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Brain abscess

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154371/disseminated-nocardiosis-complicated-by-multiple-brain-abscesses-and-pleural-empyema-in-a-young-diabetic-man-a-case-report
#1
M C Mengoli, C Lazzaretti, G Rossi, F Lococo
Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infection usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Very rarely it presented with intracranial abscesses and pleuro-parenchymal infections. We herein report a very challenging case of a 34-year-old obese and diabetic man affected by disseminated nocardiosis with multiple brain abscesses and pleural empyema. Despite rare, this entity should be taken into account by the pathologists and urgently communicated to clinicians in order to promptly start an effective treatment.
September 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149022/pyogenic-brain-abscess-caused-by-peptostreptococcus-in-a-patient-with-hiv-1-infection
#2
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza
In the setting of HIV, cerebral lesions are usually secondary to lymphoma and opportunistic infections; however, in patients with CD4 counts above 200 cells/uL, other pathologies such as pyogenic brain abscess could gain importance. The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population. In HIV-infected individuals, there have been sporadic reports of Peptostreptococcus infections but none of brain abscess...
November 17, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148904/randomized-controlled-study-comparing-2-surgical-techniques-for-decompressive-craniectomy-with-watertight-duraplasty-and-without-watertight-duraplasty
#3
Eduardo Vieira, Thiago C Guimarães, Igor V Faquini, Jose L Silva, Tammy Saboia, Rodrigo V C L Andrade, Thaís L Gemir, Valesca C Neri, Nivaldo S Almeida, Hildo R C Azevedo-Filho
OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a widely used procedure in neurosurgery; however, few studies focus on the best surgical technique for the procedure. The authors' objective was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques for performing DC: with watertight duraplasty and without watertight duraplasty (rapid-closure DC). METHODS The study population comprised patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years who were admitted to the Neurotrauma Service of the Hospital da Restauração with a clinical indication for unilateral decompressive craniectomy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#4
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142557/outcome-of-burr-hole-aspiration-of-brain-abscess
#5
Shakeel Ahmad, Lal Rehman, Ali Afzal, Raza Rizvi
Objective: To determine the clinical outcome of burr-hole aspiration of brain abscess. Methods: We analyzed 100 cases of intracranial abscess, treated surgically from January 2015 and October 2016 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC). All patients were treated with burr hole aspiration. Medical records were analyzed for demographics, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, abscess location on imaging and clinical outcomes were charted. Results: The study included 100 patients with 73 (73%) males and 27 (27%) females with a mean age of 36...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#6
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114300/an-adult-with-atrial-septal-defect-presenting-with-a-brain-abscess
#7
Bijesh Ravindran Nair, Edmond Jonathan, Ranjith Krishna Moorthy, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Oommen George
The common heart diseases resulting in a brain abscess are associated with a right to left shunt and include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of great vessels. Atrial septal defect (ASD) is almost always associated with the left to right shunt and therefore is not a commonly considered risk factor for brain abscess. We report the case of a 29-year-old male, with no symptoms of cardiac disease, who presented with the left posterior frontal pyogenic abscess which led to the detection of a silent ASD. Our case emphasizes the need for a careful evaluation of the source of infection in patients with a brain abscess...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097336/a-case-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-caused-by-tuberculous-aneurysm
#8
Wei Liu, Chuanfeng Li, Xianming Liu, Zhiming Xu, Lu Kong
In this paper, we report a case of intracranial tuberculum with adjacent intracerebral inflammatory aneurysm, and include a brief discussion of the developmental mechanism of these pathologies. A 28-year-old man presented with sudden onset of severe headache. He was diagnosed with h pulmonary tuberculosis 8 year ago, and had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 months. Head computed tomography (CT) showed a small hematoma in the left Sylvian fissure with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral digital subtraction angiograph (DSA) was performed and no aneurysm was found...
October 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089734/management-of-brain-abscess-changing-trend-and-experience-in-enugu-nigeria
#9
Chika Anele Ndubuisi, Samuel C Ohaegbulam, Wilfred C Mezue, Mark C Chikani, Sunday P Nkwerem, Ignatius I Ozor
BACKGROUND: Intracranial abscess remains a significant health-care problem. Its causes, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome are changing. AIM: This paper reviewed the demography, examined new trends, and compared outcomes with different treatment options. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of intracranial abscesses managed at Memfys Hospital, Enugu (2004-2014) and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (2009-2014). Patients were followed up for at least 6 months...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079259/endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-drainage-of-a-spontaneous-candida-glabrata-pituitary-abscess-case-report-intraoperative-video
#10
Ben A Strickland, Martin Pham, Joshua Bakhsheshian, John Carmichael, Martin Weiss, Gabriel Zada
Noniatrogenic pituitary abscesses remain a rare clinical entity, and are the indication for surgery in <1% of transsphenoidal approaches. Correct diagnosis of this rare entity is often delayed. Without timely treatment, morbidity and mortality are high. Of the 200 cases reported, less than half have identified a causative organism. We report the second case of a pituitary abscess caused by Candida species, and further provide intraoperative video of endoscopic management of this pathology. A 33-year-old woman presented with headache, hypopituitarism, and vision loss in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to have multiple abscesses in the liver, lung, kidney, and uterus...
October 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076463/-application-of-intraoperative-electromagnetic-frameless-navigation-in-transcranial-and-endoscopic-neurosurgical-interventions
#11
V A Shurkhay, S A Goryaynov, M A Kutin, S A Eolchiyan, D N Capitanov, D V Fomichev, P L Kalinin, A N Shkarubo, D N Kopachev, A G Melikyan, M V Nersesyan, A M Shkatova, A N Konovalov, A A Potapov
The paper summarizes the experience in using a system of electromagnetic intraoperative frameless navigation in various neurosurgical pathologies of the brain. The electromagnetic navigation technique was used for 102 operations in 98 patients, including 36 transnasal endoscopic interventions. There were no intraoprtative and postoperative complications associated with the use of the system. In the process of using the system, factors influencing the accuracy of navigation and requiring additional control by the surgeon were identified...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069338/trichomonas-vaginalis-brain-abscess-in-a-neonate
#12
Hunter Hamilton, Kristen L Pontiff, Michael Bolton, Richard S Bradbury, Blaine A Mathison, Henry Bishop, Marcos de Almeida, Beverly W Ogden, Evan Barnett, Donna Rastanis, Angelle L Klar, Adaora Uzodi
We describe a case of cerebral trichomoniasis in a neonate who developed seizures and multi-organ failure during treatment for staphylococcal sepsis. Brain abscesses were identified on cranial sonography. Trichomonas vaginalis was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. There was a fatal outcome despite metronidazole therapy.
October 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062711/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-causing-fatal-meningitis-and-septicemia-by-citrobacter-koseri
#13
Felix Reyes, Navneet Singh, Nigar Anjuman-Khurram, Jihae Lee, Lillian Chow
Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillius that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is an uncommon pathogen that typically causes meningitis and brain abscesses in children, however central nervous system (CNS) infections are rarely found in adults. We present a case of C. koseri meningitis in an immunocompetent adult secondary to intestinal micro-perforation caused by Strongyloides A 76-year-old man admitted for asthma exacerbation developed septic shock. A lumbar puncture revealed bacterial meningitis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055720/high-hepatic-exposure-of-furanocoumarins-in-radix-angelica-dahuricae-is-associated-with-transporter-mediated-active-uptake
#14
Lin Chen, Haiying Yang, Chenchen Yu, Mei Yuan, Hua Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Angelica dahuricae (RAD), the roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for centuries to treat headaches, toothaches, nose congestion, abscesses, furunculoses, and acne. This herb is also one of frequently reported TCMs showing the herb-drug interaction potential. Furanocoumarins are main bioactive components of RAD. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to characterize the tissue distribution profiles of furanocoumarins after oral administration of RAD extract in rats and to explore the mechanism underlying the high hepatic exposure of the major furanocoumarins...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#15
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040677/navigation-linked-heads-up-display-in-intracranial-surgery-early-experience
#16
Justin R Mascitelli, Leslie Schlachter, Alexander G Chartrain, Holly Oemke, Jeffrey Gilligan, Anthony B Costa, Raj K Shrivastava, Joshua B Bederson
BACKGROUND: The use of intraoperative navigation during microscope cases can be limited when attention needs to be divided between the operative field and the navigation screens. Heads-up display (HUD), also referred to as augmented reality, permits visualization of navigation information during surgery workflow. OBJECTIVE: To detail our initial experience with HUD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent HUD-assisted surgery from April 2016 through April 2017...
October 10, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026666/bedside-twist-drill-aspiration-of-cerebral-abscess-less-than-2-5-cm-in-size-a-case-series-and-discussion
#17
Tyler Carson, Dan Miulli
BACKGROUND: Intracranial abscess remains a potentially deadly condition despite development of newer antibiotics and improved surgical methods. Many studies have evaluated the surgical indications for abscess drainage, and it has been generally accepted that intracranial abscesses greater than 2.5 cm may best be treated with surgical intervention followed by antibiotic therapy. More recently, studies have shown good results with stereotactic aspiration of abscesses to 1 cm in size. Furthermore, a recent case series in 2014 of 103 cases of bedside twist drill aspiration of cerebral abscess >2...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025196/prenatal-molecular-diagnosis-in-rasa1-related-disease
#18
Aurélien Palmyre, Mélanie Eyries, Marie-Victoire Senat, Augustin Ozanne, Stéphanie Staraci, Philippe Dufour, Thierry Chinet, Pascal Lacombe, Florent Soubrier, Philippe Charron
RASA1-related disease is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by capillary malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs). Penetrance is nearly complete and vascular malformations may cause serious complications such as organ injury due to oxygenation disorder, brain abscess, hemorrhage, and stroke. Early diagnosis is useful in order to discuss optimal management, including AVMs/AVFs embolization or surgical procedures, and try to prevent some of the complications...
October 12, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022129/the-utility-of-local-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-interventions-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-case-series
#19
Jessica Eaton, Asma Bilal Hanif, Suzgisam Mzumara, Anthony Charles
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, and injury to the central nervous system is the most common cause of death in these patients. While the provision of surgical services is being recognized as essential to global public health efforts, specialty areas such as neurosurgery remain overlooked. METHOD: This is a retrospective case review of patients with operable lesions, such as extra-axial hematomas and unstable depressed skull fractures that underwent neurosurgical interventions under local anesthesia...
October 11, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018941/pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-in-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia-correlations-between-computed-tomography-findings-and-cerebral-complications
#20
Johan Etievant, Salim Si-Mohamed, Nicolas Vinurel, Sophie Dupuis-Girod, Evelyne Decullier, Delphine Gamondes, Chahera Khouatra, Vincent Cottin, Didier Revel
OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice to characterise pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Our objective was to determine if CT findings were associated with frequency of brain abscess and ischaemic stroke. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with HHT-related PAVMs. CT results, i.e. PAVM presentation (unique, multiple, disseminated or diffuse), the number of PAVMs and the largest feeding artery size, were correlated to prevalence of ischaemic stroke and brain abscess...
October 10, 2017: European Radiology
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