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Bicarbonate secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596649/use-of-surrogate-samples-to-monitor-ph-during-high-dose-methotrexate-therapy
#1
Uday Yanamandra, Pooja Chauhan, Deepesh Lad, Alka Khadwal, Gaurav Prakash, Subhash Varma, Pankaj Malhotra
High dose methotrexate (Mtx) therapy is commonly used in hemato-oncological practice. Alkalization of urine is a part of high dose methotrexate therapy for preventing crystallization in urine to avert renal insufficiency. Alkalization is monitored by urine pH at regular intervals. Oral pH has occasionally been used as a surrogate for oral mucositis. To compare and correlate pH of various body secretions (venous blood, oral salivary, lacrimal and urine) among patients undergoing alkalization with intravenous sodium bicarbonate during high dose methotrexate therapy...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577107/interaction-of-constitutive-nitric-oxide-synthases-with-cyclooxygenases-in-regulation-of-bicarbonate-secretion-in-the-gastric-mucosa
#2
V A Zolotarev, Yu V Andreeva, E Vershinina, R P Khropycheva
Neuronal NO synthase blocker 7-nitroindazole suppressed bicarbonate secretion in rat gastric mucosa induced by mild local irritation with 1 M NaCl (pH 2.0). Non-selective blocker of neuronal and endothelial synthases, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), did not affect HCO3(-) production, but inhibited secretion after pretreatment with omeprazole. Non-selective cyclooxygenase blocker indomethacin inhibited HCO3(-) production under conditions of normal synthase activity and in the presence of L-NNA, but was ineffective when co-administered with 7-nitroindazole...
June 3, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526688/loss-of-the-anion-exchanger-dra-slc26a3-or-pat1-slc26a6-alters-sulfate-transport-by-the-distal-ileum-and-overall-sulfate-homeostasis
#3
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The ileum is considered the primary site of inorganic sulfate (SO4(2-)) absorption. In the present study, we explored the contributions of the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl(-)/HCO3(-)) exchangers DRA (Slc26a3), and PAT1 (Slc26a6), to the underlying transport mechanism. Transepithelial (35)SO4(2-) and (36)Cl(-) fluxes were determined across isolated, short-circuited segments of the distal ileum from wild-type (WT), DRA-knockout (KO) and PAT1-KO mice, together with measurements of urine and plasma sulfate. The WT distal ileum supported net sulfate absorption (197...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526687/ffa2-activation-combined-with-ulcerogenic-cox-inhibition-induces-duodenal-mucosal-injury-via-the-5-ht-pathway-in-rats
#4
Yasutada Akiba, Koji Maruta, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Hyder Said, Izumi Kaji, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
Serotonin (5-HT), predominantly synthesized and released by enterochromaffin cells, is implicated in gastrointestinal symptoms such as emesis, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Since luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) release 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, which express the SCFA receptor FFA2 in rat duodenum, we examined the effects of the selective FFA2 agonist phenylacetamide-1 (PA1) on duodenal 5-HT release with consequent bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and on indomethacin (IND)-induced enteropathy. Intestinal injury was induced by IND (10 mg/kg, sc) with or without PA1...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523577/ffa3-activation-stimulates-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-prevents-nsaid-induced-enteropathy-via-the-glp-2-pathway-in-rats
#5
Hyder Said, Yasutada Akiba, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Koji Maruta, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enteropathy in humans and experimental animals, a cause of considerable morbidity. Unlike foregut NSAID-associated mucosal lesions, most treatments for this condition are of little efficacy. We propose that the endogenously released intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents the development of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Since the short-chain fatty acid receptor FFA3 is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells and on enteric nerves in the gastrointestinal tract, we further hypothesized that activation of FFA3 on L cells protects the mucosa from injury via GLP-2 release with enhanced duodenal HCO3(-) secretion...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455748/ck2-is-a-key-regulator-of-slc4a2-mediated-cl-hco3-exchange-in-human-airway-epithelia
#6
Salam H Ibrahim, Mark J Turner, Vinciane Saint-Criq, James Garnett, Iram J Haq, Malcolm Brodlie, Chris Ward, Christian Borgo, Mauro Salvi, Andrea Venerando, Michael A Gray
Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion by human airway submucosal glands and surface epithelial cells is crucial to maintain the pH-sensitive innate defence mechanisms of the lung. cAMP agonists stimulate HCO3(-) secretion via coordinated increases in basolateral HCO3(-) influx and accumulation, as well as CFTR-dependent HCO3(-) efflux at the luminal membrane of airway epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the regulation of a basolateral located, DIDS-sensitive, Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger, anion exchanger 2 (AE2; SLC4A2) which is postulated to act as an acid loader, and therefore potential regulator of HCO3(-) secretion, in human airway epithelial cells...
April 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#7
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
What is the central question of this study? Small intestinal epithelium is exposed to high concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), but their role in regulating intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility is not fully understood. What is the main finding and its importance? By perfusing the duodenal segment in anaesthetized rats, we show that acetate and propionate significantly decrease mucosal paracellular permeability and transepithelial net fluid flux and increase mucosal bicarbonate secretion...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385297/renal-tubular-nhe3-is-required-in-the-maintenance-of-water-and-sodium-chloride-homeostasis
#8
Robert A Fenton, Søren B Poulsen, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Manoocher Soleimani, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower...
April 3, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384243/neuropeptide-s-reduces-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-ethanol-induced-increases-in-duodenal-motility-in-rats
#9
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Alcohol disrupts the intestinal mucosal barrier by inducing metabolic and functional changes in epithelial cells. Recently, we showed that neuropeptide S (NPS) decreases duodenal motility and increases mucosal paracellular permeability, suggesting a role of NPS in the pathogenesis of disorders and dysfunctions in the small intestine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of NPS on ethanol- and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility. Rats were anaesthetized with thiobarbiturate, and a 30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341416/a-physiologically-oriented-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-midgut-of-tenebrio-molitor
#10
Nathalia R Moreira, Christiane Cardoso, Renata O Dias, Clelia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Physiological data showed that T. molitor midgut is buffered at pH 5.6 at the two anterior thirds and at 7.9 at the posterior third. Furthermore, water is absorbed and secreted at the anterior and posterior midgut, respectively, driving a midgut counter flux of fluid. To look for the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena and nutrient absorption as well, a transcriptomic approach was used. For this, 11 types of transporters were chosen from the midgut transcriptome obtained by pyrosequencing (Roche 454)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300821/impact-of-cftr-modulation-on-intestinal-ph-motility-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-the-g551d-mutation
#11
Daniel Gelfond, Sonya Heltshe, Changxing Ma, Steven M Rowe, Carla Frederick, Ahmet Uluer, Leonard Sicilian, Michael Konstan, Elizabeth Tullis, R N Christine Roach, Katherine Griffin, Elizabeth Joseloff, Drucy Borowitz
OBJECTIVES: A defect in bicarbonate secretion contributes to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal complications in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We measured gastrointestinal pH, clinical outcomes, and intestinal transit profiles in patients with the G551D mutation before and after treatment with ivacaftor, a CF transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) potentiator. METHODS: Observational studies of ivacaftor effectiveness were conducted in the United States and Canada...
March 16, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261854/oligog-cf-5-20-normalizes-cystic-fibrosis-mucus-by-chelating-calcium
#12
Anna Ermund, Christian V Recktenwald, Gudmund Skjåk-Braek, Lauren N Meiss, Edvar Onsøyen, Philip D Rye, Arne Dessen, Astrid Hilde Myrset, Gunnar C Hansson
The goal of this study was to determine whether the guluronate (G) rich alginate OligoG CF-5/20 (OligoG) could detach cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus by calcium chelation, which is also required for normal mucin unfolding. Since bicarbonate secretion is impaired in CF, leading to insufficient mucin unfolding and thereby attached mucus and since bicarbonate has the ability to bind calcium, we hypothesized that the calcium chelating property of OligoG would lead to detachment of CF mucus. Indeed, OligoG could compete with the N-terminus of the MUC2 mucin for calcium binding as shown by microscale thermophoresis...
March 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249274/the-emerging-role-of-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#13
REVIEW
Jung-Chin Chang, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; previously referred to as primary biliary cirrhosis) is a chronic fibrosing cholangiopathy with the signature of an autoimmune disease and features of intrahepatic cholestasis. Immunosuppressing treatments are largely unsuccessful. Responsiveness to ursodeoxycholic acid and reduced expression of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) on canalicular membranes and small bile ducts underline the importance of bicarbonate transportation in its disease mechanism...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238831/high-rates-of-intestinal-bicarbonate-secretion-in-seawater-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#14
I Ruiz-Jarabo, S F Gregório, P Gaetano, F Trischitta, J Fuentes
Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO3(-) movements i...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230813/characterization-of-carbonic-anhydrase-9-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-aedes-aegypti-and-its-relationship-to-homologous-mosquito-carbonic-anhydrases
#15
Daniel P Dixon, Leslie Van Ekeris, Paul J Linser
In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224106/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-c-on-platelet-function
#16
Bassem M Mohammed, Kimberly W Sanford, Bernard J Fisher, Erika J Martin, Daniel Contaifer, Urszula Osinska Warncke, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe, Charles E Chalfant, Donald F Brophy, Alpha A Fowler Iii, Ramesh Natarajan
AIM: To examine the effect of high doses of vitamin C (VitC) on ex vivo human platelets (PLTs). METHODS: Platelet concentrates collected for therapeutic or prophylactic transfusions were exposed to: (1) normal saline (control); (2) 0.3 mmol/L VitC (Lo VitC); or (3) 3 mmol/L VitC (Hi VitC, final concentrations) and stored appropriately. The VitC additive was preservative-free buffered ascorbic acid in water, pH 5.5 to 7.0, adjusted with sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215154/stress-and-salivary-glands
#17
Beáta Kerémi, Anita Beck, Tibor Károly Fábián, Gábor Fábián, Géza Szabó, Ákos Nagy, Gábor Varga
Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214603/the-impact-of-reduced-gastric-acid-secretion-on-dissolution-of-salts-of-weak-bases-in-the-fasted-upper-gastrointestinal-lumen-data-in-biorelevant-media-and-in-human-aspirates
#18
Chara Litou, Maria Vertzoni, Wei Xu, Filippos Kesisoglou, Christos Reppas
PURPOSE: To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#19
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049946/ursodeoxycholic-acid-ameliorates-intrahepatic-cholestasis-independent-of-biliary-bicarbonate-secretion-in-vil2-kd-kd-mice
#20
Ryo Hatano, Kotoku Kawaguchi, Fumitaka Togashi, Masato Sugata, Shizuka Masuda, Shinji Asano
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid that possesses many pharmacological effects, including increasing bile flow, changing the hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool, and modulation of the immune response. UDCA has been approved for treating cholestatic liver disease, such as primary biliary cholangitis. However, several unanticipated severe side effects of UDCA are observed in cholestatic patients, and its pharmacological benefits remain controversial. We reported that ezrin-knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd)) mice exhibited severe hepatic injury because of a functional disorder in bile duct fluidity and alkalinity regulation, resembling human intrahepatic cholestatic disease...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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