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Bicarbonate secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769002/defense-mechanisms-against-acid-exposure-by-dental-enamel-formation-saliva-and-pancreatic-juice-production
#1
Robert Racz, Akos Nagy, Zoltan Rakonczay, Erika Katalin Dunavari, Gabor Gerber, Gabor Varga
The pancreas, the salivary glands and the dental enamel producing ameloblasts have marked developmental, structural and functional similarities. One of the most striking similarities is their bicarbonate-rich secretory product serving acid neutralization. An important difference between them is that while pancreatic juice and saliva are delivered into a lumen where they can be collected and analyzed, ameloblasts produce locally precipitating hydroxyapatite which cannot be easily studied. Interestingly, the ion and protein secretion by the pancreas, the salivary glands, and maturation ameloblasts are all two-step processes, of course with significant differences too...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728994/differences-in-peritoneal-response-after-exposure-to-low-gdp-bicarbonate-lactate-buffered-dialysis-solution-compared-to-conventional-dialysis-solution-in-a-uremic-mouse-model
#2
M Vila Cuenca, E D Keuning, W Talhout, N J Paauw, F J van Ittersum, P M Ter Wee, R H J Beelen, M G Vervloet, E Ferrantelli
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure of conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid is associated with structural membrane alterations and technique failure. Previously, it has been shown that infiltrating IL-17-secreting CD4+T cells and pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages play a critical role in the PD-induced pathogenesis. Although more biocompatible PD solutions are recognized to better preserve the peritoneal membrane integrity, the impact of these fluids on the composition of the peritoneal cell infiltrate is unknown...
May 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626002/evaluating-off-label-uses-of-acetazolamide
#3
REVIEW
Megan A Van Berkel, Jessica L Elefritz
PURPOSE: Current off-label uses of acetazolamide in hospitalized patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor typically used for indications including epilepsy, glaucoma, edema, and altitude sickness but it may be prescribed in hospitalized patients for off-label indications. It inhibits carbonic anhydrase, which leads to reduced hydrogen ion secretion in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in increased bicarbonate and cation excretion and causing urinary alkalization and diuresis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617283/regulation-of-bicarbonate-secretion-in-marine-fish-intestine-by-the-calcium-sensing-receptor
#4
Sílvia F Gregório, Juan Fuentes
In marine fish, high epithelial intestinal HCO₃− secretion generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. The present study was designed to expose the putative role for calcium and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in the regulation of HCO₃− secretion in the intestine of the sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.). Effects on the expression of the CaSR in the intestine were evaluated by qPCR and an increase was observed in the anterior intestine in fed fish compared with unfed fish and with different regions of intestine...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536650/most-bicarbonate-secretion-by-calu-3-cells-is-mediated-by-cftr-and-independent-of-pendrin
#5
Junwei Huang, Dusik Kim, Jiajie Shan, Asmahan Abu-Arish, Yishan Luo, John W Hanrahan
Bicarbonate plays an important role in airway host defense, however, its transport mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we examined the relative contributions of the anion channel CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, ABCC7) and the anion exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4) to HCO3 - secretion by the human airway cell line Calu-3. Pendrin and CFTR were both detected in parental Calu-3 cells, although mRNA and protein expression appeared higher for CFTR than for pendrin. Targeting pendrin transcripts with lentiviral shRNA reduced pendrin detection by immunofluorescence staining but did not alter the rates of HCO3 - or fluid secretion, HCO3 - transport under pH-stat conditions, or net HCO3 - flux across basolaterally permeabilized monolayers...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519279/-effect-of-sucralfate-on-cytokines-in-rat-with-paraquat-poisoning
#6
Junbo Zhu, Yongtao Yu, Hongbo Li, Fenshuang Zheng, Ruyun Lin, Chun'ai Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rats with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into PQ model group, sodium bicarbonate intervention group (SB group) and sucralfate suspension gel group (LTL group), with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by one-time intragastric administration of PQ solution 25 mg/kg. The rats in SB group and LTL group were intragastricly administrated with 5 mL×kg-1 ×d-1 of 100 g/L sodium bicarbonate or 200 g/L sucralfate at 2 hours after exposing to PQ, and the rats in PQ model group were given the same amount of sterile saline...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517421/development-of-a-polarized-pancreatic-ductular-cell-epithelia-for-physiological-studies
#7
Yunxia O'Malley, Pavana G Rotti, Ian M Thornell, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Christopher Febres-Aldana, Katelin Durham, Jianrong Yao, Xiaopeng Li, Zheng Zhu, Andrew W Norris, Joseph Zabner, John F Engelhardt, Aliye Uc
Pancreatic ductular epithelial cells comprise the majority of duct cells in pancreas, control cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent bicarbonate [HCO3 - ] secretion, but are difficult to grow as a polarized monolayer. Using NIH-3T3-J2 fibroblast feeder cells and a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor, we produced well-differentiated and polarized porcine pancreatic ductular epithelial cells. Cells grown on semipermeable filters at air-liquid interface (ALI) developed typical epithelial cell morphology and stable transepithelial resistance (TER), expressed epithelial cell markers (zona occludens-1 and beta catenin), duct cell markers (SOX-9 and CFTR), but no acinar (amylase) or islet cell (chromogranin) markers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#8
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483156/nbce1-a-regulates-proximal-tubule-ammonia-metabolism-under-basal-conditions-and-in-response-to-metabolic-acidosis
#9
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Autumn N Harris, Lijuan Fang, Michael F Romero, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Renal ammonia metabolism is the primary mechanism through which the kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms regulating renal ammonia generation are unclear. In these studies, we evaluated the role of the proximal tubule basolateral plasma membrane electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 variant A (NBCe1-A) in this process. Deletion of the NBCe1-A gene caused severe spontaneous metabolic acidosis in mice. Despite this metabolic acidosis, which normally causes a dramatic increase in ammonia excretion, absolute urinary ammonia concentration was unaltered...
April 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482189/downregulation-of-the-cl-hco3-exchanger-pendrin-in-kidneys-of-mice-with-cystic-fibrosis-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-alkalosis
#10
Mujan Varasteh Kia, Sharon Barone, Alicia A McDonough, Kamyar Zahedi, Jie Xu, Manoocher Soleimani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are prone to the development of metabolic alkalosis; however, the pathogenesis of this life threatening derangement remains unknown. We hypothesized that altered acid base transport machinery in the kidney collecting duct underlies the mechanism of impaired bicarbonate elimination in the CF kidney. METHODS: Balance studies in metabolic cages were performed in WT and CFTR knockout (CF) mice with the intestinal rescue in response to bicarbonate loading or salt restriction, and the expression levels and cellular distribution of acid base and electrolyte transporters in the proximal tubule, collecting duct and small intestine were examined by western blots, northern blots and/or immunofluorescence labeling...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440393/granule-stored-muc5b-mucins-are-packed-by-the-non-covalent-formation-of-n-terminal-head-to-head-tetramers
#11
Sergio Trillo-Muyo, Harriet E Nilsson, Christian V Recktenwald, Anna Ermund, Caroline Ridley, Lauren N Meiss, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Jeffrey J Wine, Philip J B Koeck, David J Thornton, Hans Hebert, Gunnar C Hansson
Most MUC5B mucin polymers in the upper airways of humans and pigs are produced by submucosal glands. MUC5B forms N-terminal covalent dimers that are further packed into larger assemblies because of low pH and high Ca2+ in the secretory granule of the mucin-producing cell. We purified the recombinant MUC5B N-terminal covalent dimer and used single-particle electron microscopy to study its structure under intracellular conditions. We found that, at intragranular pH, the dimeric MUC5B organized into head-to-head noncovalent tetramers where the von Willebrand D1-D2 domains hooked into each other...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423078/molecular-mechanisms-of-calcium-signaling-in-the-modulation-of-small-intestinal-ion-transports-and-bicarbonate-secretion
#12
Xin Yang, Guorong Wen, Biguang Tuo, Fenglian Zhang, Hanxing Wan, Jialin He, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Background and Purpose: Although Ca2+ signaling may stimulate small intestinal ion secretion, little is known about its critical role and the molecular mechanisms of Ca2+ -mediated biological action. Key Results: Activation of muscarinic receptors by carbachol(CCh) stimulated mouse duodenal I sc , which was significantly inhibited in Ca2+ -free serosal solution and by several selective store-operated Ca2+ channels(SOC) blockers added to the serosal side of duodenal tissues...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360145/bile-acids-stimulate-cholangiocyte-fluid-secretion-by-activation-of-membranetmem16a-cl-channels
#13
Qin Li, Amal Dutta, Charles Kresge, Abhijit Bugde, Andrew P Feranchak
Bile acids stimulate a bicarbonate-rich choleresis in part through effects on cholangiocytes. As Cl- channels in the apical membrane of cholangiocytes provide the driving force for secretion and TMEM16A has been identified as the Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel in the apical membrane of cholangiocytes (1), the aim of the present study was to determine if TMEM16A is the target of bile acid-stimulated Cl- secretion and to identify the regulatory pathway involved. In these studies of mouse, rat, and human biliary epithelium exposure to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) rapidly increased the rate of exocytosis, ATP release, [Ca2+ ]i , membrane Cl- permeability, and transepithelial secretion...
January 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351436/therapeutic-attenuation-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-with-a-splunc1-derived-peptide-in-airway-diseases
#14
James F Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski, Ahmad Lazrak, Sadis Matalon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321377/development-of-an-airway-mucus-defect-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-rat
#15
Susan E Birket, Joy M Davis, Courtney M Fernandez, Katherine L Tuggle, Ashley M Oden, Kengyeh K Chu, Guillermo J Tearney, Michelle V Fanucchi, Eric J Sorscher, Steven M Rowe
The mechanisms underlying the development and natural progression of the airway mucus defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) remain largely unclear. New animal models of CF, coupled with imaging using micro-optical coherence tomography, can lead to insights regarding these questions. The Cftr-/- (KO) rat allows for longitudinal examination of the development and progression of airway mucus abnormalities. The KO rat exhibits decreased periciliary depth, hyperacidic pH, and increased mucus solid content percentage; however, the transport rates and viscoelastic properties of the mucus are unaffected until the KO rat ages...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281862/normothermic-machine-perfusion-of-donor-livers-without-the-need-for-human-blood-products
#16
Alix P M Matton, Laura C Burlage, Rianne van Rijn, Yvonne de Vries, Shanice A Karangwa, Maarten W Nijsten, Annette S H Gouw, Janneke Wiersema-Buist, Jelle Adelmeijer, Andrie C Westerkamp, Ton Lisman, Robert J Porte
Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) enables viability assessment of donor livers prior to transplantation. NMP is frequently performed by using human blood products including red blood cells (RBCs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Our aim was to examine the efficacy of a novel machine perfusion solution based on polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201. Twenty-four livers declined for transplantation were transported by using static cold storage. Upon arrival, livers underwent NMP for 6 hours using pressure-controlled portal and arterial perfusion...
April 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223031/protonography-and-anion-inhibition-profile-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-cruca4-identified-in-the-mediterranean-red-coral-corallium-rubrum
#17
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Natacha Caminiti-Segonds, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutté, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
CruCA4 is a secreted isoform of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) family, which has been identified in the octocoral Corallium rubrum. This enzyme is involved in the calcification process leading to the formation of the coral calcium carbonate skeleton. We report here experiments performed on the recombinant CruCA4 with the technique of protonography that can be used to detect in a simple way the enzyme activity. We have also investigated the inhibition profile of CruCA4 with one major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions...
February 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217908/a-novel-method-for-pain-relief-in-chronic-pancreatitis-an-old-drug-in-a-new-pack-a-controlled-study
#18
Aswini Kumar Pujahari
Most of pain-relieving agents in chronic pancreatitis are nonspecific and unpredictable. Omeprazole induces hypergastrinemia due to reduced gastric acidity. Raised serum gastrin, in turn, modulates to reduce secretin level. Secretin is responsible for secretion of almost 80 % bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice from the ductular epithelium without affecting enzyme output. It is a prospective randomized study in patients with CT-confirmed chronic pancreatitis. The control group got the standard care and 60 mg of omeprazole twice daily was added to the test group...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#19
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144799/parathyroid-function-after-total-thyroidectomy-a-randomized-clinical-trial-concerning-the-influence-of-the-surgical-technique
#20
Theodossis S Papavramidis, Olympia Anastasiou, Ioannis Pliakos, George Kotsovolis, Stavros Panidis, Antonios Michalopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Thyroidectomy impairs parathyroid function, even if it does not necessarily lead to postoperative clinical hypocalcemia. This study was prospective and evaluated the parathyroid hormone (PTH) function in nonclinically symptomatic patients after total thyroidectomy performed by two different techniques. METHODS: Prospective randomized clinical trial including 269 patients undergoing classic or harmonic scalpel total thyroidectomy. Pre-operatively and at 48 hours, biochemical analysis was performed...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
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