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Brain metastasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333421/brain-metastasis-from-colorectal-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#1
Dong-Yeop Kim, Chun-Geun Ryu, Eun-Joo Jung, Jin-Hee Paik, Dae-Yong Hwang
Purpose: The detection rate of brain metastasis (BM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing. This study was designed to analyze the clinical features of BM and prognosis according to the therapeutic modalities. Methods: A total of 19 cases were collected in this study between November 2008 and December 2015. We reviewed the patients' demographic data and the clinical features of BM retrospectively and investigated their prognostic significance. Results: Nineteen patients included 8 male and 11 female patients...
January 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332467/is-hippocampal-avoidance-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-risky-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-hippocampal-metastasis-rate-and-associated-risk-factors
#2
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330272/spontaneous-splenic-rupture-as-a-rare-complication-of-g-csf-injection
#3
Soraya Benguerfi, Fanny Thepault, Hervé Lena, Charles Ricordel
Splenic rupture is an infrequent and underdiagnosed side effect of granylocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with brain and bone metastasis in a lung adenocarcinoma who was admitted for faintness 28 days after a G-CSF injection. Abdominal CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of splenic rupture. A conservative treatment was chosen using a peritoneal cleansing during laparoscopic surgery. Clinicians should be aware of this rare toxicity as it could be severe, but easily reversible using appropriate surgical treatment...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328410/cldn5-affects-lncrnas-acting-as-cerna-dynamics-contributing-to-regulating-blood%C3%A2-brain-barrier-permeability-in-tumor-brain-metastasis
#4
Shun-Chang Ma, Qi Li, Jia-Yi Peng, Jian-Long Zhouwen, Dai-Nan Zhang, Chuan-Bao Zhang, Wen-Guo Jiang, Wang Jia
The blood‑brain barrier (BBB) constitutes an efficient organization of tight junctions that limits the delivery of tumor to the brain. The principal tight junction protein in BBB is claudin‑5 (CLDN5), but its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many cancers, some lncRNAs play key roles in regulating BBB permeability and are involved in tumor brain metastasis. In particular, lncRNAs can function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). Herein, we investigated whether ceRNA dysregulation is associated with alterations of the level of CLDN5 in human brain vascular endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells...
January 10, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325982/multiple-cerebral-infarct-with-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-young-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Ji Ho Ryu, Dae Sub Lee, Kang Ho Lee
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and debilitating disorder, characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa. UC can be considered a systemic disorder but UC-related manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite rare. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with repeated generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) type seizures. Based on brain CT, brain metastasis or hemorrhagic infarct was suspected. Diffusion-weighted image of brain MRI showed high signal in the left thalamus and heterogenous enhancement in the right parietal and left frontal lobes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324315/histone-demethylase-kdm5a-inhibits-glioma-cells-migration-and-invasion-by-down-regulating-zeb1
#6
Bin Dai, Hui Huang, Feng Guan, Guangtong Zhu, Zhiyong Xiao, Beibei Mao, Haiyang Su, Zhiqiang Hu
Malignant gliomas are highly lethal cancers worldwide as tumor cells infiltrate to healthy brain tissue invariably. Histone demethylase KDM5A as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in cancer still has been controversial. KDM5A may have a different function in different type cancer cells. However, the specific roles of KDM5A in the progression of glioma remain undiscovered. In this study, we found that compared with primary glioma, metastasis glioma had low KDM5A levels. Besides, lower KDM5A levels were linked to poor survival in glioma cancer patients, indicating that KDM5A is a new prognostic marker for glioma cancer...
January 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322091/a-retroviral-replicating-vector-encoding-cytosine-deaminase-and-5-fc-induces-immune-memory-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-models
#7
Kader Yagiz, Maria E Rodriguez-Aguirre, Fernando Lopez Espinoza, Tiffany T Montellano, Daniel Mendoza, Leah A Mitchell, Carlos E Ibanez, Noriyuki Kasahara, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly, Joan M Robbins
Treatment of tumors with Toca 511, a gamma retroviral replicating vector encoding cytosine deaminase, followed by 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) kills tumors by local production of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In brain tumor models, this treatment induces systemic anti-tumor immune responses and long-term immune-mediated survival. Phase 1 Toca 511 and Toca FC (extended-release 5-FC) clinical trials in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma show durable complete responses and promising survival data compared to historic controls...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321587/distribution-analysis-of-epertinib-in-brain-metastasis-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-by-imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-prospect-for-antitumor-activity
#8
Yukari Tanaka, Michinari Hirata, Satomi Shinonome, Mikinori Torii, Ken-Ichi Nezasa, Hidekazu Tanaka
Epertinib (S-222611) is a potent, reversible, and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human EGFR2 (HER2), and human EGFR4. We developed experimental brain metastasis models by intraventricular injection (intraventricular injection mouse model; IVM) of HER2-positive breast cancer (MDA-MB-361-luc-BR2/BR3) or T790M-EGFR-positive lung cancer (NCI-H1975-luc) cells. After a single oral administration, epertinib and lapatinib concentrations in brain metastatic regions were analyzed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314345/differentiation-between-vasogenic-edema-and-infiltrative-tumor-in-patients-with-high-grade-gliomas-using-texture-patch-based-analysis
#9
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Deborah T Blumenthal, Orna Aizenstein, Felix Bokstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas (HGGs) induce both vasogenic edema and extensive infiltration of tumor cells, both of which present with similar appearance on conventional MRI. Using current radiological criteria, differentiation between these tumoral and nontumoral areas within the nonenhancing lesion area remains challenging. PURPOSE: To use radiomics patch-based analysis, based on conventional MRI, for the classification of the nonenhancing lesion area in patients with HGG into tumoral and nontumoral components...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311567/long-noncoding-rna-casc9-5-promotes-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Jianlong Zhou, Haiping Xiao, Xinglong Yang, Hao Tian, Zhiyong Xu, Yu Zhong, Limin Ma, Weimin Zhang, Guibin Qiao, Jing Liang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulatory factors in tumor development and progression. The lncRNA CASC9.5 is located on chromosome 8 and has a total length of 1316 bp. CASC9.5 plays a tumor-promoting role in the development and progression of brain tumor and colon cancer; however, limited research has been conducted on the role of this lncRNA in lung adenocarcinoma. The present study analyzed 44 lung adenocarcinoma specimens and 2 lung cancer cell lines. It was found that CASC9.5 expression levels were significantly higher in lung cancer tissues and cells compared with normal lung tissues...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310810/radiological-features-and-metastatic-patterns-of-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#11
T Araki, L M Sholl, H Hatabu, M Nishino
AIM: To investigate the clinical and image features of thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), and characterise the radiological patterns of recurrence and metastasis on serial imaging studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 14 patients (11 males) with a histopathological diagnosis of thymic NETs (one typical carcinoid, eight atypical carcinoid, and five large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma). Preoperative images were assessed for features of primary tumours...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310447/phosphorylation-de-phosphorylation-in-specific-sites-of-tumor-suppressor-wwox-and-control-of-distinct-biological-events
#12
Shenq-Shyang Huang, Nan-Shan Chang
Abnormal differentiation and growth of hematopoietic stem cells cause the development of hematopoietic diseases and hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular events underlying leukemia development are not well understood. In our recent study, we have demonstrated that calcium ionophore and phorbol ester force the differentiation of T lymphoblastic leukemia. The event involves a newly identified IκBα/WWOX/ERK signaling, in which WWOX is Ser14 phosphorylated. Additional evidence also reveals that pS14-WWOX is involved in enhancing cancer progression and metastasis and facilitating neurodegeneration...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310328/the-significance-of-braf-v600e-mutation-status-discordance-between-primary-cutaneous-melanoma-and-brain-metastases-the-implications-for-braf-inhibitor-therapy
#13
Enda J Hannan, Donal P O'Leary, Stephen P MacNally, Elaine W Kay, Michael A Farrell, Patrick G Morris, Colm P Power, Arnold D K Hill
To compare BRAF V600E status of primary melanoma and brain metastases to assess for discordance by cross-sectional study, and to evaluate clinical implications on BRAF inhibitor therapy.Brain metastases are common in patients with advanced melanoma. Between 40% and 60% of melanomas demonstrate BRAF mutations, BRAF V600E being most common. Selective BRAF inhibitor therapy has shown improvement in outcome in patients with melanoma. It has been demonstrated that not all metastatic lesions carry the same BRAF mutation status as the primary, but the frequency in which discordance occurs remains unclear...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309807/solitary-fibrous-tumor-with-neuroendocrine-and-squamous-dedifferentiation-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#14
Chuanyong Lu, Deepu Alex, Ryma Benayed, Marc K Rosenblum, Meera R Hameed
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasm of deep soft tissue with variable and often unpredictable biological behavior. The lineage is presumed to be fibroblastic and histological features range from benign to overtly malignant with rare tumors showing "dedifferentiation" or transformation to undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Dedifferentiation in mesenchymal neoplasms is a phenomenon of histologic progression of a well-differentiated neoplasm to a high-grade sarcoma which can differentiate along divergent lines...
January 5, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307363/brain-metastasis-clinical-manifestations-symptom-management-and-palliative-care
#15
Thomas Noh, Tobias Walbert
Patients who have brain metastases can suffer from a medley of symptoms, including headaches, seizures, cognitive impairment, fatigue, and focal deficits. As therapies have evolved, so has the management of these symptoms as patients survive longer. This chapter focuses on the clinical presentation of brain metastases, the treatment of those symptoms, and palliation in end-of-life management. Brain metastases are the most common cerebral malignancy. They can present with various symptoms, which can have significant impact on patients' quality of life throughout the course of their disease...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307362/metastatic-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system-neuropathologic-aspects
#16
M Beatriz S Lopes
A large percentage of patients with cancer will develop brain metastases, and many of them will die within a few months following diagnosis of intracranial metastasis. Although the majority of the central nervous system metastases are derived from a well-known primary neoplasm, about 5-10% of brain metastases are from an unknown source, making the tissue diagnosis a first step in the search for a primary malignancy. The pathologist utilizes several immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostic tools for such investigation, helping the clinical oncologist to narrow down the clinical and radiologic exploration...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307361/role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-metastatic-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser
Systemic therapy is an important backbone in the multimodal treatment approach of brain metastases. However, the blood-brain barrier or, more correctly, the blood-tumor barrier, as the properties of tumor-associated vessels differ from the physiologic state, potentially limits the passage of systemic drugs. Indeed, several preclinical and clinical investigations showed that the distribution of drugs is very heterogeneous within a given brain metastasis, despite the contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307360/pathogenesis-and-biology
#18
Frank Winkler
Metastasis to the brain is an increasing complication of solid cancers. Fortunately, our understanding of its pathogenesis has greatly increased in the last decade, with crucial insights into the molecular and cellular determinants of successful brain colonization; some aspects remain less well understood. The latter include the exact features of brain metastasis-initiating cancer cells, and a potential premetastatic niche. It is clear that a brain-arrested cancer cell has to master a sequence of steps to eventually grow to a clinically relevant brain metastasis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307352/neurocognitive-aspects-of-brain-metastasis
#19
Jeffrey S Wefel, Michael W Parsons, Vinai Gondi, Paul D Brown
Brain metastases are common, occurring in approximately 20% of cancer patients. One of the biggest concerns for these patients and their families is neurocognitive decline. Neurocognitive issues in this patient population are complex and many patients have neurocognitive impairment due to systemic therapies even before they develop brain metastases. The development of brain metastases as well as the treatment of these tumors can cause decline in neurocognitive function. Diffuse treatments such as whole-brain radiotherapy are more frequently associated with neurocognitive decline than focal interventions such as radiosurgery, surgical resection, and implantable chemotherapy wafers...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307350/brain-metastases-radiosurgery
#20
Amparo Wolf, Douglas Kondziolka
Stereotactic radiosurgery has revolutionized the management of brain metastases. It delivers focused, highly conformal, ionizing radiation to a tumor delineated using high-resolution imaging, with low toxicity to adjacent brain structures. Randomized controlled and prospective trials have demonstrated a survival advantage and high local control rates after stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic disease to the central nervous system, including for up to 10 brain metastases. Its minimal-access nature makes it an attractive alternative to surgical resection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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