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Jason Shafrin, Taylor T Schwartz, Darius N Lakdawalla, Felicia M Forma
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia results in poor symptom management and increased health care and other costs. Despite its health impact, medication adherence remains difficult to accurately assess. New technologies offer the possibility of real-time patient monitoring data on adherence, which may in turn improve clinical decision making. However, the economic benefit of accurate patient drug adherence information (PDAI) has yet to be evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Marlon E F Wilsterman, Pauline de Jager, Robert Blokpoel, Inez Frerichs, Sandra K Dijkstra, Marcel J I J Albers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Dick G Markhorst, Martin C J Kneyber
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been shown to improve outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults, challenging maintaining spontaneous breathing when there is severe lung injury. We tested in a prospective physiological study the hypothesis that continuous administration of NMB agents in mechanically ventilated children with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) improves the oxygenation index without a redistribution of tidal volume V T toward non-dependent lung zones...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
N A Popova, V I Kaledin, V P Nikolin, L A Bogdanova, T S Morozkova, Yu V Tornuev
Experiments were performed on the model of transplanted mouse tumor with high incidence of liver metastases. Hydrophilic drug cycloplatam (injected intravenously in liposomes) was more potent than "free cycloplatam" (injected intravenously or intraperitoneally in physiological saline) in inhibiting the growth of natural and experimental metastases in the liver. By contrast, liposomal cycloplatam had lower efficiency than free cycloplatam in suppressing the growth of solid tumor. Liposomal and free cortifen (hydrophobic hormonal cytostatic) produced nearly the same effects on solid tumor growth...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
E I Krasnoshchekova, P A Zykin, L A Tkachenko, T A Aleksandrov, V M Sereda, A N Yalfimov
The age dynamics of corpus callosum development was studied on magnetic resonance images of the brain in children aged 2-11 years without neurological abnormalities and with infantile cerebral palsy. The areas of the total corpus callosum and its segments are compared in the midsagittal images. Analysis is carried out with the use of an original formula: proportion of areas of the anterior (genu, CC2; and anterior part, CC3) and posterior (isthmus, CC6 and splenium, CC7) segments: kCC=(CC2+CC3)×CC6/CC7. The results characterize age-specific dynamics of the corpus callosum development and can be used for differentiation, with high confidence, of the brain of children without neurological abnormalities from the brain patients with infantile cerebral palsy...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
L Guariguata, C Guell, T A Samuels, E A J A Rouwette, J Woodcock, I R Hambleton, N Unwin
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is highly prevalent in the Caribbean, associated with a high morbidity and mortality and is a recognised threat to economic and social development. Heads of Government in the Caribbean Community came together in 2007 and declared their commitment to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, by calling for a multi-sectoral, systemic response. To facilitate the development of effective policies, policymakers are being engaged in the development and use of a system dynamics (SD) model of diabetes for Caribbean countries...
October 26, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Andor F van den Hoven, Jip F Prince, Rutger C G Bruijnen, Helena M Verkooijen, Gerard C Krijger, Marnix G E H Lam, Maurice A A J van den Bosch
BACKGROUND: An anti-reflux catheter (ARC) may increase the tumor absorbed dose during radioembolization (RE) by elimination of particle reflux and its effects on hemodynamics. Since the catheter is fixed in a centro-luminal position, it may also increase the predictive accuracy of a scout dose administration before treatment. The purpose of the SIM trial is to compare the effects of ARC use during RE with holmium-166 ((166)Ho) microspheres in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), with the use of a standard end-hole microcatheter...
October 25, 2016: Trials
T Xin, J C Brutus, Sergey A Belomestnykh, I Ben-Zvi, C H Boulware, T L Grimm, T Hayes, Vladimir N Litvinenko, K Mernick, G Narayan, P Orfin, I Pinayev, T Rao, F Severino, J Skaritka, K Smith, R Than, J Tuozzolo, E Wang, B Xiao, H Xie, A Zaltsman
High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a continuous wave (CW) mode are required for many advanced applications of particle accelerators, such as electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and free-electron lasers. Superconducting RF (SRF) has several advantages over other electron-gun technologies in CW mode as it offers higher acceleration rate and potentially can generate higher bunch charges and average beam currents. A 112 MHz SRF electron photoinjector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for the coherent electron cooling proof-of-principle experiment...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
B Knegt, T Potter, N A Pearson, Y Sato, H Staudacher, B C J Schimmel, E T Kiers, M Egas
When two related species interbreed, their hybrid offspring frequently suffer from reduced fitness. The genetics of hybrid incompatibility are described by the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, where fitness is reduced by epistatic interactions between alleles of heterospecific origin. Unfortunately, most empirical evidence for the BDM model comes from a few well-studied model organisms, restricting our genetic understanding of hybrid incompatibilities to limited taxa. These systems are predominantly diploid and incompatibility is often complete, which complicates the detection of recessive allelic interactions and excludes the possibility to study viable or intermediate stages...
October 26, 2016: Heredity
N L Weaver, T L Weaver, S E Nicks, K A Jupka, H Sallee, H Jacobsen, W Henley, M Jaques
BACKGROUND: Health care providers fill a central role in the prevention of both child abuse and neglect (CA/N) and unintentional childhood injury. Health communication interventions hold promise for promoting attitudes and behaviours among parents that increase positive parenting practices, which may be linked to decreased rates of intentional and unintentional childhood injuries. This manuscript describes the development of 'RISE Up', an ambulatory clinic-based childhood injury prevention programme that provides tailored, injury prevention print materials to parents of children ages 0-5...
October 25, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
E N I Weeks, E T Machtinger, S A Gezan, P E Kaufman, C J Geden
The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies...
October 26, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Bright U Emenike, Sara N Bey, Ronald A Spinelle, Jacob T Jones, Barney Yoo, Matthias Zeller
The energy (ΔG) of a cationic CHπ interaction was measured experimentally through the conformational studies of new molecular torsion balances using proton NMR spectroscopy. Each of the molecular balance adopted folded and unfolded conformations for which the ratio of the conformational equilibrium (i.e., folded/unfolded ratio) provided a quantitative measure of the ΔG as a function of solvation. An excellent linear solvation energy relationship between the ΔG values and the Hunter's solvent hydrogen-bond parameters (αs and βs) revealed that electrostatic interaction is the physical origin of the observed conformational preferences in solution...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Michael James Hutton, Robert A McGuire, Robert Dunn, Richard Williams, Peter Robertson, Bruce Twaddle, Patrick Kiely, Andrew Clarke, Keyvan Mazda, Paul Davies, Krystle T Pagarigan, Joseph R Dettori
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1)...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
Raul G Nogueira, Osama O Zaidat, Alicia C Castonguay, Diogo C Haussen, Coleman O Martin, William E Holloway, Nils Mueller-Kronast, Joey English, Italo Linfante, Guilherme Dabus, Tim W Malisch, Franklin A Marden, Hormozd Bozorgchami, Andrew Xavier, Ansaar T Rai, Michael T Froehler, Aamir Badruddin, Thanh N Nguyen, M Asif Taqi, Michael G Abraham, Vallabh Janardhan, Albert J Yoo, Hashem Shaltoni, Alex Abou-Chebl, Peng R Chen, Gavin W Britz, Roberta Novakovic, Ashish Nanda, Ritesh Kaushal, Mohammad A Issa, Michael R Frankel, Rishi Gupta
BACKGROUND: The Interventional Management of Stroke III (IMS-III) trial demonstrated no benefit for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) followed by endovascular therapy versus IV rt-PA alone. However, IMS-III mostly included earlier generation devices. The recent thrombectomy trials have incorporated the stent-retriever technology, but their generalizability remains unknown. METHODS: The North American Solitaire Acute Stroke (NASA) registry recruited patients treated with the Solitaire FR™ device between March 2012 and February 2013...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
Samuel Kerk, Kelsey Finkel, Alexander T Pearson, Kristy Warner, Felipe Nor, Zhaocheng Zhang, Vivian P Wagner, Pablo A Vargas, Max S Wicha, Elaine Hurt, Robert E Hollingsworth, David A Tice, Jacques E Nor
PURPOSE: Loco-regional recurrence is a frequent treatment outcome for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Emerging evidence suggests that tumor recurrence is mediated by a small subpopulation of uniquely tumorigenic cells, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSC), that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy, endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we evaluated the efficacy of MEDI0641, a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeted to 5T4 and carrying a DNA-damaging "payload" (pyrrolobenzodiazepine) in preclinical models of HNSCC...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ana Babic, Ying Bao, Zhi Rong Qian, Chen Yuan, Edward L Giovannucci, Hugues Aschard, Peter Kraft, Laufey T Amundadottir, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Kimmie Ng, Meir J Stampfer, Shuji Ogino, Julie E Buring, Howard D Sesso, John Michael Gaziano, Nader Rifai, Michael N Pollak, Matthew L Anderson, Barbara B Cochrane, Juhua Luo, JoAnn E Manson, Charles S Fuchs, Brian Wolpin
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance which has been identified as a potential biological link in development of obesity-associated cancers such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body-mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Research
S Pchelina, A Emelyanov, G Baydakova, P Andoskin, K Senkevich, M Nikolaev, I Miliukhina, A Yakimovskii, A Timofeeva, E Fedotova, N Abramycheva, T Usenko, D Kulabukhova, A Lavrinova, A Kopytova, L Garaeva, E Nuzhnyi, S Illarioshkin, E Zakharova
Alpha-synuclein oligomerization plays a key role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Being the most common genetic contributor to PD, glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA) mutations have been associated with decreased GBA enzymatic activity in PD patients with mutations in the GBA gene (GBA-PD). However, it is unknown whether the activities of other lysosomal hydrolases are being altered in GBA-PD patients and are accompanied by an increase in alpha-synuclein oligomerization. The aim of our study was to estimate GBA enzymatic activity as well as the activities of five other lysosomal hydrolases (galactocerebrosidase, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, sphingomyelinase, alpha-iduronidase) in dried blood spots with assessing plasma oligomeric alpha-synuclein levels in sporadic PD (sPD) patients, in GBA-PD patients and in controls...
October 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Federica Ferrari, Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Davide Malfacini, Laila Asth, Elaine C Gavioli, Velvet B Journigan, Uma G Kamakolanu, Michael E Meyer, Dennis Yasuda, Willma E Polgar, Anna Rizzi, Remo Guerrini, Chiara Ruzza, Nurulain T Zaveri, Girolamo Calo
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) regulates several biological functions via selective activation of the N/OFQ receptor (NOP). In this study novel nonpeptide NOP ligands were characterized in vitro in receptor binding and [(35)S]GTPγS stimulated binding in membranes of cells expressing human NOP and classical opioid receptors, calcium mobilization assay in cells coexpressing the receptors and chimeric G proteins, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based assay for studying NOP receptor interaction with G protein and arrestin, the electrically stimulated mouse vas deferens and the mouse colon bioassays...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
R Walker, T Carvalho-Pereira, S Serrano, G Pedra, K Hacker, J Taylor, A Minter, A Pertile, A Panti-May, M Carvalho, F N Souza, N Nery, G Rodrigues, T Bahiense, M G Reis, A I Ko, J E Childs, M Begon, F Costa
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
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