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Bicarbonate secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321377/development-of-an-airway-mucus-defect-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-rat
#1
Susan E Birket, Joy M Davis, Courtney M Fernandez, Katherine L Tuggle, Ashley M Oden, Kengyeh K Chu, Guillermo J Tearney, Michelle V Fanucchi, Eric J Sorscher, Steven M Rowe
The mechanisms underlying the development and natural progression of the airway mucus defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) remain largely unclear. New animal models of CF, coupled with imaging using micro-optical coherence tomography, can lead to insights regarding these questions. The Cftr-/- (KO) rat allows for longitudinal examination of the development and progression of airway mucus abnormalities. The KO rat exhibits decreased periciliary depth, hyperacidic pH, and increased mucus solid content percentage; however, the transport rates and viscoelastic properties of the mucus are unaffected until the KO rat ages...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281862/normothermic-machine-perfusion-of-donor-livers-without-the-need-for-human-blood-products
#2
Alix P M Matton, Laura C Burlage, Rianne van Rijn, Yvonne de Vries, Shanice A Karangwa, Maarten W Nijsten, Annette S H Gouw, Janneke Wiersema-Buist, Jelle Adelmeijer, Andrie C Westerkamp, Ton Lisman, Robert J Porte
BACKGROUND: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) enables viability assessment of donor livers prior to transplantation. NMP is frequently performed using human blood products including red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Our aim was to examine the efficacy of a novel machine perfusion solution based on polymerized bovine hemoglobin HBOC-201. METHODS: Twenty-four livers declined for transplantation were transported using static cold storage. Upon arrival, livers underwent NMP for 6 hours using pressure-controlled portal and arterial perfusion...
December 27, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223031/protonography-and-anion-inhibition-profile-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-cruca4-identified-in-the-mediterranean-red-coral-corallium-rubrum
#3
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Natacha Caminiti-Segonds, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutté, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
CruCA4 is a secreted isoform of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) family, which has been identified in the octocoral Corallium rubrum. This enzyme is involved in the calcification process leading to the formation of the coral calcium carbonate skeleton. We report here experiments performed on the recombinant CruCA4 with the technique of protonography that can be used to detect in a simple way the enzyme activity. We have also investigated the inhibition profile of CruCA4 with one major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions...
December 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217908/a-novel-method-for-pain-relief-in-chronic-pancreatitis-an-old-drug-in-a-new-pack-a-controlled-study
#4
Aswini Kumar Pujahari
Most of pain-relieving agents in chronic pancreatitis are nonspecific and unpredictable. Omeprazole induces hypergastrinemia due to reduced gastric acidity. Raised serum gastrin, in turn, modulates to reduce secretin level. Secretin is responsible for secretion of almost 80 % bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice from the ductular epithelium without affecting enzyme output. It is a prospective randomized study in patients with CT-confirmed chronic pancreatitis. The control group got the standard care and 60 mg of omeprazole twice daily was added to the test group...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#5
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144799/parathyroid-function-after-total-thyroidectomy-a-randomized-clinical-trial-concerning-the-influence-of-the-surgical-technique
#6
Theodossis S Papavramidis, Olympia Anastasiou, Ioannis Pliakos, George Kotsovolis, Stavros Panidis, Antonios Michalopoulos
Background Thyroidectomy impairs parathyroid function, even if it does not necessarily lead to postoperative clinical hypocalcaemia. This study is prospective and evaluates the PTH function in non-clinically symptomatic patients after total thyroidectomy performed by two different techniques. Materials and Methods Prospective randomized clinical trial including 269 patients undergoing classic (group A) or harmonic scalpel (group B) total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively and at 48 hours biochemical analysis was performed...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137169/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-after-bariatric-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Roberto Valente, Anders Thorell, Wiktor Rutkowski, Stephan L Haas, Urban Arnelo, Lena Martin, J-Matthias Löhr
Morbid obesity is a lifelong disease, and all patients require complementary follow-up including nutritional surveillance by a multidisciplinary team after bariatric procedures. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) refers to an insufficient secretion of pancreatic enzymes and/or sodium bicarbonate. PEI is a known multifactorial complication after upper gastrointestinal surgery, and might constitute an important clinical problem due to the large number of bariatric surgical procedures in the world. Symptoms of PEI often overlap with sequelae of gastric bypass, making the diagnosis difficult...
November 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081976/oral-delivery-of-curcumin-via-porous-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-effective-ulcerative-colitis-therapy
#8
Qiubing Chen, Xiaoying Si, Lijun Ma, Panpan Ma, Meili Hou, Shuang Bai, Xiaoshuai Wu, Ying Wan, Bo Xiao, Didier Merlin
Oral drug delivery has been considered as a promising strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC) therapy. Here, an emulsion solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare non-porous curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and porous CUR-loaded polymeric NPs in the absence or presence of ammonium bicarbonate. The resultant CUR-loaded NPs (non-porous NPs and porous NPs) had a desirable mean particle size of around 260 nm with a narrow size distribution, a uniform pore size distribution, slightly negative-charged surface, high encapsulation efficiency and controlled drug release capacity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963502/epithelial-chloride-transport-by-cftr-requires-tmem16a
#9
Roberta Benedetto, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Margarida Amaral, Jason R Rock, Rainer Schreiber, Karl Kunzelmann
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is the secretory chloride/bicarbonate channel in airways and intestine that is activated through ATP binding and phosphorylation by protein kinase A, but fails to operate in cystic fibrosis (CF). TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin 1, ANO1) is thought to function as the Ca(2+) activated secretory chloride channel independent of CFTR. Here we report that tissue specific knockout of the TMEM16A gene in mouse intestine and airways not only eliminates Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents, but unexpectedly also abrogates CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion and completely abolishes cAMP-activated whole cell currents...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962898/role-of-the-bicarbonate-responsive-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-cholangiocyte-apoptosis-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-new-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Jung-Chin Chang, Simei Go, Arthur J Verhoeven, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic fibrosing cholangiopathy characterized by an autoimmune stereotype and defective biliary bicarbonate secretion due to down-regulation of anion exchanger 2 (AE2). Despite the autoimmune features, immunosuppressants are ineffective while two bile acid-based therapies (ursodeoxycholic acid and obeticholic acid) have been shown to improve biochemical and histological features of cholestasis and long-term prognosis. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of PBC is largely unknown...
September 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882824/a-physics-based-model-for-maintenance-of-the-ph-gradient-in-the-gastric-mucus-layer
#11
Owen L Lewis, James P Keener, Aaron L Fogelson
It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing auto-digestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877883/versatility-of-nacl-transport-mechanisms-in-the-cortical-collecting-duct
#12
REVIEW
Aurélie Edwards, Gilles Crambert
The cortical collecting duct (CCD) forms part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and plays an essential role in maintaining the NaCl balance and acid-base status. The CCD epithelium comprises principal cells as well as different types of intercalated cells. Until recently, transcellular Na+ transport was thought to be restricted to principal cells, whereas (acid-secreting) type A and (bicarbonate-secreting) type B intercalated cells were associated with the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. This review describes how this traditional view has been upended by several discoveries in the past decade...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844960/bile-acid-receptors-in-the-biliary-tree-tgr5-in-physiology-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Kathleen Deutschmann, Maria Reich, Caroline Klindt, Carola Dröge, Lina Spomer, Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel
Bile salts represent signalling molecules with a variety of endocrine functions. Bile salt effects are mediated by different receptor molecules, comprising ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors as well as G protein-coupled membrane-bound receptors. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 (Gpbar-1) are prototypic bile salt receptors of both classes and are highly expressed in the liver including the biliary tree as well as in the intestine. In liver, TGR5 is localized in different non-parenchymal cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells and small and large cholangiocytes...
August 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834043/importance-of-bicarbonate-transport-in-ph-control-during-amelogenesis-need-for-functional-studies
#14
G Varga, P DenBesten, R Rácz, Á Zsembery
Dental enamel, the hardest mammalian tissue, is produced by ameloblasts. Ameloblasts show many similarities to other transporting epithelia although their secretory product, the enamel matrix, is quite different. Ameloblasts direct the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, which liberate large quantities of protons that then need to be buffered to allow mineralization to proceed. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. Many investigations have used immunohistochemical and knockout studies to determine the effects of these genes on enamel formation, but up till recently very little functional data were available for mineral ion transport...
August 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795233/bicarbonate-transport-during-enamel-maturation
#15
REVIEW
Kaifeng Yin, Michael L Paine
Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways...
August 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775098/influenza-virus-infection-alters-ion-channel-function-of-airway-and-alveolar-cells-mechanisms-and-physiological-sequelae
#16
REVIEW
James David Londino, Ahmed Lazrak, James F Collawn, Zsuzsanna Bebok, Kevin S Harrod, Sadis Matalon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate ([Formula: see text]) secretion and sodium (Na+) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial periciliary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774999/sexual-dimorphic-pattern-of-renal-transporters-and-electrolyte-homeostasis
#17
Luciana C Veiras, Adriana C C Girardi, Joshua Curry, Lei Pei, Donna L Ralph, An Tran, Regiane C Castelo-Branco, Nuria Pastor-Soler, Cristina T Arranz, Alan S L Yu, Alicia A McDonough
Compared with males, females have lower BP before age 60, blunted hypertensive response to angiotensin II, and a leftward shift in pressure natriuresis. This study tested the concept that this female advantage associates with a distinct sexual dimorphic pattern of transporters along the nephron. We applied quantitative immunoblotting to generate profiles of transporters, channels, claudins, and selected regulators in both sexes and assessed the physiologic consequences of the differences. In rats, females excreted a saline load more rapidly than males did...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#18
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732801/bicarbonate-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Karl Kunzelmann, Rainer Schreiber, Hans Beat Hadorn
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF, mucoviscidosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is a chloride and bicarbonate channel necessary for fluid secretion and extracellular alkalization. For a long time, research concentrated on abnormal Cl- and Na+ transport, but neglected bicarbonate as a crucial factor in CF. METHODS: The present short review reports early findings as well as recent insights into the role of CFTR for bicarbonate transport and its defects in CF...
November 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706773/why-doesn-t-primary-biliary-cholangitis-respond-to-immunosuppressive-medications
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss reasons why immunosuppressive therapy so far failed in Primary Biliry Cholangitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Even targeted immunosuppressive therapy seems ineffective or potentially harmful. SUMMARY: Bile acid-mediated cholangiocyte damage, facilitated by insufficient bicarbonate secretion, seems to attenuate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions of immunosuppressant and immunomodulatory drugs in a clinically significant way...
2017: Current Hepatology Reports
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