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Brain abscess

Jung Ho Ko, Young-Joon Kim, Hyun Ho Jung
A 24-year-old man was admitted with sudden severe headache. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cistern and both Sylvian cisterns and a left internal carotid artery angiogram showed a small aneurysm on the bifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery. We performed Y-configured stent-assisted coil embolization. On the fifth post-embolization day, the patient had chills, and his body temperature was over 38℃. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from the venous blood sample...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
Yifat Manor, Adi A Garfunkel
PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of odontogenic brain abscess. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A healthy, 35-year-old male had two dental implants placed in a simultaneously augmented maxillary sinus. One implant failed and the patient developed a maxillary sinusitis that failed to improve following antibiotic treatment at home. The neglected sinus infection led to formation of a brain abscess. The patient was hospitalised only when he had pan sinusitis with neurological signs...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Marco Ellis, Lisa Hwang, Ni-Ka Ford, Konstantin Slavin
BACKGROUND: Full-thickness scalp defects pose a reconstructive problem, especially in the setting of infection, chemotherapy/radiation, and underlying cranial defects. Current options include dermal matrices, skin grafts, and local flaps. Local flaps often fail, requiring subsequent microvascular free flap reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: To describe the visor flap, a novel bipedicled advancement flap design, and its role in reconstruction of scalp defects. METHODS: A retrospective review of 21 adult patients who developed scalp defects reconstructed using the visor flap from 2013 to 2017...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Haruhiko Shiiya, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Shigeo Yamazaki, Kichizo Kaga
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) can be associated with life-threatening complications such as paradoxical embolization, cerebral abscess, and hemothorax. Therefore, all adults with PAVMs should be offered treatment. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization is the first-line treatment, but 5-25% of cases require further treatment due to persistence after embolization. Recently, the role of minimally invasive thoracic surgery as a definitive treatment has been evaluated...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Michail Kornaropoulos, Marinos Makris, Elia Modestou, Vasileios Karatzias, Apostolos Krikelis, Aristomenis Thanopoulos, Artemis Liapi, Apostolos Mitrousias, Dimitris Katsogiannos, Georgios Kokkalas, Andreas Zevlas, Evripidis Gettimis
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar-peritoneal (LP) and ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt placement is the treatment of choice for diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space into the peritoneal cavity. This invasive procedure has been associated with several complications, most commonly infection and obstruction. Perforation of the bowel is an extremely rare complication. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 72 old female patient with LP shunt for raised intracranial pressure, who presented with LP shunt catheter protruding from anus...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Harsh Deora, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, V Vikas, Sampath Somanna
Background: Actinomycosis israeli is a gram-positive non-acid-fast bacterium and is the most common causative agent of actinomycosis. It usually presents as a brain abscess via a secondary spread from the cervicofacial region or lungs. However, presentation as an en-plaque lesion with bone involvement out of proportion to brain parenchyma is rare and needs to be acknowledged. Case Description: We report a case of intracranial en-plaque lesion in a 47-year-old female with restriction of mouth opening and right third nerve palsy for 1 year...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Udhaya Sankar R, Rakhi Biswas, S Raja, Sujatha Sistla, M S Gopalakrishnan, Sunil Kumar Saxena
Paraclostridium bifermentans (current nomenclature of Clostridium bifermentans since 2016) is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium. Here, we describe two cases associated with this organism. The first, primarily a case of tubercular brain abscess where P. bifermentans was isolated as part of a polymicrobial flora, following a neurosurgical procedure for the same and the second, a case of cervical lymphadenitis from which it was isolated as the sole causative agent. There are only a few reported cases of P...
March 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Mar Irida Lloret-Villas, Tomás Pérez-Concha, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban
In this case report, we describe a patient who has a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) manifesting as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a remote brain abscess. PLSCV, when draining in the left atrium, is a cause of right to left shunt, and it has been related to brain abscesses and, as reported in a few cases, to ischemic stroke. After admission, our patient experienced 2 new episodes of TIA while being injected with agitated saline contrast through the left arm, producing echocardiographic images of right to left shunt, which gave the clue to the diagnosis...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masashi Koto, Yusuke Demizu, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Hiroaki Suefuji, Tomoaki Okimoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Ryo Takagi, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kenji Nemoto, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
A retrospective multicenter study was conducted to assess the clinical outcomes of carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies (Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group [J-CROS] study: 1402 HN). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy in patients with major salivary gland carcinoma. Sixty-nine patients treated with carbon-ion radiotherapy at 4 Japanese institutions were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (48%) had adenoid cystic carcinomas, 10 (14%) had mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 26 (38%) had other disease types...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Science
Tsuneo Nakajima, Toshihiro Sakai, Hitoshi Hara
We report a forty-six-year-old man with a past history of brain abscess managed by surgical drainage and recurrent ischemic strokes. After treatment of brain abscess, he had been on medication for symptomatic epilepsy, but had ceased medication by his judgment. He was taken to a hospital in an ambulance for an epileptic seizure. In the hospital he suffered from drug-induced renal dysfunction caused by the intravenous anti-epileptic drug, and right hemiparesis due to ischemic stroke occurred on the third hospitalization day...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Heui Seung Lee, Jeong Hoon Kim, Young-Hoon Kim, Seungjoo Lee
Community-acquired brain abscess is still encountered in clinical practice and causes considerable complications, despite improvements in hygiene in modernised societies. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors pertaining to predisposing infections and microorganisms to facilitate effective treatment of the brain abscess.Of 121 surgically treated patients with brain abscess the most frequent predisposing condition was odontogenic infections (49/121 patients, 40.5%) followed by sinusitis (14/121, 11...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Deniz Aygün, Cezmi Doğan, Mustafa Hepokur, Osman Şevki Arslan, Haluk Çokuğraş, Yıldız Camcıoglu
Aim: Orbital tissue infections are common infections of childhood that can lead to severe complications. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the etiologic factors, diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment procedures in pediatric patients with orbital infections. Material and Methods: This study was performed retrospectively between January 2014 and December 2015 in Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit. Patients were studied for age, ophthalmologic examination features, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities, and the response to these treatments...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Steven Kroon, Repke J Snijder, Marie E Faughnan, Hans-Jurgen Mager
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). To date, five genetic types of HHT and one combined juvenile polyposis syndrome and HHT are known. Clinical and genetic screening of patients suspected with HHT is recommended to confirm the diagnosis and to prevent complications associated with HHT. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the evidence and to formulate a recommendation for clinicians concerning screening for HHT...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Yu-Ju Chen, Chao-Liang Chou, Kuan-Ju Lai, Ya-Ju Lin Lin
PURPOSE: Invasive mycosis caused by the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucor can be fetal, especially in the immunocompromised patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here we present a case of CNS Fusarium infection, and this is the first reported case of Fusarium brain abscess in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman presented with fever and conscious disturbance for 3 days. Neurological examination showed stupor consciousness, neck stiffness, multiple cranial nerves palsy, and bilateral Babinski signs...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Tali Capua, Amir Klivitsky, Efraim Bilavsky, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini, Galia Grisaru-Soen
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of central nervous system infections. We describe 3 new cases of GAS brain abscess in previously healthy children treated by us between 2015-2016 and review the 5 cases reported in the literature since 1988. All 8 children received early empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, and 5 made a full recovery. GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A S Shishov, I S Petrova, P V Boytsov, V G Leva, V E Malikov, S A Rusanova, A V Surovikina, I A Blank
AIM: To compare thе medical history, clinical features, composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), results of laboratory and instrumental examinations of patients with acute neuroinfections and differentiable diseases including a pseudoinflammatory variant of the acute stage of uncomplicated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), consequences of traumatic brain injury (traumatic SAH, SAN combination with secondary purulent meningitis, posttraumatic nasal liquorrhea, intracerebral hematomas), abscesses and tumors of the brain, lymphoma with proven CNS...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Zifeng Zhu, Zhehao Huang, Zhenshengnan Li, Xianglan Li, Chao Du, Yu Tian
The present case report described the initial diagnosis of a 25-year old female with a brain abscess consisting of two lesions 0.2 and 2.9 cm3 in volume. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics; however, 2 months following initial treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated and she became vegetative. Following transfer to the China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University (Jilin, China) the two lesions had grown in volume to 9.0 and 13.0 cm3 , respectively. The results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and plasma 1-3-β-D-glucan activity suggested a possible fungal infection...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kislay Kishore, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Dwarkanath Srinivas, Sampath Somanna
BACKGROUND: Abscess co-existing within a brain tumor is a rare entity. Case reports in literature primarily consist of sellar pathology and parenchymal lesions including meningioma, glioma, and metastases. We report a case of glioblastoma with an intra-tumoral abscess in a middle-aged lady with no prior invasive procedure or systemic focus of infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year old lady presented with new onset generalized seizures and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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