female patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, WDS, and achlorhydria. During surgery on the first, a 24-year-old patient, they noticed distended duodenum filled with fluid and a dilated gallbladder containing dilute bile with high bicarbonate concentration...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495287/effect-of-oral-sodium-bicarbonate-on-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-pilot-study
#13
Wei Chen, Michal L Melamed, Thomas H Hostetter, Carolyn Bauer, Amanda C Raff, Anthony L Almudevar, Amy Lalonde, Susan Messing, Matthew K Abramowitz
BACKGROUND: The regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) secretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely understood. An in vitro study showed that metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 in mouse bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on circulating FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. METHODS: This was a single-blind pilot study. Twenty adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15-45 mL/min/1...
2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471497/single-genotype-syntrophy-by-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-is-not-a-strategy-to-aid-redox-balance-during-anaerobic-degradation-of-lignin-monomers
#14
Devin F R Doud, Largus T Angenent
Rhodopseudomonas palustris has emerged as a model microbe for the anaerobic metabolism of p-coumarate, which is an aromatic compound and a primary component of lignin. However, under anaerobic conditions, R. palustris must actively eliminate excess reducing equivalents through a number of known strategies (e.g., CO2 fixation, H2 evolution) to avoid lethal redox imbalance. Others had hypothesized that to ease the burden of this redox imbalance, a clonal population of R. palustris could functionally differentiate into a pseudo-consortium...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433347/a-randomized-crossover-pharmacodynamic-study-of-immediate-release-omeprazole-sodium-bicarbonate-and-delayed-release-lansoprazole-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#15
Vijayalakshmi S Pratha, Thomas McGraw, William Tobin
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days...
June 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432892/the-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-inhibitor-mk-7145-lowers-blood-pressure-and-manifests-features-of-bartter-s-syndrome-type-ii-phenotype
#16
Caryn Hampton, Xiaoyan Zhou, Birgit T Priest, Lee-Yuh Pai, John P Felix, Brande Thomas-Fowlkes, Jessica Liu, Martin Kohler, Jianying Xiao, Aaron Corona, Olga Price, Charles Gill, Kashmira Shah, Cordelia Rasa, Vince Tong, Karen Owens, James Ormes, Haifeng Tang, Sophie Roy, Kathleen A Sullivan, Joseph M Metzger, Magdalena Alonso-Galicia, Gregory J Kaczorowski, Alexander Pasternak, Maria L Garcia
The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel, located at the apical surface of epithelial cells in the thick ascending loop of Henle and cortical collecting duct, contributes to salt reabsorption and potassium secretion, and represents a target for the development of new mechanism of action diuretics. This idea is supported by the phenotype of antenatal Bartter's syndrome type II associated with loss-of-function mutations in the human ROMK channel, as well as, by cardiovascular studies of heterozygous carriers of channel mutations associated with type II Bartter's syndrome...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422589/buffering-of-protons-released-by-mineral-formation-during-amelogenesis-in-mice
#17
Antonius L J J Bronckers, Don M Lyaruu, Rozita Jalali, Pamela K DenBesten
Regulation of pH by ameloblasts during amelogenesis is critical for enamel mineralization. We examined the effects of reduced bicarbonate secretion and the presence or absence of amelogenins on ameloblast modulation and enamel mineralization. To that end, the composition of fluorotic and non-fluorotic enamel of several different mouse mutants, including enamel of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-deficient (Cftr null), anion exchanger-2-deficient (Ae2a,b null), and amelogenin-deficient (Amelx null) mice, was determined by quantitative X-ray microanalysis...
July 16, 2016: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367914/recent-advances-in-understanding-renal-ammonia-metabolism-and-transport
#18
I David Weiner, Jill W Verlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct description of the recent findings that advance our understanding of the fundamental renal process of ammonia metabolism and transport in conditions relevant to the clinician. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies advance our understanding of renal ammonia metabolism. Mechanisms through which chronic kidney disease and altered dietary protein intake alter ammonia excretion have been identified. Lithium, although it can acutely cause distal renal tubular acidosis, was shown with long-term use to increase urinary ammonia excretion, and this appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by increased Rhcg expression...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351144/inhibition-of-mast-cell-secreted-histamine-decreases-biliary-proliferation-and-fibrosis-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-mdr2-mice
#19
Hannah Jones, Laura Hargrove, Lindsey Kennedy, Fanyin Meng, Allyson Graf-Eaton, Jennifer Owens, Gianfranco Alpini, Christopher Johnson, Francesca Bernuzzi, Jennifer Demieville, Sharon DeMorrow, Pietro Invernizzi, Heather Francis
UNLABELLED: Hepatic fibrosis is marked by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Cholestatic injury precedes liver fibrosis, and cholangiocytes interact with HSCs promoting fibrosis. Mast cells (MCs) infiltrate following liver injury and release histamine, increasing biliary proliferation. We evaluated if inhibition of MC-derived histamine decreases biliary proliferation and fibrosis. Wild-type and multidrug resistance 2 knockout mice (9-11 weeks) were treated with cromolyn sodium for 1 week to block MC-derived histamine...
October 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347902/functions-of-the-gallbladder
#20
Chantal Housset, Yues Chrétien, Dominique Debray, Nicolas Chignard
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile between meals. Gallbladder motor function is regulated by bile acids via the membrane bile acid receptor, TGR5, and by neurohormonal signals linked to digestion, for example, cholecystokinin and FGF15/19 intestinal hormones, which trigger gallbladder emptying and refilling, respectively. The cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying controls the flow of bile into the intestine and thereby the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. The gallbladder also largely contributes to the regulation of bile composition by unique absorptive and secretory capacities...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
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